This website provides a curated collection of resources about the people, places and technologies that have enabled biotechnology to transform our healthcare and the world we live in today

Women in biotechnology

Find out about some of the hidden women at the cutting edge of biotechnology by visiting this page. This forms part of our ongoing project to develop an online exhibition about women in biotechnology for which we are seeking donations. The exhibition is to be launched in 2017 to commemorate the 150th birthday of Marie Curie.

This day in biotechnology

The following events took place on this day (23rd March) in years past:

Daniel Bovet was born in Neuchatel, Switzerland (1907)

Bovet won the 1957 Nobel Prize for Medicine for discovery of 'synthetic compounds that inhibit the action of certain bodily substances, especially their action on the vascular system and the skeletal muscles.'

Norman Klinman was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA (1937)

Developer of the splenic fragment system, a technique that helped generate some of earliest monoclonal antibodies against viral antigens and cancer.

Hubert Schoemaker was born in Deventer, The Netherlands (1950)

Schoemaker was co-founder and first Chief Executive Officer of Centocor, an American biotechnology company that pioneered the commercialisation of monoclonal antibody diagnostics and therapeutics.

Experiments conducted by microbiologists based at the food manufacturing company Danisco, demonstrate for the first time the role of CRISPR together with Cas9 genes in protecting bacteria against viruses (2007)

R Barrangou, C Fremaux, H Deveau, et al, 'CRISPR provides acquired resistance against viruses in prokaryotes', Science, 315/5819 (2007): 1709-12.

Scientists suggest the use of CRISPR/Cas9 in conjunction with stem cells to provide human organs from transgenic pigs (2015)

W Feng, Y Dai, L Mou, D Cooper, D Shi, Z Cai, 'The potential of the combination of CRISPR/Cas9 and pluripotent stem cells to provide human organs from chimaeric pigs', International Journal of Molecular Science, 16/3 (2015): 6545-56.

Special Exhibitions

The path to DNA sequencing: The life and work of Frederick Sanger

One of the most important tools in medicine today is DNA sequencing. It is not only pivotal to mapping out the human genome, but to understanding the genetic cause of diseases like cancer and in the battle against rise of bacterial resistance to antibiotics. DNA sequencing not only lies at the heart of medicine, but is important to many other aspects of modern life, including forensic science and identifying the paternity of children. Despite its importance, the history of DNA sequencing has received relatively little public attention. The development of the technique all began in the 1940s when a British biochemist, Fred Sanger, began looking for a way to work out the composition of proteins, molecules that are fundamental to every biological process in the body. This exhibition traces the life and work of Sanger highlighting the painstaking and time-consuming steps he took to develop DNA sequencing and the many different areas of medicine where his technique is now being applied. Click here to view the exhibition.

The life story of a biotechnology drug: Alemtuzumab

A third of all new medicines introduced into the world today are monoclonal antibodies, many of which go on to become blockbuster drugs. This exhibition is the story of how one specific monoclonal antibody drug, alemtuzumab (marketed as Campath, MabCampath, Campath 1H and Lemtrada), moved from the laboratory bench through to the clinic and the impact it has had on patients' lives. Just one of many hundreds of monoclonal antibodies, alemtuzumab started life in 1979 not as a drug but as a laboratory tool for understanding the immune system. Within a short time, however, it was being used to improve the success of bone marrow transplants and as a treatment for leukaemia, lymphoma, vasculitis, organ transplants and multiple sclerosis. Highlighting the many twists and turns that alemtuzumab took over time, this exhibition explores the multitude of actors and events involved in the making of a biotechnology drug. Click here to view the exhibition.

A Healthcare Revolution in the Making: The Story of César Milstein and Monoclonal Antibodies

Today monoclonal antibodies are indispensable to medicine. They are not only used as therapeutics, comprising six out of ten of the best selling drugs in the world, but are also critical to unravelling the pathways of disease and integral components of diagnostic tests. Yet, the story of how these unsung microscopic heroes came into the world and helped change healthcare remains largely untold. The journey of monoclonal antibodies all started when an Argentinian émigré called César Milstein arrived at the Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Cambridge, the same laboratory where Watson and Crick discovered the structure of DNA. This exhibition tells the story of how Milstein came to develop monoclonal antibodies and demonstrated their clinical application for the first time. Click here to view the exhibition.

The people

Exploring the lives and works of the leading people from across the world like Hubert Schoemaker (pictured) whose efforts have helped build biotechnology into a world changing science.

Hubert Schoemaker (Born:1950 - Died: 2006) Schoemaker was co-founder and first Chief Executive Officer of Centocor, an American biotechnology company that pioneered the commercialisation of monoclonal antibody diagnostics and therapeutics. Click here to learn more about Hubert Schoemaker or click here to browse all the people.

The places

Exploring the places and institutions, and people working in them, across the world like Basel Institute of Immunology (pictured) where the science of biotechnology has been developed.

A leading centre for immunological research from 1971 to 2000, the Basel Institute of Immunology helped lay the groundwork for the development of monoclonal antibodies. Click here to learn more about Basel Institute of Immunology or click here to browse all the places.


An ever-growing list of events, currently 1276 events, that have contributed to the growth of biotechnology. Click here to browse the timeline.

For timelines for specific sciences click here: antibodies, CRISPR-Cas9, genetics, gene therapy, immunotherapy, monoclonal antibodies, vaccines, virology. For timelines for specific places click here: Cambridge University, Harvard University, The Laboratory of Molecular Biology, The Pasteur Institute, Rockefeller University, The Wistar Institute. For timelines for specific people click here: Cesar Milstein, Fred Sanger, Donall Thomas, Herman Waldmann.

The sciences

Exploring the key sciences that have been central to the growth of biotechnology like CRISPR-Cas9. Click here to learn more about CRISPR-Cas9 or click here to browse all the sciences.

The story of the rise of biotechnology in Cuba

Cuba has made remarkable advances in biotechnology and medicine over the past twenty years. We are excited to announce the development of the first ever online in-depth exploration of the history of biotechnology in Cuba. To find out more about this forthcoming exhibition visit this page

The untold story of monoclonal antibodies

Yale University Press has announced the publication of The Lock and Key of Medicine: Monoclonal Antibodies and the Transformation of Healthcare by Lara V. Marks (Yale University Press, Amazon).

Forty years ago, viable monoclonal antibodies, imperceptibly small “magic bullets,” became available for the first time. First produced in 1975 by César Milstein and Georges Köhler at the Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Cambridge, England (where Watson and Crick unraveled the structure of DNA), Mabs have had a phenomenally far-reaching effect on our society and daily life. The Lock and Key of Medicine is the first book to tell the extraordinary yet unheralded history of monoclonal antibodies, or Mabs. Though unfamiliar to most nonscientists, these microscopic protein molecules are everywhere, quietly shaping our lives and healthcare. They have radically changed understandings of the pathways of disease, enabling faster, cheaper, and more accurate clinical diagnostic testing. And they lie at the heart of the development of genetically engineered drugs such as interferon and blockbuster personalized therapies such as Herceptin.

Historian of medicine Lara V. Marks recounts the risks and opposition that a daring handful of individuals faced while discovering and developing Mabs, and she addresses the related scientific, medical, technological, business, and social challenges that arose. She offers a saga of entrepreneurs who ultimately changed the healthcare landscape and brought untold relief to millions of patients. Even so, controversies over Mabs remain, which the author explores through the current debates on their cost-effectiveness.

Celebrating the first publication of monoclonal antibodies

It is now 41 years since César Milstein and Georges Kohler published their technique for producing monoclonal antibodies. To celebrate the occasion we invite you to watch the film Un Fuegito about the life and work of Milstein, produced by Ana Fraile, Pulpofilms. The film, which you can find on, has been released to help raise funds for a new educational film to promote greater understanding about monoclonal antibodies and how they have transformed the lives of millions of patients across the world.

Join the Debate:

Genome editing - Now with a Spanish version

Scientists have recently begun to adopt a new technique for genetic engineering, called CRISPR-Cas9, in a wide number fields ranging from agriculture to medicine. Part of its attraction is that it permits genetic engineering on an unprecedented scale and at a very low cost. The technique is already being used in a variety of fields (click here for more information about CRISPR-Cas9). But because of its potential to modify DNA in human embryos, it has prompted calls for a public debate about where the technology should be applied.

Researchers working with are running a pilot survey to gather people's views on the new technology. Dr Lara Marks, Managing Editor of and historian of medicine and Dr Silvia Camporesi, bioethicist at King's College London, are leading the project. Responses to the survey will be anonymised and the results will be published both here and through other media. To date, some 555 people have contributed to the debate. The interim analysis of their contributions is available on this page. Click here to join the debate.

La versión en español de esta encuesta es mantenida en colaboración con la Dra. Diana Caballero-Hernández y Azael Cavazos Jaramillo, de la Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León. Para completar la encuesta en español haz clic aquí.

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