Born 1st January, 1970 ()

Family

Education

Career

Achievements

: timeline of key events

Performed on identical twins by Joseph E Murray together with J Hartwell Harrison and other colleagues. 1954-12-01T00:00:00+0000Introduction of RNA into cells is shown to silence genes in the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans. Term 'RNA interference' coined. A Fire, S Xu, M K Montgomery, S A Kostas, S E Driver, C C Mello, 'Potent and specific genetic interference by double-stranded RNA in Caenorhabditis elegans', Nature 391 (1998), 806–11.1998-02-01T00:00:00+0000Stem cells from baby teeth found to behave much like stem cells harvested from umbilical cord blood. The discovery was made by Songtao Shi, a paediatric dentist, and his colleagues at the US National Institutes of Health. It was made on the basis of investigating baby teeth collected from both Shi's six-year old daughter and her friends. The stem cells were isolated by extracting pulp from the teeth and culturing the cells for several days. A typical incisor tooth was found to have 12 to 20 stem cells. The work was published in M M Miura et al, 'SHED: Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth', PNAS, 100/10 (2003), 5807-12.2003-05-13T00:00:00+0000The experiments were conducted by microbiologists based at the food manufacturing company Danisco. R Barrangou, C Fremaux, H Deveau, et al, 'CRISPR provides acquired resistance against viruses in prokaryotes', Science, 315/5819 (2007): 1709-12.2007-03-23T00:00:00+0000S J J Brouns, M J Matthijs, M Lundgren, E R Westra et al, 'Small CRISPR RNAs guide antiviral defense in Prokaryotes', Science, 321/5891 (2008): 960-64.2008-08-15T00:00:00+0000The operation was carried out at Moorfield Eye Hospital, London. It involved transplanting eye cells, called retinal pigment epithelieum, which were derived from stem cells. The surgery was performed by Lyndon Da Cruz as part of the London Project to Cure Blindness, a collaboration between Moorfields, the UCL Institute of Optahalmology and the National Institute for Health Research. 2015-09-29T00:00:00+0000Research conducted by team led by immunologist Laurence Zitvogel. M. Vetizou et al, 'Anticancer immunotherapy by CTLA-4 blockade relies on the gut microbiota', Science, 350/6264, (2015), 1079-84. doi: 10.1126/science.aad1329.2015-11-27T00:00:00+0000Developed by EMD Serono, avelumab was the first FDA approved product to treat metastatic Merckel cell carcinoma. Approval was given on the basis of basis of a clinical trial of 88 patient, 33% of whom experienced a complete or partial shrinkage of their tumours. In patients who responded, 86% had a response that last 6 months, and 45% had a response that lasted more than 12 months. The drug is being developed through an alliance between Merck KGaA and Pfizer. 2017-03-23T00:00:00+0000CTJ van Velthoven, A de Morree, I M Enger, J O Brett, T A Rando, 'Transcriptional Profiling of Quiescent Muscle Stem Cells In Vivo', Cell Reports, 21/1 (2017), 1994-2004. 2017-11-14T00:00:00+0000
Date Event People Places
December 1954First successful human kidney transplantBrigham Hospital, Harvard University
February 1998Double stranded RNA demonstrated to be potent mechanism for silencing genesFire, Mello, Xu, Montgomery, Kostas, Driver, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Johns Hopkins University, University of Massachusetts Cancer Center
13 May 2003Dental pulp from baby teeth demonstrated to be source for stem cellsShi, Miura, Gronthos, Zhao, Lu, Fisher, Gehron Robey, NIH
23 Mar 2007Experiments demonstrate for the first time the role of CRISPR together with Cas9 genes in protecting bacteria against virusesBarrangou, Horvath, Fremaux, Deveau, Danisco USA Inc
August 2008Scientists characterised the RNA processing pathway in CRISPR systemWageningen University, University of Sheffield, National Institutes of Health
29 Sep 2015First UK patient recieved experimental stem cell treatment for age-related macular degeneration University College London, National Institute for Health Research
27 Nov 2015Experiments in mice indicate that a tumour's response to cancer immunotherapy using CTLA-4 checkpoint inhibitor can be improved by changing the gut microbiome Zitvogel, Veitzou, Institut Gustave Roussy
23 Mar 2017FDA granted accelerated approval to avelumab, a PD-L1 checkpoint inhibitor, to treat Merkel cell carcinoma, a rare form of skin cancer treatment, in patients 12 years and older with metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma, a rare form of skin disorderEMD Serono, Merck KGaA, Pfizer
14 Nov 2017Stem cells in the body found to have significantly different gene-expression profile than stem cells isolated and cultivated in the laboratory van Velthoven, de Morree, Enger, Brett, Rando, Stanford University

Dec 1954

First successful human kidney transplant

Feb 1998

Double stranded RNA demonstrated to be potent mechanism for silencing genes

13 May 2003

Dental pulp from baby teeth demonstrated to be source for stem cells

23 Mar 2007

Experiments demonstrate for the first time the role of CRISPR together with Cas9 genes in protecting bacteria against viruses

Aug 2008

Scientists characterised the RNA processing pathway in CRISPR system

29 Sep 2015

First UK patient recieved experimental stem cell treatment for age-related macular degeneration

27 Nov 2015

Experiments in mice indicate that a tumour's response to cancer immunotherapy using CTLA-4 checkpoint inhibitor can be improved by changing the gut microbiome

23 Mar 2017

FDA granted accelerated approval to avelumab, a PD-L1 checkpoint inhibitor, to treat Merkel cell carcinoma, a rare form of skin cancer treatment, in patients 12 years and older with metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma, a rare form of skin disorder

14 Nov 2017

Stem cells in the body found to have significantly different gene-expression profile than stem cells isolated and cultivated in the laboratory