Born 1st January, 1970 ()

Family

Education

Career

Achievements

: timeline of key events

The cloning, achieved by Beverly Griffin with Tomas Lindahl, was announced to a meeting at Cold Spring Harbor2018-04-26T21:05:09+0000Harvey was the first physician to describe in detail the pump action of the heart and the circulation of blood. He published this work in 1628. His findings sparked controversy at the time because they challenged Galen's teachings that blood passed between ventricles through invisible pores and the traditional view that blood circulation involved two separate systems. 1578-04-01T00:00:00+0000Hooke was a natural philosopher. In 1665 he coined the word 'cell' to describe a basic unit of life in his book, Microphia, describing his observations with microscopes and telescopes and biological experiments. He noted that plant cells resembled the cells of a honeycomb. 1635-07-28T00:00:00+0000Harvey was an English physician. He was the first physician to describe in detail the pump action of the heart and the circulation of blood. He published this work in 1628. His findings sparked controversy at the time because they challenged Galen's teachings that blood passed between ventricles through invisible pores and the traditional view that blood circulation involved two separate systems. 1657-06-03T00:00:00+0000The English physicist Robert Hooke provided the first description of cells to the Royal Society.1663-01-01T00:00:00+0000van Leeuwenhoek developed the microscope to study the quality of thread in fabrics sold in his draper's shop.1674-01-01T00:00:00+00001675-01-01T00:00:00+0000Hooke was a natural philosopher. In 1665 he coined the word 'cell' to describe a basic unit of life in his book, Microphia, describing his observations with microscopes and telescopes and biological experiments. He noted that plant cells resembled the cells of a honeycomb. 1703-03-03T00:00:00+0000Jenner was an English physician who helped pioneer the smallpox vaccine based on his hypothesis that the pus in blisters milkmaids received from cowpox protected them from smallpox. To test out his theory in 1796 he inoculated the 8 year old son of his gardener with pus taken from the cowpox blisters of a local milkmaid. While the boy suffered a fever he showed now sign of infection with smallpox. Jenner then injected the child with smallpox material, a common method of immunisation at the time, known as variolation. Again he showed no sign of infection. Jenner then tested out the same technique in 23 further people. Based on his success, in 1840 the British government decided to outlaw variolation and instead provide Jenner's method for free to prevent smallpox. Jenner's work laid the foundation for immunisation as a method for preventing disease and for contemporary discoveries in immunology. 1749-05-17T00:00:00+0000Swiss physician, von Haller discovered the autonomous nature of the heart and the mechanism of respiration1777-12-12T00:00:00+0000Coined from the Greek word 'bios', meaning life' and suffix 'logy' meaning 'science of'. The term was introduced independently by Thomas Beddoes in 1799, Karl Friedrich Burdacgh in 1800, and Gottfried Reinhold Treviranus and Jean-Baptiste Lamarck in 1802.1799-01-01T00:00:00+0000Schleiden was a botanist. Based on his study of plant structures under the microscope he helped develop the theory that cells are the basic structure in all organisms and the basic unit of reproduction. He also connected the cell nucleus with cell division and suggested that all embryonic plant cells arose from one cell. 1804-04-05T00:00:00+0000Darwin was an English naturalist best known for developing the theory that all species of life have descended over time from common ancestry. His book On the Origin of Species, published in 1859, outlined his evidence for his theory of evolution. While initially rejected, his explanation of natural selection as the basic mechanism for evolution achieved broad consensus by 1930s and was accepted as a unifying theory for the diversity of life.1809-02-12T00:00:00+0000Schwann was a German physiologist who defined the cell as the basic unit of animal tissue structure. This laid the foundation for the study of cell biology.1810-12-07T00:00:00+0000Term 'bacteriophage, was coined by Felix d'Herelle in 1917. 1815-01-01T00:00:00+0000Brown-Sequard was a physiologist and neurologist. He is best known for his discovery of the physiology of the spinal cord and the need for the adrenal gland. In addition, he predicted the existence of hormones. He sparked controversy after claiming to have rejuvenated his sexual prowess by injecting himself with extracts of monkey testis. His response to the extracts is now considered to have been placebo but his experiment helped found endocrinology as a discipline.1817-04-08T00:00:00+0000Galton is best known for having ignited the debate about 'Nature versus Nature' in 1869 and coined the term 'Eugenics' in 1883. Inspired by his cousin Charles Darwin's work, he developed a programme of research to understand human variation, looking at their differences in mental capabilities and height to facial characteristics and fingerprint patterns. He pioneered the use of statistical methods to determine human differences and how intelligence and physical trains are passed down through families. 1822-02-16T00:00:00+0000Mendel helped establish the laws of inheritance by studying traits between differerent pea plant generations. His work laid the basis for the study of classical genetics.1822-07-20T00:00:00+0000A French chemist and microbiologist, Pasteur helped develop a method to slow the development of microbes in milk and wine called pasteurisation. He also pioneered the first vaccine against rabies.1822-12-27T00:00:00+0000Jenner was an English physician who helped pioneer the smallpox vaccine based on his hypothesis that the pus in blisters milkmaids received from cowpox protected them from smallpox. To test out his theory in 1796 he inoculated the 8 year old son of his gardener with pus taken from the cowpox blisters of a local milkmaid. While the boy suffered a fever he showed now sign of infection with smallpox. Jenner then injected the child with smallpox material, a common method of immunisation at the time, known as variolation. Again he showed no sign of infection. Jenner then tested out the same technique in 23 further people. Based on his success, in 1840 the British government decided to outlaw variolation and instead provide Jenner's method for free to prevent smallpox. Jenner's work laid the foundation for immunisation as a method for preventing disease and for contemporary discoveries in immunology. 1823-01-26T00:00:00+0000Hoppe-Seyler was the first scientist to crystallize haemoglobin and observe its absorption spectrum.1825-12-26T00:00:00+0000Lister pioneered the practice of cleanliness in surgery by introducing the routine use of carbolic acid on surgical instruments and wounds. He developed these methods at Glasgow Royal Infirmary after being inspired by the work of Louis Pasteur. Lister's ideas about the transmission of infection and the use of antiseptics were initially mocked by his peers and it took time for the surgeons to accept them. The adoption of Lister's techniques dramatically reduced the incidence of post-operative infections and improved the safety of surgery. 1827-04-05T00:00:00+0000A French biologist, Lamarck developed a theory of evolution proposing that physical traits were inherited through generations by two forces. The first force was alchemical and second was the environment of an organism. 1829-12-18T00:00:00+0000Kocher won the 1909 Nobel Prize for Medicine for his research and surgical techniques involving the thyroid.1841-08-25T00:00:00+0000von Nageli identified string-like bodies in cell nucleus. He did not know they played role in heredity. 1842-01-01T00:00:00+0000Flemming was a biologist who is credited as the founder of cytogenetics. He was the first to describe the behaviour of chromosomes during cell division, a process he called mitosis. This he discovered through investigations of the fins and gills of salamanders. He first published his findings in 1878. In addition to his pioneering scientific work, Flemming is famous for his social activism. Notably he fed the homeless on a weekly basis and donated 20% of his salary to homeless shelters. He also taught mathematics and science to children too poor to attend school. 1843-04-21T00:00:00+0000Golgi was a cytologist who shared the 1906 Nobel Prize in Medicine for research into the nervous system. He developed a microscopic technique, using silver compounds, for seeing new and unseen structures in nerve tissues and individual neurons in the brain.1843-07-07T00:00:00+0000Koch was a major pioneer of modern bacteriology and won the 1905 Nobel Prize for Medicine for his groundbreaking work on tuberculosis. 1843-12-11T00:00:00+0000Mechnikov was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1908 for his discovery of phagocytes (macrophages), a type of immune cell that projects the body by ingesting harmful foreign substances like bacteria and dead or dying cells. He made the discovery in 1882 while studying an unusual group of cells that clustered around thorns he pinned into starfish larvae. Based on this work he hypothesised that inflammation resulted from the process by which white blood cells attacked and destroyed bacteria. The scientific community took time to accept this idea. 1845-05-16T00:00:00+0000Laveran was a physician who was one of the first to show protozoan parasites were the cause of disease. He first made link in 1880 after finding parasites in a blood smear taken from a patient who had just died from malaria. This parasite would later be called Plasmodium. Laveran subsequently identified the Trypanosoma, another protozoan parasite, was the cause of trypanosomiasis (African sleeping sickness). In 1907 he was awarded the Nobel Prize on the back of these discoveries. Laveran devoted half of his prize money to set up the Laboratory of Tropical Medicine at the Pasteur Institute where he was Chief of the Honorary Service.1845-06-18T00:00:00+0000van Beneden was a cytologist and embryologist. He worked out how chromosomes divide during cell meiosis. Based on studies of an intestinal worm found in horses, he also showed that fertilisation involves the union of two half-nuclei, one form the male sperm cell and one from the female egg, each containing half the the number of chromosomes found in all cells. He later demonstrated that the chromosome number is constant for every body cell in each species. 1846-03-05T00:00:00+0000MacEwen was a Scottish physician who developed a technique to locate brain tumours by observing changes in motor and sensory functions. He performed the first successful intracranial surgery in 1879 on a teenage girl. The operation was conducted based on preoperative observation of twitches on her face and arms. The patient lived for another eight years. An autopsy performed after her death showed no trace of her tumour. 1848-06-22T00:00:00+0000Hertwig was a biologist who determined that fertilisation starts when the nuclei of sperm and ovum cells fuse. This he proved in 1876 through experiments with sea urchins. Eight years later he demonstrated, through investigations of frog eggs, that the cell divides along its long axis. He was also prescient in predicting, in 1885, that the nucleic acid is the substance responsible for fertilisation and the transmission of hereditary traits. This phenomenon was proven in 1944. 1849-04-21T00:00:00+0000Richet won the 1913 Nobel Prize for Medicine for his research into anaphylaxis, an acute allergic reaction where extremely small doses of an allergen may cause life-threatening anaphylactic shock.1850-08-26T00:00:00+0000Ramon y Cahal was a histologist and neuroscientist. He combined scientific and artistic skills to uncover the structure of the nervous system. His theory that the brain is made up of individual cells rather than a tangled web is now a fundamental principle in neuroscience. He shared the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1906 for his discoveries about the structure of the nervous system. 1852-05-01T00:00:00+0000Petri was a microbiologist who credited with the invention of the petri dish, a shallow glass cylinder used to culture cells and bacteria. This he developed in the late 1870s while working as an assistant to Robert Koch. Petri developed the dish to help culture bacteria on agar plates. He subsequently developed the technique of agar culture to clone bacterial colonies derived from single cells. His work helped improve the process of identifying bacteria responsible for disease. 1852-05-31T00:00:00+0000Fischer won the 1902 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for demonstrating the structure of biological compounds, including sugars proteins and purines. 1852-10-09T00:00:00+0000A Danish bacteriologist, Gram developed a method to quickly identify two different large groups of bacteria. His method is now routinely used for histology and microbiology. Bacteria that absorb the stain which turn purple are known as Gram positive bacteria, and those that do not absorb the stain, which might be coloured pink with a counterstain, are labelled Gram negative. 1853-09-13T00:00:00+0000Kossel is best known for having isolated and described the five organic compounds present in nucleic acid which are key to the formation of DNA and RNA. 1853-09-16T00:00:00+0000Ehrlich played a significant role in the development of the first serum therapy to combat diphtheria in the 1890s and devised methods for standardising therapeutic serums. In addition he invented staining techniques for distinguishing different types of blood cells which laid the foundation for diagnosing blood disorders. In 1900 he popularised the 'magic bullet' concept which promoted the idea of developing a drug capable of killing specific disease-causing microbes, like bacteria, without harming the body itself. Nine years later he succeeded in creating Salvasan, the first drug created to target a specific pathogen and the first effective medical treatment for syphilis. Ehrlich also coined the term 'antibody' and transformed understandings of how the immune system worked. In 1908 he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine on the back of this work. Despite his groundbreaking research, Ehrlich struggled to get a permanent position because of his Jewish background. 1854-03-14T00:00:00+0000von Behring was a military physician. He is best known for contributions to the studies of immunity. This was aided by his discovery of a diphtheria toxin, in 1890, which laid the basis for the development of the first drug against diphtheria. The drug was the first serum therapy developed. He later went on to develop a serum therapy against tetanus. Von Behring shared the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1901 for the development of his serum therapies.1854-03-15T00:00:00+0000Takamine was the first to isolate the hormone adrenalin from the suprarenal gland. It was the first pure hormone isolated from a natural source.1854-11-03T00:00:00+0000The bacterium was found in the human colon by German paediatrician Theodor Escherich while searching for the cause of fatal intestinal diseases in children. Inititally it was called Bacterium coli, but was later renamed Escherichia coli in honour of its discoverer. The bacterium would go on to become the most studied living organism and a major tool for biotechnology.1855-01-01T00:00:00+0000Ross was the son of a General in the British Army and went on to train as a British doctor. He is best known for showing that malaria is transmitted by mosquitoes. In 1897 he discovered a parasite, Plasmodium, living in the gastrointestitnal tract of a mosquito. He went on to elucidate the life-cycle of the parasite. His research laid the foundation for developing methods to prevent the transmission of malaria. In 1902 he was awarded the Nobel Prize of Medicine on the back of this work. He was the first British Nobel Prize winner born outside Europe. 1857-05-13T00:00:00+0000Sherrington shared the 1932 Nobel Prize for Medicine for research into the function of neurons. He coined the terms synapse and neuron to describe parts of the nerve cell that receive or transmit nervous impulses between cells. 1857-11-27T00:00:00+0000Eijkman helped discover vitamins and identify beriberi as a disease caused by poor diet. 1858-08-11T00:00:00+0000Charles Darwin, English naturalist, publishes his theory of natural selection which establishes that all species of life have descended over time from common ancestry.1859-01-01T00:00:00+0000Loeb was a physiologist and biologist who demonstrated the possibility of reproduction without male fertilisation, parthenogenesis, in sea urchin eggs. He found it was possible to stimulate embryonic development in the eggs of sea urchins without sperm by making slight chemical changes to the water where the eggs were kept. This he discovered while conducting experiments at the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts. His results were published in 'Activation of the unfertilized egg by ultra-violet rays', Science, 40/1036 (1914), 680-1. While Loeb was nominated for the Nobel Prize many times he never won. 1859-04-07T00:00:00+0000A pathologist and microbiology, Smith identified the causes of several infectious parasitic diseases, including Texas Cattle Fever caused by ticks. His work laid the ground for investigation of yellow fever and malaria. 1859-07-31T00:00:00+0000Bayliss as a physiologist who, together with Ernest Starling, discovered the first hormone. Found in 1902 the two scientists named the hormone 'secretin' after the Greek word meaning to set in motion. The hormone helps secrete pancreatic juice when food enters the intestines. Bayliss subsequently worked out how trypsin, an enzyme, formed in the small intestine and the time it took to digest protein. He also saved the lives of many soldiers in World War I by recommending injections of gum-saline injections. He made the recommendation based on his studies of wound shock. 1860-05-02T00:00:00+0000Buchner was a chemist and zymologist. In 1907 he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry for his discovery of cell-free fermentation. This was based on some experiments he carried out in 1897, during which he found that yeast extract could form alcohol from a sugar solution without any living cells. He discovered that the fermentation was driven by an enzyme, zymase, inside the yeast cells. It provided the first evidence that biochemical processes were driven by enzymes formed inside cells. He was killed in the First World War while serving as a general. 1860-05-20T00:00:00+0000Hopkins was a biochemist who shared the 1929 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for discovering vitamins and demonstrating they were an important nutrient in the diet. This was based on experiments he carried out on rats in 1901. He also helped establish the chemistry of muscle contraction, showing that lactic acid accumulated in working muscle in 1907. In 1922 he isolated and demonstrated the importance of tripeptide gluathione to the utilisation of oxygen by the cell. 1861-06-20T00:00:00+0000Stevens was an American biologist who was one of the first scientists to describe the importance of the Y chromosome for determining the sex of some species, and to recognise that females have two X chromosomes. This she determined after noting male beetles produced two kinds of sperm: each with different sized chromosomes. In 1905 she was awarded $1000 for the best scientific paper written by a women. Five years later she was listed as one of America's leading 1000 scientists by The New York Times.1861-07-07T00:00:00+0000Herrick was a physician and cardiologist who reported the first case of sickle-shaped red blood cells in 1910. These he found in the blood of a medical student from Grenada suffering from anaemia. Clinicians subsequently found that the condition, called sickle-cell anaemia, was inherited and was most common in black patients. Sickle-cell anemia was the first disease found to have a genetic cause. Herrick later also observed the first clinical features of coronary thrombosis. 1861-08-11T00:00:00+0000Bragg shared the 1915 Nobel Prize in Physics with his son, William Lawrence Bragg, for the development of X-ray crystallography. Using his experience of ionisation measurements William H. Bragg managed to construct an X-ray spectometer to investigate the properties of X-rays. He maintained an active interest in X-ray crystallography until his death. Sciences: 1862-07-02T00:00:00+0000Oscar Hertwig, Albrecht von Kolliker, Eduard Strasburger, and August Weismann independently show the cell's nucleus contains the basis for inheritance.1864-01-01T00:00:00+0000Ivanovsky was a microbiologist who was one the first scientists to discover viruses.1864-11-09T00:00:00+0000Conducting experiments breeding peas, Gregor Mendel, Austrian scientist, demonstrates that the inheritance of certain traits in pea plants follows particular patterns. This lays the foundation for what was to become known as the laws of Mendelian inheritance. Athough Mendel's theory was not recognised until the early 20th century, Mendel's work established the general principles for modern genetics. 1865-01-01T00:00:00+0000Harden shared the 1929 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for investigations into the process of fermentation and the actions of enzymes during fermentation1865-10-12T00:00:00+0000Ernst Haeckel, German biologist and philosopher, proposes the cell nucleus contains factors responsible for the transmission of hereditary traits.1866-01-01T00:00:00+0000A French bacteriologist, Nicolle determined that lice were the transmission vector of epidemic typhus and worked out the transmission method of tick fever. His work also helped discover the parasite responsible for toxoplasmosis. In addition, he developed a vaccine for Malta fever, a disease now called brucellosis.1866-09-21T00:00:00+0000An American geneticist, Morgan discovered the role chromosomes play in heredity based on investigations into Drosophilia, the fruit fly.1866-09-25T00:00:00+0000Fibiger published the first randomisation method for a clinical trial. The aim of the trial, conducted in 1898, was to investigate the effect of serum therapy on diphtheria. Fibiger would later go on to win the 1926 Nobel Prize for Medicine for demonstrating a roundworm could cause stomach cancer in rats and mice. Following his death researchers showed that the roundworm could not cause cancer and were due to vitamin deficiency and that Fibiger had mistakenly confused non-cancerous tumours for cancerous tumours in his experiments. 1867-04-23T00:00:00+0000Curie won two Nobel Prizes, one in 1903 and another in 1911 for pioneering the study of radioactivity.1867-11-07T00:00:00+0000Landsteiner won the 1930 Nobel Prize for Medicine for his discovery of blood types. He also helped identify the Rh factor and the poliovirus. 1868-06-14T00:00:00+0000Freidrich Miescher, Swiss physician and biologist, performing experiments on the chemical composition of white blood cells (leucocytes) isolates phosphate-rich chemicals from the nuclei of cells. Originally calling this substance nuclein, Miescher's discovery paved the way for the identification of what we today call nucleic acids and the understanding of DNA as the carrier of inheritance. 1869-01-01T00:00:00+0000A Russian-American biochemist, Levene discovered nucleic acids came in two forms: DNA and RNA. He also idenfitied the components of DNA: adenine, guanine, thymine, cytosine, deoxyribose and a phosphate group and showed that these components were linked together by nucleotides, phosphate-sugar base units. 1869-02-25T00:00:00+0000Spemann won the 1935 Nobel Prize for Medicine for discovering embryonic induction, the process that directs parts of an embryo to develop groups of cells into particular tissues and organs.1869-06-27T00:00:00+0000McClung was a zoologist. He is best known for identifying the role of chromosomes in determining the sex of a species. This he did through a series of experiments with insects between 1901 and 1902. Based on his findings he hypothesised that the accessory chromosome (now known as chromosome X) could be the nuclear element that determined sex. It was the first time a scientist suggested that a given chromosome carried a set of hereditary traits. 1870-04-05T00:00:00+0000Bordet was a Belgian physician, immunologist and microbiologist. He is best known for winning the 1919 Nobel Prize for his discovery of two components in the blood - antibodies and complement proteins - that help destroy invading bacteria. They do this by rupturing the cell walls of the bacteria, a process known as bacteriolysis. Bordet made the discovery in 1895. He subsequently found, in 1898, that red blood cells from one animal species injected into another get destroyed by haemolysis - a process analogous to bacteriolysis. His research laid the foundation for the development of diagnostic tests that looked for antibodies in the blood to detect infectious agents. The first one was for typhoid, developed in 1896.1870-06-13T00:00:00+0000Schaudinn was a zoologist who helped discover the bacterial cause of syphilis. He also identified the amoeba that causes dysentry and confirmed hook worm infections are contracted through skin on the feet. 1871-09-19T00:00:00+00001872-01-01T00:00:00+0000d'Herelle was a microbiologist who co-discovered bacteriophages (phages), viruses that infect bacteria that are now major tools in biotechnology. He isolated the first phage from chicken faeces in 1919. Following this he successfully treated chicken affected by a plague of typhus with the phage and in August 1919 cured a patient with dysentery using the same method. This laid the basis for the development of phage therapy. 1873-04-25T00:00:00+0000Berger was a psychiatrist and neurologist who developed the first electroencephalogram (EEG) in 1924 for recording brain wave patterns. His technique involved the insertion of silver wires under the patient's scalp, one at the front and one at the back of the head. Berger's innovation was a historic breakthrough, providing an important neurological and psychological tool. Using the EEG Berger was the first to describe different waves or rhythms in the normal and abnormal brain. Many of his German peers, however, did not recognise the significance of his work. Despite gaining international recognition, the Nazi regime forced Berger into early retirement at the age of 65 and banned him from any further work on the EEG. 1873-05-21T00:00:00+0000Loewi shared the 1936 Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'discoveries relating to chemical transmission of nerve impulses.'1873-06-03T00:00:00+0000Carrel was awarded the 1912 Nobel Prize for Medicine in recognition of 'his work on vascular structure and the transplantation of blood vessels and organs'.1873-06-28T00:00:00+0000Erlanger shared the 1944 Nobel Prize for Medicine for research into the the actions of nerve fibers. 1874-01-05T00:00:00+0000Dale shared the 1936 Nobel Prize for Medicine for helping to identify the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and the chemical process by which nerve impulses are transmitted.1875-06-09T00:00:00+0000Macleod was a Scottish physician and biochemist who was a key adviser in the original experiments carried out by Frederick Grant Banting Charles Best to establish the use of insulin as a treatment for diabetes. Macleod provided the laboratory space and experimental animals for the work. He was jointly awarded the Nobel Prize for helping develop insulin therapy for diabetes in 1923.1876-09-06T00:00:00+0000Noguchi is best remembered for his identification, in 1913, of the causative agent of syphilis (the bacteria Treponema pallidum), and identification of the pathogen responsible for Carrion's disease (a Leishmania parasite). Unable to get a medical position in Japan because of his hand deformity which potential employers feared would put off potential patients, Noguchi spent his life doing laboratory work in the United States. While valued in his lifetime, his reputation took a battering after his death because researchers struggled to reproduce some of his claims, including having discovered the cause of yellow fever, polio and rabies.1876-11-24T00:00:00+0000von Baer was an Estonian biologist who was the first to isolate the mammalian egg cell. 1876-11-28T00:00:00+0000Albrecht Kossel, German biochemist, shows that the substance called nuclein consists of a protein and non-protein component.1877-01-01T00:00:00+0000Avery was a Canadian-American physician who helped discover the genetic information in genes and chromosomes is made up of DNA.1877-10-21T00:00:00+0000An American virologist, Zinsser isolated the bacterium that causes typhus. 1878-11-17T00:00:00+0000Louis Pasteur develops an attenuated chicken cholera vaccine1879-01-01T00:00:00+0000A pathologist, Rous won the 1966 Nobel Prize for showing how viruses could cause cancer. He demonstrated this in 1910 by transplanting some material from a cancer tumour taken from a chicken into a healthy chicken. The healthy chicken developed cancer. Other scientists struggled to replicate his experiment in mammals so his discovery was initially dismissed. 1879-10-05T00:00:00+0000Hess was a physiologist who identified parts of the brain that control internal organs. He used brain stimulation techniques using electrodes to map regions of the brain associated with specific physiological responses. He also found it possible to induce excitement and apathy by stimulating different parts of the hypothalamus. 1881-03-17T00:00:00+0000Schleiden was a botanist. Based on his study of plant structures under the microscope he helped develop the theory that cells are the basic structure in all organisms and the basic unit of reproduction. He also connected the cell nucleus with cell division and suggested that all embryonic plant cells arose from one cell. 1881-06-23T00:00:00+0000Fleming was a biologist and microbiologist. He first made his mark through his discovery of lysosyme in 1923. This is an enzyme produced in the tears, saliva, mucus and human milk which is an important part of the immune system. Today he is best known for having found penicillin, a mould subsequently developed as the first antibiotic drug to treat bacterial diseases. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1950 for this discovery.1881-08-06T00:00:00+0000The stem cell is conceived as a distinctive cell which serves as the starting point for blood formation.1882-01-01T00:00:00+0000Darwin was an English naturalist best known for developing the theory that all species of life have descended over time from common ancestry. His book On the Origin of Species, published in 1859, outlined his evidence for his theory of evolution. While initially rejected, his explanation of natural selection as the basic mechanism for evolution achieved broad consensus by 1930s and was accepted as a unifying theory for the diversity of life. 1882-04-19T00:00:00+0000Galton publishes the term in his book 'Inquiries into Human Faculty and Its Development'. 1883-01-01T00:00:00+0000Mendel helped establish the laws of inheritance by studying traits between differerent pea plant generations. His work laid the basis for the study of classical genetics.1884-01-06T00:00:00+0000Schwann was a German physiologist who defined the cell as the basic unit of animal tissue structure. This laid the foundation for the study of cell biology.1884-01-11T00:00:00+0000Meyerhof was a physician and biochemist who was awarded the 1922 Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine for his discovery of the 'fixed relationship between the consumption of oxygen and the metabolism of lactic acid in the muscle.' In 1938 he was forced to flee Nazi Germany because of his Jewish background which entailed leaving the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Medicine where he was a director from 1929. He was appointed a guest professor at the University of Pennsylvania. 1884-04-12T00:00:00+0000A Swedish chemist, Svedberg invented the ultracentrifuge which he used to research colloids and proteins.1884-08-30T00:00:00+0000Albrecht Kossel isolates and describes five organic compounds present in nucleic acids as being adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine, and uracil. 1885-01-01T00:00:00+0000Louis Pasteur successfully tested his rabies vaccine on a nine year old boy who had been bitten by a rabid dog.1885-07-06T00:00:00+0000Kendall made several contributions to biochemistry and medicine. He is best known for isolating the steroid cortisone from the adrenal gland cortex, subsequently used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, for which he shared the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1950. He also isolated thyroxine, the main hormone secreted by the thyroid gland which is vital to digestion, heart and muscle function and brain development and bone maintenance. 1886-03-08T00:00:00+0000Robinson's work on the nature and structure of organic compounds laid the foundation for the synthesis of pencillin and anti-malarial drugs. 1886-09-13T00:00:00+0000Goodpasture developed a method of culturing viruses in chicken embryos and fertilized chicken eggs. Before this viruses were grown in living tissues which could be contaminated by bacteria. Goodpasture's method laid the foundation for the development of vaccines for smallpox, yellow fever, typhus and chicken pox.1886-10-17T00:00:00+0000Rose was a biochemist and nutritionist. He isolated the amino acid threonine in 1932 and demonstrated in rats that a diet that lacked the amino acid stunted their growth. By 1949 he had established that ten amino acids were vital to human health: histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan and valine. Based on this work he was appointed to the US Food and Nutrition Board of the National Research Council which drew up dietary recommendations. 1887-04-04T00:00:00+0000Houssay was a physiologist. He is best known for having discovered how the pituitary gland regulates glucose or blood sugar levels. This he determined while studying the pituitary gland in dogs and toads during the early 1940s. In 1947 he was awarded the Nobel Prize on the back of this achievement. He was the first Latin American to receive the Nobel Laureate in the sciences. The award was particularly poignant given that four years before he had been dismissed by the Argentinian military government from his position at the University of Buenos Aires Medical school where he had built up an internationally respected department in experimental physiology and medicine from 1919. He was later reinstated in 1955 following the fall of Juan Peron from power. 1887-04-10T00:00:00+0000Sumner was a chemist who showed that enzymes are proteins and can be crystalised.1887-11-19T00:00:00+00001888-01-01T00:00:00+0000Heidelberger was one of the founders of immunochemistrty, a branch of biochemistry that investigates the mammalian immune system at the molecular level. He first made his mark in 1923 when he found with Oswald Avery that that the immune system could target bacterial sugars. The two scientists made the discovery while investigating a capsular substance that envelops pneumococcus and other species of bacteria. Their work helped determine that antibodies were proteins. It also paved the way to improving the production of more effective serum therapies for the prevention of bacterial infectious like pneumonia and meningitis. 1888-04-29T00:00:00+0000Gasser was a physiologist. He shared the 1944 Nobel Prize for Medicine for discovering different fibers in nerves that conduct electrochemical pulses at different rates. Discovered in the 1930s, this work laid the foundation for the theory that one type of fiber conducts pain signals and others conduct motor control signals. Gasser was the director of the Rockefeller Institute from 1936 to 1953. 1888-07-05T00:00:00+0000Waksman was a Ukrainian born American biochemist and microbiologist. He was the first to coin the term 'antibiotic' and was responsible for the development of many different antibiotics, including streptomycin, used to treat tuberculosis.1888-07-22T00:00:00+0000Richard Altmann, German pathologist, renames nuclein as nucleic acid.1889-01-01T00:00:00+0000The key difficulty is that the blood stem cell cannot be identified using microscopy1890-01-01T00:00:00+0000Bragg was a physicist. He shared the 1915 Nobel Prize in Physics with his father, William Henry Bragg, for the development of X-ray crystallography. The technique proved important for deciphering the crystal structure of proteins and later DNA.1890-03-31T00:00:00+0000Muller was a geneticist. He is best known for his experiments that demonstrated that X-rays could change the genetic make-up fruit-flies and the mutations be passed on to subsequent generations. Published in 1927 this work attracted widespread attention it marked the first time the genetics of a species was intentionally altered. Muller's work opened up new understanding of how mutations are caused and heralded a revolution in genetics research. He was awarded he 1946 Nobel Prize for 'the discovery of the production of mutations by means of X-ray irradiation'.1890-12-21T00:00:00+0000Northrop shared the 1946 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for helping to develop the technique for purifying and crystallising enzymes and virus proteins. His work showed that enzymes obey the laws of chemical reactions and that they are proteins. In 1930 he crystallised pepsin, a enzyme present in gastric juice necessary for digestion. Eight years later he isolated the first bacterial virus (bacteriophage). This he proved to be a nucleoprotein. Other enzymes that he managed to isolate and crystalise were trypsin and chymotrypsin, both important to the digestive process.1891-07-05T00:00:00+0000Banting was a Canadian physician who helped discover and isolate insulin. He also pioneered the extraction of insulin from pigs and cattle and demonstrated its use to treat diabetes in dogs. In 1923 he was jointly awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine for this work. 1891-11-14T00:00:00+0000Heymans was a physiopharmacologsit. By experimenting on dogs, he demonstrated how the body measures the content of oxygen in the blood and blood pressure and transmits this to the brain. In 1938 he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine for discovering how respiration is regulated by pressure sensory organs associated with the cartoid artery and aortic arch. 1892-03-28T00:00:00+0000Moore was the first to isolate male sex hormones andresterone and testosterone1892-12-05T00:00:00+0000Cohn developed a fractionation technique to separate blood into its components, paving the way to safer blood transfusion. 1892-12-17T00:00:00+0000Based on the observation that some tumours shrink in patients with a bacterial skin infection, the surgeon William Coley treated a 21 year old man with inoperable sarcoma with mixture containing heat-treated bacteria. The man went into complete remision. W. Coley, 'The Treatment of Malignant Tumors By Repeated Inoculations of Erysipelas: With A Report of Ten Original Cases', The American Journal of Medical Sciences, 105 (1893): 487-511. 1893-05-01T00:00:00+0000Albert Szent-Gyorgyi was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1937 for his work on the biochemistry of respiration and his discovery of vitamin C and the components and reactions of the citric acid cycle.1893-09-16T00:00:00+0000Brown-Sequard was a Mauritian physiologist and neurologist. He is best known for his discovery of the physiology of the spinal cord and the need for the adrenal gland. In addition, he predicted the existence of hormones. He sparked controversy after claiming to have rejuvenated his sexual prowess by injecting himself with extracts of monkey testis. His response to the extracts is now considered to have been placebo but his experiment helped found endocrinology as a discipline. 1894-04-02T00:00:00+0000Jules Bordet, a Belgian immunologist and microbiologist, on the basis of experiments heating fresh serum containing antibacterial antibodies, detects the presence of a substance, initially called alexin or complement which appears to act as an accessory to antibodies, taking on the role of destroying antigens.1895-01-01T00:00:00+0000Antiserum preparted against human oesteogenic sarcoma in an ass and 2 dogs. Reported successful in treating 50 patients suffering from cancer of the stomach and chest wall. J Hericourt, C Richet, 'Traitement d'un cas de sarcome par la sarcome par la serotherapie', Seances Acad Sci, 120 (1895), 948-50.1895-01-01T00:00:00+0000Dam was a biochemist and physiologist who shared the 1943 Nobel Prize for Medicine for the discovery of vitamin K, which he established was important for blood-clotting. He made the discovery based on experiments during which he noticed that chickens fed with a cholesterol-free diet developed haemorrhages and started bleeding. Unable to rectify the problem by adding cholesterol to the diet, Dam found that a second compound- vitamin K - was responsible. 1895-02-21T00:00:00+0000A German chemist, Hoppe-Seyler helped pioneer the disciplines of biochemistry and molecular biology. He studied fluids of the body such as blood, haemoglobin, pus, bile, milk, and urine and was the first to crystallize haemoglobin and observe its absorption spectrum.1895-08-10T00:00:00+0000A Swiss physician and biochemist. Miescher, was the first person to isolate nucleic acids which would subsequently be found to carry the genetic blueprint for life. 1895-08-26T00:00:00+0000A French chemist and microbiologist, Pasteur helped develop a method to slow the development of microbes in milk and wine called pasteurisation. He also pioneered the first vaccine against rabies.1895-09-28T00:00:00+0000Domagk was a German pathologist, physician and bacteriologist. He is best known for having found sulphonamide to be an effective drug against bacterial infections. The molecule had originally been synthesised by chemists at the German company Bayer in 1908. Domagk discovered the antibacterial properties of the drug through preliminary tests in mice in 1931. Soon after this he successfully treated his own daughter struck down by a severe streptococcal infection. His work paved the way to the widespread adoption of sulphonamide drugs, the first commercially available antibiotics, in the late 1930s to treat infections caused by streptococci, including blood infections, childbirth fever, and erysipelas. Domagk was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1939 but the Nazi regime forced him to refuse it, with the Gestapo putting him under arrest for a week. He finally received the Nobel Prize in 1947. 1895-10-30T00:00:00+0000Hench was a physician who helped discover cortisone, a hormone of the adrenal cortex, and demonstrate its utility for treating rheumatoid arthritis. He headed up the Department of Rheumatic Diseases at the the Mayo Clinic. Early on he hypothesised that steroids could alleviate the pain associated with the disease, but the difficulty and expense of production hindered his ability to try out his theory. The clinical trials were finally carried out in 1948 and 1949. Hench was jointly awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine for his work in 1950.1896-02-28T00:00:00+0000Gerty Cori shared the 1947 Nobel Prize for Medicine for discovering how the body metabolises glycogen, which is important to how the body stores energy. 1896-08-15T00:00:00+0000Cori shared the 1947 the Nobel Prize for Medicine for discovering how the body metabolises glycogen, which is important to how the body stores energy. 1896-12-05T00:00:00+0000Paul Ehrlich, a German scientist, proposes that all cells possess a wide variety of special receptors, or side chains, that function like gatekeepers or locks for each cell. This known as Ehrlich's side chain theory.1897-01-01T00:00:00+0000Enders shared the 1954 Nobel Prize for helping to develop a technique to grow the poliomyeltitis virus, paving the way to a vaccine against polio. Enders also helped pioneer a vaccine against measles. 1897-02-10T00:00:00+0000Reichstein was a chemist who shared the 1950 Nobel Prize for Medicine for discoveries concerning the 'hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects'.1897-07-20T00:00:00+0000Wyckoff pioneered x-ray crystallography of bacteria.1897-08-09T00:00:00+0000William G Ruppel discovered the nucleotide while trying to isolate the bacterial toxin responsible for tuberculosis. 1898-01-01T00:00:00+0000Schoenheimer trained in medicine and then biochemistry. Following the rise of the Nazis Schoenheimer left his position as head of Physiological Chemistry at the University of Leipzig and joined the department of Biological chemistry at Columbia University. He is best known for helping to develop the technique of radioactive tagging to trace biochemical processes in the living things, including the human body. He also worked out that cholesterol is a risk factor in atherosclerosis. 1898-05-10T00:00:00+0000Claude was a physician and cell biologist. In 1930 he developed the process of cell fractionation which involves grinding up cells to break up the membrane and their contents. The material is then placed in a centrifuge to separate out the cells's components. With the technique he was able to identify and purify the RNA from the Rous sarcoma virus which causes cancer in chickens. Claude was also one of the first to use of the electron microscope to study biological cells, which enabled him to discover that ribosomes are the power houses of all cells. In addition he helped show that all eukaryotic cells have a lace-work structure. In 1974 he shared the Nobel Prize for Medicine for discoveries concerning cell structure and function. 1898-08-24T00:00:00+0000The vaccine was developed by William Coley, a New York surgeon, together with the pharmaceutical company Parke, Davis & Co. The vaccine contained a combination of heat-killed bacteria. 1899-01-01T00:00:00+0000Theiler won the 1951 Nobel Prize for Medicine for helping to develop a vaccine against yellow fever. 1899-01-30T00:00:00+0000An American-Canadian physiologist, Best is best known as the medical student who helped Frederick Banting discover insulin, a pancreatic hormone, which laid the foundation for the effective treatment of diabetes. In 1923 he was jointly awarded the Nobel Prize for the discovery. 1899-02-27T00:00:00+0000Fieser was an organic chemist. He won many research awards for his work on blood-clotting agents, including for the synthesis of vitamin K, which he achieved in 1939 and for which he was nominated as a contender for the Nobel Prize in 1941 and 1942 (when no prizes were awarded). His work on steroids also laid the foundation for the synthesis of cortisone. In addition he helped develop quinones as antimalarial drugs. Fieser had two chemical reagents named after him. He is also famous for the creation of napalm, a flammable liquid he developed during World War II, which was controversially used as an incendiary device in the Vietnam war. 1899-04-07T00:00:00+0000Julian was a chemist who was a renowned pioneer of pharmacological synthesis. He was the first African-American granted a doctoral degree in chemistry and the first to be inducted into the National Academy of Sciences. In 1935 he achieved the first synthesis of physostigmine. This he produced from soybean oil. The drug is used to treat glaucoma and delayed gastric emptying. A year later he joined the Gidden Company in Chicago where he oversaw the development of the industrial large-scale chemical synthesis of the human sex hormones progesterone, oestrogen and testosterone from soybean plant sterols. This work laid the foundation for the industrial production of cortisone, other corticosteroids, and the oral contraceptive pill. Julian left Gidden in 1953 to found his own company, Julian Laboratories Inc. 1899-04-11T00:00:00+0000Lipmann shared the 1953 Nobel Prize for Medicine for the discovery of coenzyme A and its role in nutrition.1899-06-12T00:00:00+0000Karl Landsteiner, Austrian scientist, observes a clumping effect when the blood of two people are mixed. On the basis of this he identifies three human blood groups A, B and O, which he labels as C. He also notes that blood transfusion between persons with the same blood group does not result in the destruction of blood cells, but occurs between persons of different blood groups.1900-01-01T00:00:00+0000Richard Kuhn awarded 1938 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for his work on carostenoids and vitamins. He is also credited with the discovery ot the deadly nerve agent Soman. 1900-12-03T00:00:00+0000Karl Landsteiner, devises a test for A, B and O blood groupings using antibodies.1901-01-01T00:00:00+0000The work was carried out independently by Leo Loeb, in Canada and the US, and by Carl Jensen in Copenhagen. Results from the experiments showed some animals were more susceptible to transplanted tumour tissue than others. This ignited a debate 1901-01-01T00:00:00+0000Pauling was a chemist and biochemist who helped pioneer quantum chemistry and mechanics. He combined methods from x-ray crystallography, molecular model building and quantum chemistry. Pauling was the first to find the alpha helix structure of proteins. In 1954 he won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his 'research on the nature of the chemical bond and its application to the elucidation of the structure of complex structures.' He also co-authored the first paper to suggest sickle-cell anaemia was a genetic disease, which introduced the concept of 'molecular disease'. 1901-02-28T00:00:00+0000Alexander was a paediatrician and microbiologist. In the 1940s she developed the first effective treatment against Haemophilus influenzae (Hib), a major killer of infants. Her treatment helped reduced mortality from the disease from nearly 100 per cent to less than 25 per cent. It involved the combination of antiserum therapy with sulfa drugs. Alexander was also one of the first scientists to identify and study antibiotics resistance, which emerged out of her search for antibiotics to treat Hib. She worked out that the resistance was due to random genetic mutations in DNA that were positively selected through evolution. 1901-04-05T00:00:00+0000du Vigneaud was a biochemist whose research focused on sulfur, proteins and peptides. In late 1940s he helped isolate and synthesise two pituitary hormones: vasopressin and oxytocin. Vasopressin is an antidiurtic hormone that helps protect cells from sudden increases or decreases in water which can affect the cell's function. Oxytocin is a neurohormone that helps contract the uterus during labour and stimulate the secretion of milk during lactation. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1955 for this work. Prior to this, in the 1930s, he helped identify the chemical structure of insulin and worked out the structure of biotin, a sulfur-bearing vitamin. 1901-05-18T00:00:00+0000Huggins shared the 1966 Nobel Prize for discoveries relating to hormonal treatment of prostrate cancer.1901-09-22T00:00:00+0000Theodor Boveri, German biologist, and Walter Sutton, American geneticist and physician, independently develop the theory that chromosomes carry genetic material.1902-01-01T00:00:00+0000Archibald Garrod, an English physician, suggests that genetic defects cause the loss of enzymes and hereditary metabolic diseases, providing the first premise for gene therapy. 1902-01-01T00:00:00+0000Patients reported an alleviation of their symptoms. E von Leyden, F Blumenthal, 'Vorlaufige Mittheilungen uber einige Ergebnisse der Krebsforschung aug der I. medizinischen Klinik', Deutsche Med Wschr, 28 (1902), 637-8.1902-01-01T00:00:00+0000Lwoff was a microbiologist. He shared the 1965 Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis'. This was based on work he carried out in the early 1950s to understand lysogeny. This is the process by which some the genes of some viruses, bacteriophages (phage), get incorporated into the genetic material of a bacteria but remain latent until the formation of a new phage triggered by a particular event. He found that exposure to ultraviolet light was one factor that could spur on the development a new phage. Lwoff also discovered that vitamins help promote growth in microbes and can serve as co-enzymes. 1902-05-08T00:00:00+0000McClintock demonstrated in maize experiments how genes can shift to different locations by themselves and established that genes are responsible for turning physical characteristics on and off. She was awarded the 1983 Nobel Prize for this work.1902-06-16T00:00:00+0000A Swedish biochemist, Tiselius developed the devise electrophoresis to separate and measure charged particles through a stationary liquid in an electric field. He also pioneered synthetic blood plasma.1902-08-10T00:00:00+0000Wilhelm Johannsen, a Danish botanist and geneticist, introduces the terms phenotype to denote the observable traits of an organism, and genotype to denote the inherited instructions an organism carries within its cells. The terms are published in his paper Om arvelighed i samfund og i rene linie. This lays the foundation for the study of genetics. 1903-01-01T00:00:00+0000Eccles was a neurophysiologist whose discoveries relating to peripheral and central portions of the nerve cell membrane in the early 1950s won him the 1963 Nobel Prize for Medicine. He and colleagues also conducted experiments that proved chemical synaptic transmission and uncovered the role of acetylcholine as a neurotransmitter in the brain.1903-01-27T00:00:00+0000Boyd was an immunologist who helped show that blood types are inherited and not influenced by the environment. Based on his genetic analysis of blood groups he divided the world population up into 13 distinct geographical races. 1903-03-04T00:00:00+0000Butenandt was a biochemist. In 1931 he managed to extract estrone and other primary female sex hormones from urine. Three years later he extracted progeterone and testosterone a year later. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1939 for his discovery of sex hormones. Initially Butenandt rejected the Prize in accordance with Nazi government policy, but accepted it in 1949. His involvement with the Nazi regime and science to aid its war efforts led to criticism after World War II. He served as the president of the Max Planck Society for the Advancement of Science between 1960 and 1972. 1903-03-24T00:00:00+0000Pincus was a biologist. He first came to public attention in 1934 when he announced the creation of baby rabbits with in vitro fertilisation. His technique involved the removal of an ovum from the mother rabbit, soaking it in a solution with a mixture of saline and estrone and then placing it back in the rabbit. The experiment could not be repeated by other scientists and prompted wide-scale condemnation. It cost him his tenure position at Harvard University. In order to continue his research Pincus helped found the Worcester Foundation for Experimental Biology in 1944, where he led the development of the first contraceptive pill in the early 1950s. 1903-04-09T00:00:00+0000Theorell won the 1955 Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'discoveries concerning the nature and mode of action of oxidation enzymes.'1903-07-06T00:00:00+0000Beadle was jointly awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1958 for discovering the role of genes in regulating biochemical events within cells.1903-10-22T00:00:00+0000Snell shared the 1980 Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunological reactions'.1903-12-19T00:00:00+0000Drew was an African-American physician and surgeon who helped develop large-scale blood banks for blood transfusion which helped save thousands of lives of Allied soldiers in World War II. 1904-06-03T00:00:00+0000Stanley shared the 1946 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for the 'preparation of enzymes and virus proteins in a pure form.'1904-08-16T00:00:00+0000Von Euler was a physiologist and pharmacologist best known for working out the distribution and fate of noradrenaline in biological tissues and the nervous system. In 1970 he shared the Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'discoveries concerning the humoral transmittors in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release and inactivation.'1905-02-07T00:00:00+0000Hitchings was an American physician who helped develop new methods to design drugs that took advantage of the biochemical differences between normal human cells and pathogens (disease-causing agents). The aim was to create a drug capable of killing or inhibiting the reproduction of pathogens without harming healthy cells. Numerous drugs were developed on the back of the method, including for leukaemia, malaria, and antiviral drugs for herpes infections and AIDS. He shared the 1988 Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'discoveries of important principles for drug treatment.'1905-04-18T00:00:00+0000Sterne pioneered a vaccine against anthrax in 1935 which effectively wiped out the disease. He used Pasteur's methods to develop the vaccine while based at Onderstepoort Veterinary Research Institute, north of Pretoria, in South Africa. His method remains the mainstay for the production of anthrax vaccines for livestock today. In addition to the vaccine he developed bacterial culture methods for both anthrax and botulism and his work laid the foundation for a number of highly successful veterinary and animal vaccines.1905-06-01T00:00:00+0000Flemming was a German biologist who is credited as the founder of cytogenetics. He was the first to describe the behaviour of chromosomes during cell division, a process he called mitosis. This he discovered through investigations of the fins and gills of salamanders. He first published his findings in 1878. In addition to his pioneering scientific work, Flemming is famous for his social activism. Notably he fed the homeless on a weekly basis and donated 20% of his salary to homeless shelters. He also taught mathematics and science to children too poor to attend school. 1905-08-04T00:00:00+0000An Australian virologist and physician, MacFarlane Burnet is most well known for his discovery of acquired immunological tolerance and demonstrating how the body recognises the difference between self and non-self. His work helped advance the development of vaccines, tissue transplantation, monoclonal antibodies and associated therapies. 1905-09-03T00:00:00+0000Chase discovered that white blood cells trigger the immune response in the body confronting a foreign invader. He laid the foundation for the discovery of lymphocyte cells and B and T cells.1905-09-17T00:00:00+0000A biochemist, Ochoa shared the 1959 Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid.'1905-09-24T00:00:00+0000Chain shared the 1945 Nobel Prize for Medicine for the discovery of penicillin.1906-06-19T00:00:00+0000Schaudinn was a German zoologist who helped discover the bacterial cause of syphilis. He also identified the amoeba that causes dysentry and confirmed hook worm infections are contracted through skin on the feet. 1906-06-22T00:00:00+0000A German biophysicist, Delbruck helped discover how viruses replicate their genetic structure, showing that bacterial resistance from viruses is due to random mutation and not the result of adaptive changes. In 1969 he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine on the back of this work. 1906-09-04T00:00:00+0000Leloir, an Argentinian physician and biochemist, won the 1970 winner of the Nobel Prize for Chemistry for 'his discovery of sugar nucleotides and their role in the biosynthesis of carbohydrates.' 1906-09-06T00:00:00+0000Wald was an American biologist renowned for his research on how the eye passes images to the brain. He first made his mark in the early 1930s when he discovered that vitamin A was an important component in rhodopsin, a light-sensitive biological pigment found in the rods of the retina. Over the next 30 years he conducted a series of experiments which showed when exposed to light rhodopsin changes its form which triggers signals in a complicated network of optic nerve cells which eventually convert into visual impressions in the brain. In 1967 he was jointly awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'discoveries concerning the primary physiological and chemical visual processes in the eye.'physiological and chemical visual processes in the eye.'1906-11-18T00:00:00+0000Reuben Ottenberg carries out the first successful blood transfusion using blood typing and cross-matching based on the use of antisera. 1907-01-01T00:00:00+0000Bovet won the 1957 Nobel Prize for Medicine for discovering 'synthetic compounds that inhibit the action of certain bodily substances, especially their action on the vascular system and the skeletal muscles.' This was awarded on the back of his discovery of antihistamines in 1937. Antihistamines block the neurotransmitter histamine and are now widely used to treat allergies. 1907-03-23T00:00:00+0000Pirie was a virus physiologist and biochemist. He helped determine that the genetic component of viruses was RNA. Before this viruses were thought to be made up completely of proteins. During World War II he explored the possibility of extracting edible proteins from leaves, research that he carried on into the 1970s. His experiments were directed towards solving the food problem posed by the growing world population. He hoped to replace the inefficient method of feeding animals to secure protein for the diet.1907-07-01T00:00:00+0000A Scottish biochemist, Todd helped elucidate the structure and synthesis of many of the building blocks of DNA and RNA: nucleotides, nucleosides and their co-enzymes. He also synthesised two important biochemical compounds: adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD). 1907-10-02T00:00:00+0000Hamilton was a medical physicist who worked with the Manhattan Project to establish the safety of working with plutonium for laboratory personnel. He himself drank a radioactive sodium solution to test the toxicity of radioactive substances. His study of the medical effects of exposure to radioactive isotopes laid the foundation for the use of radioisotopes for treating and diagnosing disease. In particular, Hamilton showed that radioactive iodine would be useful for the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disorders. 1907-11-11T00:00:00+0000The Russian histologist Alexander Maksimov proposes the term 'stem cell' for scientific usage.1908-01-01T00:00:00+0000P Ehrlich, 'About the current state of carcinoma research', Lecture given to students at Amsterdam University, Association of Scientific work, 19081908-01-01T00:00:00+0000Hershey was a bacteriologist and geneticist. He is best known for a series of experiments with bacteriophages, viruses that infect bacteria, that helped confirm that DNA, rather than proteins, carried genetic material. These he performed with Martha Chase in 1952. Hershey shared the 1969 Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses.' 1908-12-04T00:00:00+0000Wilhelm Johannsen uses the word gene for the first time to describe units of heredity in his book Elemente der exakten Erblichkeitslehre. The book becomes the founding text of genetics. 1909-01-01T00:00:00+0000Paul Ehrlich, German scientist, suggests that one day it will be possible to use antibodies as compounds to target disease.1909-01-01T00:00:00+0000Levi-Montalcini is best known for sharing the Nobel Prize in 1986 for helping to discover and isolate the nerve growth factor which helps regulate the growth, maintenance, proliferation and survival of certian neurons. Banned by Mussolini from working in academia because she was Jewish, Levi-Montalcini conducted much of her early work in a makeshift laboratory in her bedroom. She later became the director of the Research Center of Neurobiology and the Laboratory of Cellular Biology in Washington University and founded the European Brain Research Institute. 1909-04-22T00:00:00+0000Tatum shared the 1958 Nobel Prize for Medicine for the 'discovery that genes act by regulating definite chemical events.'1909-12-14T00:00:00+0000Phoebus Levene, a Russian-American biochemist, describes the building blocks of DNA, including four types of bases: adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and thymine (T) .1910-01-01T00:00:00+0000Thomas Hunt Morgan, American evolutionary biologist, links the inheritance of a specific trait with a particular chromosome in fruit flies (Drosophila). 1910-01-01T00:00:00+0000E. Freund, G. Kaminer, 'Ueber die Beziehungen zwischen Tumorzellen und Blutserum', Biochem. Ztschr, 26 (1910) 26, 312-24.1910-01-01T00:00:00+0000Martin was a biochemist who shared the 1952 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for the 'invention of partition chromatography.' This he helped develop at the Wool Industries Research Association. Developed to help separate amino acids, partition chromatography is now deployed in most laboratories for the separation of compounds into their components. The new method used columns of silica with water and was known as 'partition chromatography' because of the way the sample 'partitioned' itself between two liquid phases. Martin later helped develop gas-liquid chromatography. 1910-03-01T00:00:00+0000van Beneden was a Belgian cytologist and embryologist. He worked out how chromosomes divide during cell meiosis. Based on studies of an intestinal worm found in horses, he also showed that fertilisation involves the union of two half-nuclei, one form the male sperm cell and one from the female egg, each containing half the the number of chromosomes found in all cells. He later demonstrated that the chromosome number is constant for every body cell in each species. 1910-04-28T00:00:00+0000Fraenkel-Conrat was a biochemist who discovered that RNA is pivotal to the genetic control of viral reproduction and that it is carried in the nucelic core of each virus. He made this finding in 1955 during experiments with the tobacco mosaic virus. By 1960 he had determined the complete sequence of the 159 amino acids in the virus.1910-04-29T00:00:00+0000Dorothy Hodgkin, was a British biochemist who developed protein crystallography and X-ray crystallography which was used to confirm the structure of penicillin, for which she won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1964.1910-05-10T00:00:00+0000Hobby was an American microbiologist whose work was pivotal to scaling up the production of penicillin in World War II and the development of other antibiotics.1910-11-19T00:00:00+0000The research was carried out by Peyton Rous. The idea that a virus could cause cancer was greeted with scepticism in the scientific community.1911-01-01T00:00:00+0000Galton is best known as an early pioneer of Eugenics1911-01-17T00:00:00+0000Kolff invented the first kidney dialysis machine in 1943 as a young physician working at the University of Groningen Hospital in the Netherlands. He pioneered the machine after watching a young man die slowly from kidney failure. The machine saves the lives of hundreds of thousands of patients with chronic kidney disease each year.1911-02-14T00:00:00+0000Katz was a physician and biophysicist who was forced to flee Nazi Germany for Britain as a child because of his Jewish background. He is best known for having uncovered the properties of synapses, the junction between two nerve cells where signals pass between nerve cells and other types of cells. In 1970 he shared the Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'discoveries concerning the humoral transmittors in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release and inactivation.' His work laid the foundation for investigations into the effects of nerve agents and pesticides. 1911-03-26T00:00:00+0000Lynen was a biochemist who was director of the Max Plank Institute for Cellular Chemistry. He helped determine the chemical mechanism for the production and regulation of cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism. In 1964 he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine for this work. His findings opened the pathway to understanding the role of cholesterol in heart disease and stroke. 1911-04-06T00:00:00+0000Stein shared the 1972 Nobel Prize for contributing to understanding the 'connection between chemical structure and catalytic activity of the active centre of the ribonuclease molecule.'1911-06-25T00:00:00+0000Jerne shared the 1984 Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'theories concerning the specificity in development and control of the immune system' and laying the foundation for the production of monoclonal antibodies.1911-12-23T00:00:00+0000Bloch shared the 1964 Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of the cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism.'1912-01-21T00:00:00+0000Lister pioneered the practice of cleanliness in surgery by introducing the routine use of carbolic acid on surgical instruments and wounds. He developed these methods at Glasgow Royal Infirmary after being inspired by the work of Louis Pasteur. Lister's ideas about the transmission of infection and the use of antiseptics were initially mocked by his peers and it took time for the surgeons to accept them. The adoption of Lister's techniques dramatically reduced the incidence of post-operative infections and improved the safety of surgery. 1912-02-10T00:00:00+0000Stevens was an American biologist who was one of the first scientists to describe the importance of the Y chromosome for determining the sex of some species, and to recognise that females have two X chromosomes. This she determined after noting male beetles produced two kinds of sperm: each with different sized chromosomes. In 1905 she was awarded $1000 for the best scientific paper written by a women. Five years later she was listed as one of America's leading 1000 scientists by The New York Times. 1912-05-04T00:00:00+0000Axelrod was a pharmacologist and biochemist who shared the 1970 Nobel Prize for Medicine for his discovery of the important role of neurotransmitters in the regulation of the nervous system. His work laid the foundation for the development of drugs for pain relief and a new class of antidepressants. Axelrod also helped demonstrate how the pineal gland is regulated during the sleep-awake cycle. 1912-05-30T00:00:00+0000Porter was a Canadian biologist. He is renowned for having developed many of the techniques and experimental approaches that underpinned the founding of cellular biology as a new discipline in biomedical research. Critically he developed the first electron microscope techniques to get high resolution images of cells and tissues. In 1945 he published the first electron microgragh of a complete animal cell. His other major contributions to the field was his development a roller-flask for culturing cells and helping to invent an instrument for getting ultra-thin slices of tissue for microscopy.1912-06-11T00:00:00+0000Luria shared the 1969 Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses.'1912-08-13T00:00:00+0000Palade helped determine cell function and organization. He and colleagues demonstrated that all plant cells and some animal and bacteria cells have a vacuole, an enclosed compartment in the cell membrane, which contains enzymes essential to maintaining the cell's health.1912-11-19T00:00:00+0000Mazia helped identify the cell structure responsible for mitosis, which is the process eukaryotic cells use to divide chromosomes into two identical daughter cells.1912-12-18T00:00:00+0000Alfred Sturtevant, an American geneticist, experimenting with Drosophila flies, determines that genes are arranged on chromosomes in a linear fashion, like beads on a necklace. 1913-01-01T00:00:00+0000Steptoe was an obstetrtician and gynaecologist who co-pioneered in vitro fertilization, the technique that produced the first test tube baby, Louise Brown, in 1978. This involved collecting ova from Louise's mother using laparoscopy. While Steptoe faced a lot of criticism for his work, many clinics began offering IVF following the birth of Louise. 1913-06-09T00:00:00+0000Sperry was a neuropsychologist and neurobiologst. He is best known for having shown that the two hemispheres of the brain function independently of one another and have completely different functions, a phenomenon he called the 'split brain'. This he determined based on experiments in 1950s and 1960s. In the first set of experiments he severed the corpus callosum, the large bundle of neurons that connects the two parts of the brain, in cats and monkeys. Later he studied humans who had had their corpus callosum severed as part of their treatment for epilepsy. He was jointly awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1981 for 'discoveries concerning the functional specialization of the cerebral hemispheres.'1913-08-20T00:00:00+0000A biochemist, Moore shared the 1972 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for contributions to the 'understanding of the connection between chemical structure and catalytic activity of the active centre of the ribonuclease molecule.'1913-09-04T00:00:00+0000 JB Murphy, 'Studies on tissue specificity', Journal of Experimental Medicine, 19 (1914), 181-86.1914-01-01T00:00:00+0000Hodgkin shared the 1963 Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'discoveries concerning the ionic mechanisms involved in excitation and inhibition in the peripheral and central portions of the nerve cell membrane.'1914-02-05T00:00:00+0000Dulbecco shared the 1975 Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'discoveries concerning the interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell.' His work not only aided better understanding of how viruses cause cancer but also HIV. 1914-02-22T00:00:00+0000Perutz fled Austria in 1936 with his Jewish family just after he completed a degree in chemistry at the University of Vienna. Moving to Britain he became involved in X-ray crystallography at the Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge, using the method to study the structure of proteins. In 1959 he managed to work out the structure of haemoglobin, the protein responsible for transporting oxygen in blood. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry for this work in 1962. His research paved the way to understanding how the molecule switched between its deoxygenated and its oxygenated states and oxygen was taken up by muscles and other organs. Pertuz was also the founder and first director of the MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biololgy in Cambridge, set up in 1962.1914-05-19T00:00:00+0000Synge shared the 1952 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for the invention of partition chromatography, a techique used to separate amino acids in the study of proteins, carbohydrates and DNA.1914-10-28T00:00:00+0000A medical reseacher and virologist, Salk developed the first successful polio vaccine.1914-10-28T00:00:00+0000Speigelman developed the nucleic acid hybridization technique that enables specific DNA and RNA strands to be removed from cells and is the foundation of present day recombinant DNA technology. 1914-12-14T00:00:00+0000The experiments involved increasing the number of lymphocytes in the blood of mice by treating them with low doses of X-rays. JB Murphy, JJ Morton, 'The effects of X-rays on the resistance to cancer in mice', Science, 42 (1915), 842. 1915-01-01T00:00:00+0000Medawar was a zoologist and biologist whose studies of graft rejection demonstrated the principle of acquired immunological tolerance, the state by which substances originally considered foreign become regarded as self by the immune system. This finding laid the foundation for tissue and organ transplantation. In 1960 Medawar was awarded the Nobel Prize for the work he did in the area. 1915-02-28T00:00:00+0000Weller was a virologist who shared the 1954 Nobel Prize for Medicine for the 'discovery of the ability of poliomyelitis viruses to grow in cultures of various types of tissue.'1915-06-15T00:00:00+0000Ehrlich played a significant role in the development of the first serum therapy to combat diphtheria in the 1890s and devised methods for standardising therapeutic serums. In addition he invented staining techniques for distinguishing different types of blood cells which laid the foundation for diagnosing blood disorders. In 1900 he popularised the 'magic bullet' concept which promoted the idea of developing a drug capable of killing specific disease-causing microbes, like bacteria, without harming the body itself. Nine years later he succeeded in creating Salvasan, the first drug created to target a specific pathogen and the first effective medical treatment for syphilis. Ehrlich also coined the term 'antibody' and transformed understandings of how the immune system worked. In 1908 he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine on the back of this work. Despite his groundbreaking research, Ehrlich struggled to get a permanent position because of his Jewish background.1915-08-20T00:00:00+0000Stern was the first to describe how a healthy cell changes into a cancerous cell. Her work helped transform cervical cancer into an easily diagnosed and treatable condition. She also demonstrated the links between the herpes simplex virus and cervical cancer and between cervical cancer and the oral contraceptive pill.1915-09-19T00:00:00+0000Sheehan was an American organic chemist. He is best known for having developed the first synthetic penicillin. It took him 9 years to develop the method. His breakthrough laid the foundation for the development of customised forms of antibiotics to treat specific bacteria. He is also associated with the development of ampicillin, a semi-synthetic penicillin that can be taken orally instead of by injection. 1915-09-23T00:00:00+0000Sutherland was a American pharmacologist and biochemist. He determined how hormones work through the isolation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate. This he demonstrated acts as a second messenger in cells and has an important role in the actions of hormones at the cellular level. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1971 on the back of this work. 1915-11-19T00:00:00+0000The trials were carried out by James B Murphy and colleagues at the Rockefeller Institute. 1916-01-01T00:00:00+0000Bergstrom shared the 1982 Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'discoveries concerning prostaglandins and related biologically active substances.'1916-01-10T00:00:00+0000Anfinsen was a biochemist who spent his career studying the relationships between structure and function in proteins. He is best known for his studies of ribonuclease, a type of nuclease that catalyses the degradation of RNA into smaller components. In 1972 he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry for his work 'on ribonuclease, especially concerning the connection between the amino acid sequence and the biologically active conformation.' 1916-03-26T00:00:00+0000Furchgott was a biochemist. He is best known for having shown the signalling function of nitric oxide in the cardiovascular system. In 1966 he noticed a substance in cells on the interior surface of blood vessels were capable of relaxing the blood vessels. He called the substance endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF). By 1986 he had worked out the function and mechanism of action of EDRF and found out that it was a nitric oxide. Awarded the Nobel Prize in 1998 on the back of this work, Furchgott's discoveries helped explained a wide variety of neuronal, cardiovascular and other physiological processes important to human health and disease.1916-06-04T00:00:00+0000Crick shared the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1962 for 'discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material.'1916-06-08T00:00:00+0000Mechnikov was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1908 for his discovery of phagocytes (macrophages), a type of immune cell that projects the body by ingesting harmful foreign substances like bacteria and dead or dying cells. He made the discovery in 1882 while studying an unusual group of cells that clustered around thorns he pinned into starfish larvae. Based on this work he hypothesised that inflammation resulted from the process by which white blood cells attacked and destroyed bacteria. The scientific community took time to accept this idea.1916-07-15T00:00:00+0000Robbins co-pioneered the growth of the poliomyelitis virus in a test tube from infected tissue which paved the way to the development of vaccines against the disease. 1916-08-25T00:00:00+0000Dausset shared the 1980 Nobel Prize for Medicine for discoveries 'concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunological reactions'. 1916-10-19T00:00:00+0000A pioneer in the development of the oral polio and modern rabies vaccines, Koprowski was the first scientist, together with colleagues, to be granted a patent for monoclonal antibodies. 1916-12-05T00:00:00+0000Wilkins shared the 1962 Nobel Prize for Medicine for work in determining structure of DNA1916-12-15T00:00:00+0000Karl Landsteiner, Austrian-born American biologist and physician, shows the body capable of producing antibodies against synthetic antigens never encountered before.1917-01-01T00:00:00+0000Kendrew was a biochemist and crystallogapher. He is best known for elucidating the structure of myoglobin, a protein that stores oxygen in muscle cells, for which he shared the Nobel Prize in 1962. In 1963 he helped found the European Molecular Biology Laboratory and later was its director. For many years he was also the editor-in-chief of the Journal of Molecular Biology, 1917-03-24T00:00:00+0000von Behring was a German military physician. He is best known for contributions to the studies of immunity. This was aided by his discovery of a diphtheria toxin, in 1890, which laid the basis for the development of the first drug against diphtheria. The drug was the first serum therapy developed. He later went on to develop a serum therapy against tetanus. Von Behring shared the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1901 for the the development of his serum therapies1917-03-31T00:00:00+0000Woodward as an organic chemist who won the 1965 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for opening up the field of artificial synthesis. He first made his mark in the early 1940s by demonstrating the application of ultraviolet spectroscopy for elucidating the structure of natural products. His method helped reduce the long and extremely tedious steps previously used to decipher the chemical structures of such products. In 1944 he and his postdoctoral researcher, William von Eggers Doering reported the successful synthesis of quinine, an organic compound used for the treatment for malaria. He went on to synthesis other organic compounds like cholesterol, cortisone, strychnine, and chlorophyll. 1917-04-10T00:00:00+0000Fenn won the 2002 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for the development of mass spectrometric methods to analyse biological molecules. 1917-06-15T00:00:00+0000Kocher won the 1909 Nobel Prize for Medicine for his research and surgical techniques involving the thyroid.1917-07-27T00:00:00+0000Buchner was a chemist and zymologist. In 1907 he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry for his discovery of cell-free fermentation. This was based on some experiments he carried out in 1897, during which he found that yeast extract could form alcohol from a sugar solution without any living cells. He discovered that the fermentation was driven by an enzyme, zymase, inside the yeast cells. It provided the first evidence that biochemical processes were driven by enzymes formed inside cells. He was killed in the First World War while serving as a general. 1917-08-13T00:00:00+0000Chatterjee is renowned for her breakthroughs in the development of anti-malarial and anti-epileptic drugs. She was the first woman to receive a doctorate in science from an Indian university - Calcutta University.1917-09-23T00:00:00+0000de Duve was a cytologist and biochemist. The son of Belgian refugees who fled to England during World War I, de Duve is associated with the discovery of peroxisome and lysosome in the 1950s and 1960s. They are two specialised subunits found within the cell and are vital to the function of the cell. His work paved the way to unravelling the biology of several genetic diseases. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1974 on the back of his 'discoveries concerning the structural and functional organisation of the cell.' de Duve helped determine the structure and function of parts of the cell. 1917-10-02T00:00:00+0000Porter shared the 1972 Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'discoveries concerning the chemical structure of antibodies.'1917-10-08T00:00:00+0000Huxley was a physiologist and biophysicist who helped uncover the mechanism of muscle contraction in 1954 through experiments on the giant axon of the Atlantic Squid. His study of muscle fibres was helped by his development of interference microscopy. Huxley shared the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1963 for 'discoveries concerning the ionic mechanisms involved in excitation and inhibition in the peripheral and central portions of the nerve cell membrane'. 1917-11-22T00:00:00+0000Elion was a biochemist and pharmacologist renowned for developing new methods to design drugs that took advantage of the biochemical differences between normal human cells and pathogens (disease-causing agents). The aim was to create a drug capable of killing or inhibiting the reproduction of pathogens without harming healthy cells. Elion helped develop a number of drugs for a variety of diseases, including leukaemia and malaria. One of her most notable achievements was the creation of the first immunosuppressive drug for organ transplant patients. In 1988 she was joined awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for 'discoveries of important principles for drug treatment.'1918-01-23T00:00:00+0000A geneticist by training, Sager enjoyed two careers. She first made her mark in the 1950s and 1950s when she discovered the transmission of genetic traits through chloroplast DNA. This was the first example of genetics not involving the cell nucleus. Later on she became a major pioneer in cancer genetics in the early 1970s and was one of the first to propose and investigate the function of tumour suppressor genes. 1918-02-07T00:00:00+0000Kornberg was a biochemist renowned for his research on enzymes which create DNA. In 1956 he and his team isolated the first enzyme known to be involved in the replication of DNA. It would be called DNA polymerase I. For this work Kornberg shared the 1959 Nobel Prize for Medicine. The Prize was given for the discovery of the 'mechanisms in the biological synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid.'1918-03-03T00:00:00+0000Lewis was a developmental geneticist who shared the 1995 Nobel Prize for Medicine for discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development. He made these discoveries based on the fruit fly. By crossbreeding thousands of flies he demonstrated that genes were arranged on the chromosome in the same order as their body segments, whereby the first set of genes controls the development of the head and thorax, the middle set the abdomen, and the final set the hind parts. He also discovered that the genetic regulatory functions could overlap. A fly with a defective gene in the thoracic region could develop an extra set of wings. His work helped explain the causes of congenital deformities. 1918-05-20T00:00:00+0000Krebs was a biochemist who discovered a series of chemical reactions in the cell that breaks down food molecules into carbon dioxide, water and energy. This is known as the Krebs cycle. 1918-06-06T00:00:00+0000Boyer shared the 1997 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for elucidating the 'enzymatic mechanism underlying the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate.'1918-07-31T00:00:00+0000The first to determine the DNA sequence of insulin, Sanger proved proteins have a defined chemical composition. He was also pivotal to the development of the dideoxy chain-termination method for sequencing DNA molecules, known as the Sanger method. This provided a breakthrough in the sequencing of long stretches of DNA in terms of speed and accuracy and laid the foundation for the Human Genome Project. 1918-08-13T00:00:00+0000Skou shared the 1997 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for discovering an ion-transporting enzyme.1918-10-08T00:00:00+0000Karl Ereky, a Hungarian Engineer, introduced the term biotechnology to describe his use of of sugar beets as the source of food for large scale production of pigs. Ereky defined biotechnology as all lines of work by which products are produced from raw materials with the aid of living things. He published the term in his book Biotechnologie der Fleisch, Fett und Milcherzeugung im landwirtschaftlichen Grossbetriebe. Ereky went on to develop the idea that biotechnology could help solve food and energy shortages. 1919-01-01T00:00:00+0000Murray was a plastic surgeon. He performed the first successful kidney transplant between identical twins in 1954. The operation last five and half hours and involved the transplantation of a healthy kidney from Robert Herrick into his twin brother, Richard, who was dying of chronic nephritis. Four years later Murray performed the first successful transplant from a non-identical donor and in 1962 the first cadaveric renal transplant. In 1990 Murray shared the Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'discoveries concerning organ and cell transplantation in the treatment of human disease.' 1919-04-01T00:00:00+0000Fischer won the 1902 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for demonstrating the structure of biological compounds, including sugars proteins and purines. 1919-07-15T00:00:00+0000Benesch was a biochemist who co-discovered how haemoglobin transports oxygen during respiration. 1919-08-13T00:00:00+0000Hounsfield shared the 1979 Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'the development of computer assisted tomography.'1919-08-28T00:00:00+0000Thomas was a physician who was a major pioneer of cell and organ transplantation. He is best known for his development of bone marrow transplants, which became a life-saving treatment for blood cancers. Donnall developed the technique on the back of research carried out in the Manhattan Project which showed that 'factors' released by spleen cells stimulated the recovery of irradiated bone marrow. In 1993 he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine on the basis of this research.1920-03-15T00:00:00+0000Saruhashi is renowned for being the first scientist to demonstrate the dangers of radioactive fallout in seawater that resulted from nuclear bomb testing in 1954. Her evidence was later used to prevent further nuclear testing by governments. Despite her achievement, she suffered discrimination as a woman scientist. She was the first woman to earn a doctorate in chemistry from the University of Tokyo in 1957. Convinced that technical expertise was the key to women's independence she established the Society of Japanese Scientists in 1958 to promote women in science. 1920-03-22T00:00:00+0000Fischer is a biochemist. He is best known for helping to discover and describe reversible protein phosphorylation, a biological and chemical reaction that regulates the activities of cell proteins. This he did with Edwin Krebs at the University of Washington. Their work helped illustrate how life exists at the cellular level. They were both awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1992.1920-04-06T00:00:00+0000Monod was a French biochemist who together with Francois Jacob worked out the genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis based on their experiments with Escherichia coli in the early 1960s. They proposed that a messenger molecule in cells carried codes from the DNA in the cell nucleus to the site of protein synthesis in the cell's cytoplasm. This messenger was later called messenger RNA. Based on his work Monrod was awarded a Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1965. 1920-06-07T00:00:00+0000Jacob was a French biologist who on the back of experiments in bacteria with Jacques Monod provided the first evidence of the existence and role of an intermediary molecule, now known as messenger RNA, which carries genetic information from genes to the cell's protein factories for the production of specific proteins. He shared the Nobel Prize in 1965 for 'discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis.'1920-06-17T00:00:00+0000Franklin was a biophysicist. She is best known for having taken photo 51, in 1952, which provided the first evidence of the double helix structure of DNA. She took the photo using x-ray crystallography. Data from the photo was pivotal to Crick and Watson's building of their DNA double helical structure of DNA which they won the Nobel Prize in 1962. Sadly Franklin died too early to receive the Nobel Prize for her work.1920-07-25T00:00:00+0000Benacerraf shared the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1980 for 'discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulates immunological reactions'.1920-10-29T00:00:00+0000Blackwell was the first woman to get medical degree in US and to be registered on UK Medical Register1921-02-03T00:00:00+0000Witkin is best known for her work on DNA mutagenesis and DNA repair. She helped elucidate the first co-ordinated stress response. This she did studying the response of bacteria to UV radiation. Witkins was one of the first few women to be elected to the US National Academy of Sciences, in 1977. She was also awarded the National Medal of Science in 2002. 1921-03-09T00:00:00+0000Merrifield was a biochemist and organic chemist. In 1984 he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry for inventing a process known as solid phase peptide synthesis. He developed the technique in 1965. It provided a methodology for chemical synthesis on a solid matrix. By the mid-1960s he and his team had proved the method could be used to synthesise bradykinin, angiotensin, desamino-oxytocin and insulin. In 1969 they managed to synthesise the enzyme, ribonuclease A. This was the first proof of the chemical nature of enzymes. Merrifield's method is now a rountine method for automatically synthesising large proteins, novel nucleotides, or short fragments of DNA.1921-07-15T00:00:00+0000 Yalow shared the 1977 Nobel Prize for Medicine for the development of radioimmunoassay diagnostic tests to measure the concentration of hormones, vitamins, viruses, enzymes, drugs and other substances. 1921-07-19T00:00:00+0000Petri was a microbiologist who credited with the invention of the petri dish, a shallow glass cylinder used to culture cells and bacteria. This he developed in the late 1870s while working as an assistant to Robert Koch. Petri developed the dish to help culture bacteria on agar plates. He subsequently developed the technique of agar culture to clone bacterial colonies derived from single cells. His work helped improve the process of identifying bacteria responsible for disease.1921-12-20T00:00:00+0000Khorana shared the 1968 Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis.'1922-01-09T00:00:00+0000The insulin was given to a Canadian 14 year old boy, Leonard Thompson with Type diabetes. It was administered by Frederick Grant Banting, a Canadian medical physician. Aided by the treatment, Thompson went on to survive another 13 years. He died at the age of 27 from pneumonia. Prior to the clinical development of insulin, Type 1 diabetes was a fatal disease.1922-01-11T00:00:00+0000Holley shared the 1968 Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis.'1922-01-28T00:00:00+0000Laveran was a French physician who was one of the first to show protozoan parasites were the cause of disease. He first made link in 1880 after finding parasites in a blood smear taken from a patient who had just died from malaria. This parasite would later be called Plasmodium. Laveran subsequently identified the Trypanosoma, another protozoan parasite, was the cause of trypanosomiasis (African sleeping sickness). In 1907 he was awarded the Nobel Prize on the back of these discoveries. Laveran devoted half of his prize money to set up the Laboratory of Tropical Medicine at the Pasteur Institute where he was Chief of the Honorary Service. 1922-05-18T00:00:00+0000Good was a physician and scientific researcher whose work on the cellular mechanisms of immunity earned him the reputation as one of the founders of modern immunology. In 1962 he helped demonstrate the two-component system of immunity. The first consisted of T cells, produced by the thymus gland, which he showed were important players in cell-mediated immunity. The second were the B cells, produced by the bone marrow, which he identified as responsible for producing antibodies. Three years later he demonstrated the important role tonsils play in the immune system. In addition to these landmark discoveries, he worked out, through experiments on mice, the crucial role of T cells in the rejection of skin allografts. He used this finding to perform the first successful bone marrow transplant between persons who were not identical twins. 1922-05-21T00:00:00+0000Takamine was the first to isolate the hormone adrenalin from the suprarenal gland. It was the first pure hormone isolated from a natural source.1922-07-22T00:00:00+0000Founder of Sera-Lab, the first biotechnology company to commercialise monoclonal antibodies, Murray's entrepreneurial efforts paved the way to the wide-scale adoption of the technology in research and its clinical application. 1922-10-21T00:00:00+0000Hertwig was a German biologist who determined that fertilisation starts when the nuclei of sperm and ovum cells fuse. This he proved in 1876 through experiments with sea urchins. Eight years later he demonstrated, through investigations of frog eggs, that the cell divides along its long axis. He was also prescient in predicting, in 1885, that the nucleic acid is the substance responsible for fertilisation and the transmission of hereditary traits. This phenomenon was proven in 1944. 1922-10-25T00:00:00+0000Barnard was a South African cardiac surgeon who performed the first successful human to human heart transplant.1922-11-08T00:00:00+0000Cohen helped idolate the nerve growth factor that induces the differentiation of nerve tissue. The resesearch has helped advance knowledge about cancer growth and the development of cancer treatments. 1922-11-17T00:00:00+0000Lederberg is best known for having discovered the lambda phage, an indispensable tool for studying gene regulation and genetic recombination. She also invented the replica plating technique which is pivotal to tracking antibiotic resistance. 1922-12-18T00:00:00+0000Carlsson shared the 2000 Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system.'1923-01-25T00:00:00+0000Askonas co-developed one of the first systems for the cloning of antibody-forming B cells in vivo, some of the earliest monoclonal antibodies. She was also one of the first scientists to isolate and clone virus specific T lymphocytes, laying the foundation for defining different influenza sub-sets and improving vaccines. 1923-04-01T00:00:00+0000An American physician and virologist, Gajdusek helped discover the origins and dissemination of infectious diseases. He also investigated kuru, a neurological disease later determined to be the first human prion disease. 1923-09-09T00:00:00+0000E. Freund, G. Kaminer, Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift, Jan 19241924-01-01T00:00:00+0000Guillemin shared the 1977 Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'discoveries concerning the peptide hormone production of the brain.'1924-01-11T00:00:00+0000Loeb was a German-American physiologist and biologist who demonstrated the possibility of reproduction without male fertilisation, parthenogenesis, in sea urchin eggs. He found it was possible to stimulate embryonic development in the eggs of sea urchins without sperm by making slight chemical changes to the water where the eggs were kept. This he discovered while conducting experiments at the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts. His results were published in 'Activation of the unfertilized egg by ultra-violet rays', Science, 40/1036 (1914), 680-1. While Loeb was nominated for the Nobel Prize many times he never won. 1924-02-11T00:00:00+0000Cormack shared the 1979 Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'the development of computer assisted tomography' - the CT scan. The method makes use of computer-processed X-ray measurements taken at different angles for diagnosis. Since its introduction, in the 1970s, CT scans have become a common form of medical imaging to supplement X-rays and ultrasound. 1924-02-23T00:00:00+0000MacEwen was a Scottish physician who developed a technique to locate brain tumours by observing changes in motor and sensory functions. He performed the first successful intracranial surgery in 1879 on a teenage girl. The operation was conducted based on preoperative observation of twitches on her face and arms. The patient lived for another eight years. An autopsy performed after her death showed no trace of her tumour.1924-03-22T00:00:00+0000Wiesel shared the 1981 Nobel Prize for Medicine for discoveries into how the brain processes visual stimuli.1924-06-03T00:00:00+0000Black was a physician and pharmacologist. He is best known for pioneering methods to develop purposefully built drug molecules instead of being synthesised and then investigated for their therapeutic effects. He invented the first modern blood-pressure drug and first modern ulcer drug, for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1988. 1924-06-14T00:00:00+0000Bayliss as a British physiologist who, together with Ernest Starling, discovered the first hormone. Found in 1902 the two scientists named the hormone 'secretin' after the Greek word meaning to set in motion. The hormone helps secrete pancreatic juice when food enters the intestines. Bayliss subsequently worked out how trypsin, an enzyme, formed in the small intestine and the time it took to digest protein. He also saved the lives of many soldiers in World War I by recommending injections of gum-saline injections. He made the recommendation based on his studies of wound shock.1924-08-27T00:00:00+0000Benesch was a biochemist who helped discover how haemoglobin, a protein in red blood cells, transports oxygen from the lungs to all cells in the body. This she did with her husband Reinhold in 1967. They subsequently made important breakthroughs into the formation of sickle cells, the cause of sickle-cell anaemia, using the electron microscope. Ruth was one of the 10,000 Jewish children who escaped Nazi Germany to England as part of the Kindertransport programme. 1925-02-25T00:00:00+0000Dayhoff is known as the founder of bioinformatics. This she did by pioneering the application of mathematics and computational techniques to the sequencing of proteins and nucleic acids and establishing the first publicly available database for research in the area. 1925-03-11T00:00:00+0000Miramontes was a chemist. He is best known for having helped synthesise noresthindrone, one of the first compounds used as an oral contraceptive. This he did in 1951 when he was 26 years old. He did the worlk while based at Syntex, a small Mexican company that first made its name in the production of steroids. 1925-03-16T00:00:00+0000Lederberg was an American geneticist who helped discover the mechanism of genetic recombination in bacteria. This was based on some experiments he performed with Edward Tatum in 1946 which involved the mixing two different strains of bacteria. Their experiments also demonstrated for the first time that bacteria reproduced sexually, rather than by cells splitting in two, thereby proving that bacterial genetic systems were similar to those of multicelluar organisms. Later on, in 1952, working with Norton Zinder, Lederberg found that certain bacteriophages (viruses that affect bacteria) could carry a bacterial gene from one bacterium to another. In 1958 Lederberg shared the Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'discoveries concerning genetic recombination and the organisation of the genetic material of bacteria.' 1925-05-23T00:00:00+0000Smithies was a geneticist and physical biochemist. He first made his mark in 1955 through his invention of starch gel electrophoresis, a technique used to study human protein variation. Later on, in the 1980s he developed a method for targeted gene replacement in mice, now known as gene targeting, for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 2007. His method has paved the way to the creation of thousands of lines of mice carrying desired genetic mutations. Such mice are now widely used to investigate the role of many different genes in human health and disease.1925-06-23T00:00:00+0000T.B. Johnson, R.D. Coghill, 'The discovery of 5-methyl-cytosine in tuberculinic acid, the nucleic acid of the Tubercle bacillus', Journal of the American Chemical Society, 47/11 (1925, 2838–44. 1925-11-01T00:00:00+0000Rodell shared the 1994 Nobel Prize in Medicine for the discovery of G-proteins and their role in signal transduction within the cell.1925-12-01T00:00:00+0000Greengard shared the 2000 Nobel Prize for Medicine for research on how neurotransmitters function in the nervous system.1925-12-11T00:00:00+0000Lloyd Felton, a scientist, develops a precipitation technique for the isolation of pure antibodies as part of an effort to develop a therapy for pneumonia. 1926-01-01T00:00:00+0000Golgi was an Italian cytologist who shared the 1906 Nobel Prize in Medicine for research into the nervous system. He developed a microscopic technique, using silver compounds, for seeing new and unseen structures in nerve tissues and individual neurons in the brain.1926-01-21T00:00:00+0000Berg helped pioneer recombinant DNA and set up the Asimolar Conference which established guidelines for experiments using the technology.1926-06-30T00:00:00+0000Rose shared the 2004 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for contributing to understandings about how cells break down proteins. 1926-07-16T00:00:00+0000A chemist and biophysicist, Klug won the 1982 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for the development of crystallographic electron microscopy and discoveries into nucleic acid-protein complexes.1926-08-11T00:00:00+0000Schally shared the 1977 Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'discoveries concerning the peptide hormone production of the brain.'1926-11-30T00:00:00+0000Brenner shared the 2002 Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'discoveries concerning genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death.'1927-01-13T00:00:00+0000Vane was a pharmacologist who shared the 1982 Nobel Prize in Medicine for helping to determine how aspirin produces pain-relief and reduces inflammation. He was a central figure in the discovery of prostaglandins in the mid 1970s. These are hormone-like substances that control several important functions in body and help the body when it comes under attack. Vane's work laid the foundation for new treatments for heart and blood vessel disease and the introduction of ACE inhibitors, a class of drugs commonly used for the treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure. 1927-03-29T00:00:00+0000Nirenberg was a biochemist and geneticist who shared the 1968 Nobel Prize for Medicine for interpreting the genetic code and its function of protein synthesis. The Prize was given on the back of some experiments Nirenberg conducted in 1960 and 1961 which identified particular codons (3 chemical units of DNA) that specified each of the 20 amino acids that make up protein molecules. 1927-04-10T00:00:00+0000Kossel is best known for having isolated and described the five organic compounds present in nucleic acid which are key to the formation of DNA and RNA. 1927-07-05T00:00:00+0000Milstein was an Argentinian biochemist. Together with Georges Kohler, Milstein developed the first unlimited supply of long-lasting monoclonal antibodies. Their technique now underpins the development and application of many diagnostics and therapeutics. Kohler and Milstein devised the method as part of their search for a tool to investigate how the immune system can make so many different kinds antibodies, each able to bind to a highly specific receptor on foreign substances that invade the body. 1927-10-08T00:00:00+0000Frederick Griffith, British microbiologist, discovers that a harmless strain of Streptococcus pneumoniae can be made virulent after being exposed to heat-killed virulent strains. On the basis of this he hypothesises that some transforming principle from the heat-killed strain is responsible for making the harmless strain virulent. 1928-01-01T00:00:00+0000Fibiger published the first randomisation method for a clinical trial. The aim of the trial, conducted in 1898, was to investigate the effect of serum therapy on diphtheria. Fibiger would later go on to win the 1926 Nobel Prize for Medicine for demonstrating a roundworm could cause stomach cancer in rats and mice. Following his death researchers showed that the roundworm could not cause cancer and were due to vitamin deficiency and that Fibiger had mistakenly confused non-cancerous tumours for cancerous tumours in his experiments.1928-01-30T00:00:00+0000Watson is a molecular biologist, geneticist and zoologist. He is renowned for the part he played in determining the double-helix structure of DNA in 1953, for which he shared the 1962 Nobel Prize for Nobel Prize for Medicine. Watson also helped set up the Human Genome Project, which he headed up between 1990 to 1992. He left the project after campaign against the NIH patenting of the human genome. In 2007 he became the second person to publish his fully sequenced genome online. This he did to encourage the development of personalised medicine. 1928-04-06T00:00:00+0000Noguchi was a Japanese bacteriologist. He is best remembered for his identification, in 1913, of the causative agent of syphilis (the bacteria Treponema pallidum), and identification of the pathogen responsible for Carrion's disease (a Leishmania parasite). Unable to get a medical position in Japan because of his hand deformity which potential employers feared would put off potential patients, Noguchi spent his life doing laboratory work in the United States. While valued in his lifetime, his reputation took a battering after his death because researchers struggled to reproduce some of his claims, including having discovered the cause of yellow fever, polio and rabies. 1928-05-21T00:00:00+0000Woese was a microbiologist who discovered the first archaea, single cell organisms with no nucleus or other organelles.1928-07-15T00:00:00+0000Ray Wu pioneered the first primer-extension method for DNA sequencing which laid the foundation for the Human Genome Project. He was also instrumental in the application of genetic engineering to agricultural plants to improve their output and resistance to pests, salt and drought. 1928-08-14T00:00:00+00001928-09-28T00:00:00+0000Nathans shared the 1978 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for the discovery of restriction enzymes.1928-10-30T00:00:00+0000Nathans was the first to demonstrate how restriction enzymes could be used to cleaving DNA and how to piece together its fragments to contruct a complete map of DNA. His work inspired the use of restriction enzymes for many different biotechnology applications, including DNA sequencing and the construction of recombinant DNA.1928-10-30T00:00:00+0000 Zinder discovered how hereditary information is transferred from one organism to another. The process is known as genetic transduction.1928-11-07T00:00:00+0000Ames developed a biological test to quickly identify whether or not a chemical compound is a potential carcinogen. Bacteria are exposed to the test substance and allowed to multiply. 1928-12-16T00:00:00+0000E Witebsky, 'Disponibilitiit und Spezifitat alkoholloslicher Strukturen von Organen und bosartigen Geschwulsten', Zeitschrift fur Imrnunitaetsforschung, Allergie und Klinische Immunologie' 62 (1929), 35-73. 1929-01-01T00:00:00+0000R Pearl, 'Cancer and tuberculosis', American Journal of Hygiene, 9 (1929), 97-149. 1929-04-01T00:00:00+0000Lauterbur was an American chemist who is credited with the development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for scanning the body for diagnosis. He helped introduce gradients in the magnetic field which made it possible to determine the source of radio waves emitted from the nuclei of the object being investigated. This was a major breakthrough as it allowed MRI to shift on from being used as a tool merely used to study the chemical structure of substances to allowing for the production of images of the body. Lauterbur shared the 1990 Nobel Prize for Medicine for his pioneering work on MRI.1929-05-06T00:00:00+0000Werner Arber shared the 1978 Nobel Prize in Medicine for the discovery of 'restriction enzymes and their application to problems in molecular genetics.'1929-06-03T00:00:00+0000Edelman was a biologist renowned for his research on antibodies. His research helped determine the chemical structure of antibodies in the early 1960s. It showed that antibodies were made up of two light and heavy chains linked together by disulfide bonds. The breakthrough immediately galvanised feverish activity in all fields of immunological science, paving the way to the development of antibodies for both diagnostics and therapy. Edelman was awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1972 for his work.1929-07-01T00:00:00+0000Ruddle helped pioneer human gene mapping and established many of the techniques and a framework for setting up the Human Genome Project. He is also known for having generated, with Jon W. Gordon and George Scango the first successful transgenic mouse. His work heralded the development of genetically modified animals as research models to investigate the function of genes and genetic cause of disease. He also co-discovered, with William McGinnis, the first human homeobox genes, important regulators of gene development. 1929-08-19T00:00:00+0000Kandel shared the 2000 Nobel Prize for Medicine for discoveries 'concerning signal transduction in the nervous system.'1929-11-07T00:00:00+0000Griffin was a leading expert on viruses that cause cancer. First woman appointed to Royal Postgraduate Medical School, Hammersmith Hospital. In 1980 she completed the sequence of the poliovirus, the longest piece of eukaryotic DNA to be sequenced at that time. Devoted her life to understanding the Epstein-Barr virus, the cause of Burkitt's Lymphoma, a deadly form of cancer. 1930-01-23T00:00:00+0000Eijkman was a Dutch physician who helped discover vitamins and identify beriberi as a disease caused by poor diet. 1930-11-05T00:00:00+0000Youyou discovered artemisinin and dihydroartemisinin, used to treat malaria for which she received the 2015 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. She is the first female citizen of the People's Republic of China to receive a Nobel Prize.1930-12-30T00:00:00+0000First prototype of electron microscope constructed by Ernest Ruska, German physicist, and Max Knoll, electrial engineer.1931-01-01T00:00:00+0000Miller was an immunologist who demonstrated the importance of the thymus in protecting the body against infections and rejecting foreign tissues. Prior to this the thymus was thought to have no function. Miller also identified two major subsets of lymphocytes (T and B cells) and that these interacted to allow normal antibody production. He later showed that T cells are produced by the thymus. In 1963 he provided the first evidence that thymus-derived immune cells can provide protection against certain tumours. This laid an stepping stone in the development of cancer immunotherapy. 1931-04-02T00:00:00+0000Hamilton Othanel Smith co-discovered with Kent W Wilcox and Thomas Kelly the site-specific restriction enzyme now known as HindII which facilitates the cutting and pasting of specific DNA fragments for the generation of recombinant DNA.1931-08-23T00:00:00+00001932-01-01T00:00:00+0000Key developer of vaccine against rubella virus1932-01-01T00:00:00+0000Gilbert is a molecular biologist. He was involved in some of the early efforts to pioneer techniques for determining base sequences in nucleic acids, known known as DNA sequencing, for which he shared the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1980. He was the first scientist to propose the existence of intron and exons. In 1986 Gilbert became a proponent of the theory that the first forms of life evolved out of replicating RNA molecules. The same year he began campaigning to set up the Human Genome Project. He was also a co-founder and the first Chief Executive Officer of Biogen, a biotechnology company originally set up to commercialise genetic engineering.1932-03-21T00:00:00+0000Ross was the son of a General in the British Army and went on to train as a British doctor. He is best known for showing that malaria is transmitted by mosquitoes. In 1897 he discovered a parasite, Plasmodium, living in the gastrointestitnal tract of a mosquito. He went on to elucidate the life-cycle of the parasite. His research laid the foundation for developing methods to prevent the transmission of malaria. In 1902 he was awarded the Nobel Prize of Medicine on the back of this work. He was the first British Nobel Prize winner born outside Europe. 1932-09-16T00:00:00+0000Vilcek helped develop methods for the molecular characterisation of the cytokine human interferon and for its production for clinical use. In addition, Vilcek was instrumental in elucidating the biological action of tumour necrosis factor (TNF), a cytokine involved in the promotion of inflammation. Together with Junming Le, Vilcek created the first monoclonal antibody against TNF approved for the treatment of autoimmune diseases and inflammatory disorders. 1933-06-17T00:00:00+0000Mansfield won the 2003 Nobel Prize for Medicine for pioneering magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), body scanning technology.1933-10-09T00:00:00+0000John Marrack, a British chemical pathologist, proposes the biochemical forces which underly the bond between antibodies and antigens. 1934-01-01T00:00:00+0000Sanuelson is a Swedish biochemist who helped isolate, identify and determine the function of prostaglandins. These are a family group of compounds that regulate blood pressure, body temperature, allergic reactions and other physiological actions in mammals. He also discovered a number of new prostaglandins, including thrombaxane, which helps with blood clotting and the contraction of blood vessels. The bulk of this work he did in the 1960s and 1970s, for which he was awarded the 1982 Nobel Prize for Medicine. His later work concerned leukotrienes, a group of lipids closely related to prostaglandins that are involved in inflammation, looking for agents that could inhibit their actions. 1934-05-21T00:00:00+0000Curie won two Nobel Prizes, one in 1903 and another in 1911 for pioneering the study of radioactivity.1934-07-04T00:00:00+0000A histologist and neuroscientist, Ramon y Cajal shared the 1906 Nobel Prize for Medicine for discoveries about the structure of the nervous system. 1934-10-17T00:00:00+0000Temin shared the 1975 Nobel Prize for Medicine for work on the interactions between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell. 1934-12-10T00:00:00+0000A pathologist and microbiologist, Smith identified the causes of several infectious parasitic diseases, including Texas Cattle Fever caused by ticks. His work laid the ground for investigation of yellow fever and malaria. 1934-12-10T00:00:00+0000The American biomedical scientists Michael Heidelberger, Forrest Kendall and Elvin Kabat demonstrate antibodies to be proteins.1935-01-01T00:00:00+0000Macleod was a Scottish physician and biochemist who was a key adviser in the original experiments carried out by Frederick Grant Banting Charles Best to establish the use of insulin as a treatment for diabetes. Macleod provided the laboratory space and experimental animals for the work. He was jointly awarded the Nobel Prize for helping develop insulin therapy for diabetes in 1923. 1935-03-16T00:00:00+0000Cohen helped pioneer recombinant DNA.1935-06-30T00:00:00+0000Mendel co-discovered vitamins A and B, lysine and tryptophan and their role in nutrition.1935-12-09T00:00:00+0000Studies a combination of chemistry, physics, maths and physiology and specialises in biochemistry in his final year.1936-01-01T00:00:00+0000Bishop is an immunologist and microbiologist. He shared the 1989 Nobel Prize for Medicine with Harold E Varmus for discovering the first human oncogene, c-Src. Oncogenes are a type of gene that in certain circumstances, such as exposure to chemical carcinogens, can change a normal cell into a tumour cell. Bishop and Varmus made the discovery while working with the Rouse sarcoma virus known to cause cancer in chickens. 1936-02-22T00:00:00+0000A French bacteriologist, Nicolle determined that lice were the transmission vector of epidemic typhus and worked out the transmission method of tick fever. His work also helped discover the parasite responsible for toxoplasmosis. In addition, he developed a vaccine for Malta fever, a disease now called brucellosis.1936-02-28T00:00:00+0000Together with Stanley Cohen, Boyer demonstrated the possibility of producing recombinant DNA in bacteria in 1973. This they did by combining a gene for frog ribosomal RNA with a bacterial plasmid which was then put into a strain of E-coli for expression. Based on this technique Boyer helped found Genentech, the first biotechnology company dedicated to commercialising recombinant DNA. This he did in 1976 in collaboration with Robert Swanson. 1936-07-10T00:00:00+0000Together with Marc Feldmann, Maini helped identify TNF alpha as a key cytokine in the process of rheumatoid arthritis, laying the foundation for the development of monoclonal antibody drugs to treat autoimmune diseases.1936-11-30T00:00:00+0000Klinman was an immunologist who developed the splenic focus assay, a tool that allowed analysis of antibody production derived from single clones of B cells. He used the tool to analyse immune tolerance and immune responses to influenza. In additon he invented the splenic fragment system, a technique that helped generate some of earliest monoclonal antibodies against viral antigens and cancer. 1937-03-23T00:00:00+0000Hershko shared the 2004 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for discovering the ubiquitin protein. The protein attaches itself to unwanted proteins during cell division, helping to remove waste.1937-12-31T00:00:00+0000Baltimore shared the 1975 Nobel Prize for his work on the interaction between tumor viruses and the genetic material of the cell. He also spearheaded efforts for the scientific governance of recombinant DNA and genome editing technologies. 1938-03-07T00:00:00+0000A biochemist and physicist, Wurtrich won the Nobel Prize in Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 2002 for developing nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to determine the 3D structure of biological macromolecules in solution. 1938-10-04T00:00:00+0000Swedish chemists Theodor Svedberg and Arne Tiselius and the American biomedical scientist Elvin Kabat start using new biochemical techniques, notably ultracentrifugation and electrophoresis, to investigate the structure of antibodies.1939-01-01T00:00:00+0000Altman is a molecular biologist who shared the 1989 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for discovering the catalytic properties of RNA. This emerged out of some work Altman carried out between 1978 and 1983 on a bacterial enzyme called RNAs-P. His research helped transform the basic understanding of nuclear acids, which up to this moment had been understood to only carry genetic information. It also opened up the possibility of using genetic engineering to develop new forms of therapy against viral infections. 1939-05-07T00:00:00+0000Tonegawa discovered how the immune system genetically changes the body's antibodies to counter different foreign invaders.1939-09-06T00:00:00+0000Hartwell shared the 2001 Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'discoveries of key regulators of cell cycle.'1939-10-30T00:00:00+0000Varmus shared the 1989 Nobel Prize for Medicine for the discovery of the origin of genes in a cell that turn normal cells into cancer cells, known as oncogenes. 1939-12-18T00:00:00+0000Linus Pauling, an American chemist, puts forward the notion of a template underlying antibody formation, echoing Ehrlich's earlier vision of antibodies and antigens working together like a lock and a key.1940-01-01T00:00:00+0000Initially supervised by Bill Pirie, and then by Albert Neuberger, in the Department of Biochemistry. Thesis: 'On the metabolism of the amino acid lysine in the animal body'. 1940-01-01T00:00:00+0000The mice were developed by George Snell. 1940-01-01T00:00:00+0000MK Barrett, 'The influence of genetic constitution upon the induction of resistance to transplantable tumors', Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 2 (1940), 387-93.1940-01-01T00:00:00+0000H. Ruska, 'Uber die Sichtbarmachung der bakteriophagen Lyse im Ubermikroskop', Naturwissenschaften, 28 (1940), 45–6; E. Pfankuch, GA Kausche, 'Isolierung und übermikroskopische Abbildung eines Bakteriophagen', Naturwissenschaften, 28 (1940), 46.1940-01-01T00:00:00+0000Goldstein was a biochemist who shared the 1985 Nobel Prize for Medicine with Michael S Brown for discovering how cholesterol metabolism is regulated. They worked out that human cells have low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors that extract cholesterol from the bloodstream. Insufficient LDL receptors are associated with familial hypercholesterolomia which heavily predisposes sufferers to cholesterol-related disease. Their work helped lay the foundation for the development of statin drugs to lower cholesterol. 1940-04-18T00:00:00+0000Harden shared the 1929 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for investigations into the process of fermentation and the actions of enzymes during fermentation1940-06-17T00:00:00+0000Steitz shared the 2009 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for elucidating the structure and function of the ribosome.1940-08-23T00:00:00+0000A Russian-American biochemist, Levene discovered nucleic acids came in two forms: DNA and RNA. He also identified the components of DNA: adenine, guanine, thymine, cytosine, deoxyribose and a phosphate group and showed that these components were linked together by nucleotides, phosphate-sugar base units. 1940-09-06T00:00:00+0000Doherty was jointly awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1996 for the discovery of the 'specificity of the cell mediated immune defence'. 1940-10-15T00:00:00+0000George Beadle and Edward Tatum, American geneticists, demonstrate that genes are responsible for the production of an enzyme. 1941-01-01T00:00:00+0000Albert Coons, an American physician and immunologist, develops the immunofluorescence technique using antibodies coupled with fluorophore. This allowed for microscopic visualisation of antibodies helping to launch the clinical disciplines of diagnostic immunofluorescence microscopy for bacteriology and immunology, immunocytology, and immunohistochemistry in anatomic pathology.1941-01-01T00:00:00+0000Evans shared the 2007 Nobel Prize for Medicine for discovering the 'principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells.'1941-01-01T00:00:00+0000Term first used by A. Jost, a Danish microbiologist, in lecture on sexual reproduction in yeast presented to the Technical Institute in Lwow, Poland 1941-01-01T00:00:00+0000Walker shared the 1997 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for describing the enzymatic synthesis of adenosine triphosphate.1941-01-07T00:00:00+0000Banting was a Canadian physician who helped discover and isolate insulin. He also pioneered the extraction of insulin from pigs and cattle and demonstrated its use to treat diabetes in dogs. In 1923 he was jointly awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine for this work. 1941-02-21T00:00:00+0000Treated at the Radcliffe Infirmary, the patient was Albert Alexander, a constable in the police force in Oxford. He had been given penicillin to treat a bacterial infection he suffered after being scratched by a rose thorn. Initially the treatment proved effective, but lack of supplies prevented him getting penicillin after just five days of treatment. Following his death the decision was taken that until penicillin production could be improved only children would be treated with the drug as they would need less quantities than adults.1941-03-15T00:00:00+0000Brown is a geneticist who shared the 1985 Nobel Prize with Joseph L Goldstein for discovering how cholesterol metabolism is regulated. They determined that human cells have low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors that extract cholesterol from the bloodstream. Insufficient LDL receptors are associated with familial hypercholesterolomia which heavily predisposes sufferers to cholesterol-related disease. Their work helped lay the foundation for the development of statin drugs to lower cholesterol. 1941-04-13T00:00:00+0000Berger was a psychiatrist and neurologist who developed the first electroencephalogram (EEG) in 1924 for recording brain wave patterns. His technique involved the insertion of silver wires under the patient's scalp, one at the front and one at the back of the head. Berger's innovation was a historic breakthrough, providing an important neurological and psychological tool. Using the EEG Berger was the first to describe different waves or rhythms in the normal and abnormal brain. Many of his German peers, however, did not recognise the significance of his work. Despite gaining international recognition, the Nazi regime forced Berger into early retirement at the age of 65 and banned him from any further work on the EEG. 1941-06-01T00:00:00+0000Gilman shared the 1994 Nobel Prize for Medicine for discovering G-proteins and their role in signal transduction within cells.1941-07-01T00:00:00+0000Born in Germany, Schoenheimer trained in medicine and then biochemistry. Following the rise of the Nazis Schoenheimer left his position as head of Physiological Chemistry at the University of Leipzig and joined the department of Biological chemistry at Columbia University. He is best known for helping to develop the technique of radioactive tagging to trace biochemical processes in the living things, including the human body. He also worked out that cholesterol is a risk factor in atherosclerosis.1941-09-11T00:00:00+0000An oncologist and scientist, Levy helped pioneer the development of the first monoclonal antibodies effective in combating cancer. His work laid the foundation for the development of Rituxan, the first monoclonal antibody drug approved by the FDA for the treatment of cancer. 1941-12-06T00:00:00+0000Research undertaken by Health Division of Manhattan Project. 1942-01-01T00:00:00+0000Observation made by Leon O. Jacobson working within Health Division of the Manhattan Project.1942-01-01T00:00:00+0000C.H. Waddington, 'The Epigenotype', Endeavour, 1 (1942), 18-20.1942-01-01T00:00:00+0000Bragg shared the 1915 Nobel Prize in Physics with his son, William Lawrence Bragg, for the development of X-ray crystallography. Using his experience of ionisation measurements William H. Bragg managed to construct an X-ray spectometer to investigate the properties of X-rays. He maintained an active interest in X-ray crystallography until his death. 1942-03-12T00:00:00+0000Sulston is a biologist. He played a central role in sequencing the genome of the Caenorhabditis elegans, a transparent nematode (roundworm). It was the first animal to have its genome sequenced. Based on his work with the nematode Sulston helped set up the project to sequence the human genome which he did as director of the Sanger Centre. The first draft of the human genome sequence was completed in 2000. In 2002 he shared the Nobel Prize for identifying how genes regulate the life cycle of cells through apoptosis. 1942-03-27T00:00:00+0000Prusiner is a biochemist and neurologist who is known for his discovery of prions in 1982, a class of proteins he believed caused infections by improper protein folding, resulting in fatal disease in the brain and neural tissue. Initially the scientific community was sceptical of Prusiner's work, but by the 1990s prions had become linked to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), known as mad cow's disease, and its human equivalent, Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD) and are now being investigated as a possible cause of Alzheimer's diease and Parkinsons. Prusiner was awarded the 1997 Nobel Prize in Medicine for his discovery of prions.1942-05-28T00:00:00+0000Nusslein-Volhard shared the 1958 Nobel Prize for Medicine for discoveries relating to genetic control of early embryonic development.1942-10-20T00:00:00+0000A bioentrepreneur and venture capitalist, Green was the first Chief Executive Officer of Hybritech, America's first monoclonal antibody biotechnology company, and helped found or manage eleven medical technology companies. 1942-11-30T00:00:00+0000Landsteiner won the 1930 Nobel Prize for Medicine for his discovery of blood types. He also helped identify the Rh factor and the poliovirus. 1943-06-26T00:00:00+0000A British molecular biologist, Roberts helped discover, with Philp A Sharp, introns, sections of DNA that do not carry genetic information. 1943-09-06T00:00:00+0000Sanger undertakes the research as part of team working with Albert Chibnall in Department of Biochemistry. His work is initially supported by a Beit Memorial Fellowship from 1944 and then by Medical Research Council from 1951. 1944-01-01T00:00:00+0000Zinkernagel shared the 1996 Nobel Prize for Medicine for helping to discover how T cells recognise infected cells. 1944-01-06T00:00:00+0000The physician-geneticists Oswald Avery, Canadian-born, Colin MacLeod, Canadian-born, and Maclyn McCarty, American-born, announce an experiment demonstrating that a harmless bacteria, Streptococcus pneumoniae, can be made virulent by using DNA isolated from a virulent strain. 1944-02-01T00:00:00+0000Carrel, awarded 1912 Nobel Prize for Medicine in recognition of 'his work on vascular structure and the transplantation of blood vessels and organs'.1944-11-05T00:00:00+0000Together with Ravinder Maini, Feldmann helped identify TNF alpha as a key cytokine in the process of rheumatoid arthritis, laying the foundation for the development of monoclonal antibody drugs to treat autoimmune diseases.1944-12-02T00:00:00+0000Together with Hilary Koprowski, Croce developed the first monoclonal antibodies against tumour antigens which formed the basis of the first patent awarded to monoclonal antibodies. He has also been instrumental in showing the role of micoRNA in cancer and that the disease is linked to somatic genetic changes. Croce also helped discover the molecular mechanism behind leukaemia.1944-12-17T00:00:00+0000Mullis shared the 1993 Nobel Prize for Chemistry development of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method to quickly make a huge number of copies of specific pieces of DNA.1944-12-28T00:00:00+0000An oncologist, researcher and venture capitalist, Royston, together with Howard Birndorf and Ted Greene co-founded Hybritech, America's first monoclonal antibody biotechnology company. Hybritech helped kick-start the biotechnology industry in San Diego. Royston also co-founded Idec Pharmaceuticals,the company that developed Rituxan, the first monoclonal antibody drug approved by the FDA for cancer. 1944-11-30T00:00:00+0000Cesar Milstein studies at the University of Buenos Aires.1945-01-01T00:00:00+0000The atomic age brings new radiation dangers. Understanding these dangers in order to safeguard against them becomes an important focus of post-war radiobiology. 1945-01-01T00:00:00+0000Waldmann demonstrated how monoclonal antibodies could induce tolerance to foreign proteins and transplanted tissues. He and his team developed the first humanised monoclonal antibody (alemtuzumab) which is now used for combating leukaemia, preventing transplant rejection and treating autoimmune disorders such as multiple sclerosis and vasculitis. 1945-02-27T00:00:00+0000McClung was a zoologist. He is best known for identifying the role of chromosomes in determining the sex of a species. This he did through a series of experiments with insects between 1901 and 1902. Based on his findings he hypothesised that the accessory chromosome (now known as chromosome X) could be the nuclear element that determined sex. It was the first time a scientist suggested that a given chromosome carried a set of hereditary traits. 1946-01-17T00:00:00+0000King is a human geneticist who studies the interplay between genetics and the environment on human disease. She is best known for having identified BRCA1, a single gene responsible for many breast and ovarian cancers. Her technique for identifying the BRCA1 gene is now used for studying many other diseases. She was also responsible for the development of a technique, using mitrochondial DNA and human leucocyte antigen, for genetically identifying the remains of missing people. 1946-02-27T00:00:00+0000Together with Cesar Milstein, Kohler developed the first unlimited supply of long-lasting monoclonal antibodies. Their technique now underpins the development and application of many diagnostics and therapeutics. Kohler and Milstein devised the method as part of their search for a tool to investigate how the immune system can make so many different kinds antibodies, each able to bind to a highly specific receptor on foreign substances that invade the body. 1946-03-17T00:00:00+0000Together with Cesar Milstein, Kohler developed the first unlimited supply of long-lasting monoclonal antibodies. Their technique now underpins the development and application of many diagnostics and therapeutics. Kohler and Milstein devised the method as part of their search for a tool to investigate how the immune system can make so many different kinds antibodies, each able to bind to a highly specific receptor on foreign substances that invade the body. 1946-04-17T00:00:00+0000Jarvik is a medical scientist best known for having invented the first artificial heart used as a permanent replacement for a natural heart. The first person to receive the heart was Barney Clark, a retired dentist, who survived 112 days after the operation, performed in 1982. The second patient, William Schroeder, survived 620 days after being given the artificial heart. 1946-05-11T00:00:00+0000Axel shared the 2004 Nobel Prize for Medicine for research into the olefactory system.1946-07-02T00:00:00+0000The MRC RU is an autonomous institute that forms part of the AERE Harwell, UK.1947-01-01T00:00:00+0000Kornberg is a biochemist whose research is focused on working out the mechanism and regulation of transcription, which is the first step in the pathway of gene expression. In 2006 he won the Nobel Prize for working out the protein pathway that a cell's genetic information takes when transferred to a new cell. He showed how information is carried from the genes and converted to molecules called messenger ribonucleic acid (RNA). This he worked out by mapping out the process in yeast. Kornberg was the first to work out how transcription works at a molecular level in eukaryotes, a group of organisms, including humans, whose cells have a well-defined nucleus. 1947-04-24T00:00:00+0000Horvitz is a biologist who shared the 2002 Nobel Prize for Medicine for discoveries into how genes regulate tissue and organ development through cell death. Critically he showed in 1986, through investigations of the nematode worm, Caenorhabditis elegans, that the process was controlled by two 'death genes', ced-3 and ced-4. He subsequently identifed another gene, ced-9, which protects against cell death by interacting with ced-3 and ced-4. Later on he found that humans had a counterpart ced-3 gene. His work on cell death, known as apoptosis, opened the door to the development of new cancer treatments.1947-05-08T00:00:00+0000Hopkins was a British biochemist who shared the 1929 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for discovering vitamins and demonstrating they were an important nutrient in the diet. This was based on experiments he carried out on rats in 1901. He also helped establish the chemistry of muscle contraction, showing that lactic acid accumulated in working muscle in 1907. In 1922 he isolated and demonstrated the importance of tripeptide gluathione to the utilisation of oxygen by the cell. 1947-05-16T00:00:00+0000Wieschaus shared the 1995 Nobel Prize for Medicine for research into genetic controls during early embryonic development.1947-06-08T00:00:00+0000Barré-Sinoussi shared the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 2008 for the discovery of HIV.1947-07-30T00:00:00+0000Together with Herbert Boyer, Swanson helped found Genentech, the first biotechnology company dedicated to commercialising recombinant DNA. From 1976 to 1990 Swanson was Chief Executive and Director of the company and played an instrumental role in leading it to become the first major biotechnology company to show a profit and go public. 1947-11-29T00:00:00+0000Cech shared the 1989 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for the discovery of the catalytic properties of RNA.1947-12-08T00:00:00+0000Astrid Fagraeus, a Swedish immunologist, publishes her doctoral thesis demonstrating plasma B cells produce antibodies. 1948-01-01T00:00:00+0000R.D. Hotchkiss, 'The quantative separation of purines, pyrimidines, and nucleosides by paper chromatography', J Biol Chem, 175/1 (1948), 315-32. 1948-03-10T00:00:00+0000Michel shared the 1988 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for determining the structure of proteins essential for photosynthesis.1948-07-18T00:00:00+0000Roger Vendrely, Colette Vendrely and Andre Boivin, French scientists, report that the DNA content of cells is directly related to the chromosomes they contain. Importantly they discover half as much DNA in the nuclei of sex cells as they find in body cells. This provides further evidence for the fact that DNA is genetic material. 1949-01-01T00:00:00+0000Erwin Chargaff, Austro-Hungarian-born American biochemist, shows that the DNA base composition varies between species and that within a species the four DNA bases are always present in fixed ratios: the same number of A’s as T’s and the same number of C’s as G’s. This boosts the belief that DNA is genetic material and provides the foundation for the discovery of the double helix structure. 1949-01-01T00:00:00+0000Macfarlane Burnet and Frank Fenner develop the concept that organisms can discriminate between self and non-self. Defined as immune tolerance this helped explain how the body fails to mount an attack against its own antigens and against certain external antigens. This theory inspired greater investigation into antibodies and unravelling the mechanism underlying autoimmunity, laying the foundation for organ transplants. 1949-01-01T00:00:00+0000The objective of these experiments is to understand how the bone marrow protects against radiation damage.1949-01-01T00:00:00+0000Nurse shared the 2001 Nobel Prize for Medicine for discovering key regulators of the cell cycle.1949-01-25T00:00:00+0000d'Herelle was a French Canadian microbiologist who co-discovered bacteriophages (phages), viruses that infect bacteria that are now major tools in biotechnology. He isolated the first phage from chicken faeces in 1919. Following this he successfully treated chicken affected by a plague of typhus with the phage and in August 1919 cured a patient with dysentery using the same method. This laid the basis for the development of phage therapy. 1949-02-22T00:00:00+0000The American scientists Linus Pauling, Harvey Itano, Seymour Singer and Ibert Wells published an article in Science showing sickle cell anaemia to be a molecular disease caused by a mutation. Sickle cell anaemia was the first disease to be understood at a molecular level. 1949-09-01T00:00:00+0000Jeffreys, a British geneticist, pioneered the process for DNA fingerprinting, a technique that helps identify individuals based on their genetic makeup. It was based on his discovery in 1984 that each individual had unique numbers of repeated DNA fragments, called restriction fragment length polymorphisms, in their cells. 1950-01-09T00:00:00+0000In 1978 Birndorf, along with Ivor Royston, helped found Hybritech, America's first biotechnology company dedicated to monoclonal antibodies. Birndorf went on to found other companies including: Gen-Probe, IDEC Pharmaceuticals (which merged with Biogen to form Biogen-Idec), Ligand, Gensia (Sicor), Neurocrine Biosciences, FastTraQ and Nanogen. 1950-02-21T00:00:00+0000Schoemaker was co-founder and first Chief Executive Officer of Centocor, an American biotechnology company that pioneered the commercialisation of monoclonal antibody diagnostics and therapeutics. After Centocor was sold to Johnson & Johnson for $5.2 billion in 1999, Schoemaker founded Neuronyx to develop cellular therapies. One of the treatments pioneered by Neuronyx was the use of stem cells from bone marrow to help regenerate heart tissue damaged by heart attacks. 1950-03-23T00:00:00+0000Drew was an African-American physician and surgeon who helped develop large-scale blood banks for blood transfusion which helped save thousands of lives of Allied soldiers in World War II. In 1943 he lost his position when he led a protest against the practice of racial segregation in the donation of blood. He was later selected to be first black surgeon to serve on the American Board of Surgery. 1950-04-01T00:00:00+0000Henry Kunkel, an American immunologist, while studying the blood of patients with myeloma (a type of cancer that develops from plasma cells in the bone marrow) unexpectedly discovers myeloma proteins to resemble normal antibodies.1951-01-01T00:00:00+00001951-01-01T00:00:00+0000Conceived by Egon Lorenz, the experiment was designed to test whether - like the spleen - marrow can regenerate the blood system. This experiment sets the foundation for bone marrow transplantation. 1951-01-01T00:00:00+0000A pioneer of protein engineering, Winter invented techniques to both humanise and later to make fully human antibodies for therapeutic uses. Today his technology is used in over two-thirds of antibody drugs on the market, including Humira, a treatment for rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune conditions, which in 2012 was listed as the top selling drug in the world. He is also the founder of three biotechnology companies: Cambridge Antibody Technology, Domantis and Bicycle Therapeutics. 1951-03-31T00:00:00+0000G.R. Wyatt, 'Recognition and estimation of 5-methylcytosine in nucleic acids', Biochem J, 48/5 (1951), 581-4.1951-05-01T00:00:00+0000Marshall shared the 2005 Nobel Prize for Medicine for helping to discover the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and its role in gastritis and peptic ulcer disease.1951-09-30T00:00:00+0000Meyerhof was a physician and biochemist who was awarded the 1922 Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine for his discovery of the 'fixed relationship between the consumption of oxygen and the metabolism of lactic acid in the muscle.' In 1938 he was forced to to flee Nazi Germany because of his Jewish background which entailed leaving the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Medicine where he was a director from 1929. He was appointed a guest professor at the University of Pennsylvania. 1951-10-06T00:00:00+0000Maurice Wilkins, New Zealand-born English physicist and molecular biologist, using X-ray analyses indicate DNA has a regularly repeating helical structure. This information together with research then being conducted by Rosalind Franklin inspires James Watson and Francis Crick to start building a molecular model of DNA.1951-11-01T00:00:00+0000Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase, American geneticists, demonstrate that when bacteriophages, which are composed of DNA and protein, infect bacteria, their DNA enters the host bacterial cell, but most of their protein does not. This confirms that DNA is the genetic material, refuting a long-held assumption that proteins carried the information for inheritance.1952-01-01T00:00:00+0000Noted by Salvador Luria and his graduate student Mary Human while conducting experiments into the break-up of DNA in phage-infected bateria.1952-01-01T00:00:00+00001952-01-01T00:00:00+0000Created by George Gey from cervical cells taken without consent from Henrietta Lacks who died from cervical cancer on 4 October 1951. The cells taken from Lacks were the first human cells grown in the laboratory that did not die after a few cell divisions. The cell line proved enormously beneficial for medical and biological research. It was first published in WF Scherer, JT Syverton, GO Gey, 'Studies on the propagation in vitro of poliomyelitis viruses. IV. Viral multiplication in a stable strain of human malignant epithelial cells (strain HeLa) derived from an epidermoid carcinoma of the cervix', Journal Experimental Medicine, 97/5 (1953), 695–710.1952-01-01T00:00:00+0000Known as Photo 51, this image was shown, without Franklin's permission, to James Watson, who, together with Francis Crick, used it to develop the double-helix model of DNA.1952-01-03T00:00:00+0000Tsien won the 2008 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP, which is a major tool in research. 1952-02-01T00:00:00+0000Sherrington shared the 1932 Nobel Prize for Medicine for research into the function of neurons. He coined the terms synapse and neuron to describe parts of the nerve cell that receive or transmit nervous impulses between cells. 1952-03-04T00:00:00+0000Szotak helped discover how chromosomes are protected by telomeres, a section of DNA at the end of a chromosome. 1952-11-09T00:00:00+0000A Russian chemist, Weizmann developed the method to produce acetone, a vital component for explosives, using bacteria and fermentation during World War I. He later modified his technique to produce other organic compounds using bacteria during fermentation. Weismann went on to be the first President of Israel.1952-11-09T00:00:00+0000Peter Medawar, Brazilian-British biologist, Rupert Billingham, British-American scientist, and Leslie Brent, German-British immunologist, confirm the theory of immune tolerance through skin gafting experiments with mice. The work helped shift immunologists focus away from efforts to manage the fully developed immune mechanism towards altering the immunity mechanism itself, such the immune suppression to prevent the body's rejection of organ transplants.1953-01-01T00:00:00+0000Hochmair-Desoyer is an electrical engineer who helped create the world's first micro-electric multi-channel cochlear implant. Developed in 1977 the implant enables the user to not only hear sounds but also to understand speech. Since 2000 she has co-founded a number of medical device companies working to help with hearing loss. In 2013 she was awarded the Lasker-DeBakey Clinical Medical Research Award. 1953-01-01T00:00:00+0000The molecular biologists James Watson, American-born, and Francis Crick, British born, publish in Nature the molecular structure model of DNA: a double helix in which A always pairs with T, and C always with G. This model is inspired by Photo 51 taken by Franklin. Calculations from the photograph provided crucial parameters for the size of the helix and its structure, all of which were critical for the Watson and Crick's molecular modelling work. The final model represents a correction of an earlier model in the light of comments by Franklin the hydrophilic backbones should not go at the centre of the molecule, as Watson and Crick had originally assumed, but go on the outside of the molecule where they could interact with water. 1953-04-01T00:00:00+0000Rosalind Franklin publishes Photo 51 in a joint paper with Raymond Gosling in Nature.1953-04-01T00:00:00+0000An American biochemist, Cohn developed a fractionation technique to separate blood into its components, paving the way to safer blood transfusion. 1953-10-01T00:00:00+0000A pioneer of antibody engineering, Neuberger developed some of the first techniques for the generation of chimeric and humanised antibodies. He also helped create the first transgenic mice for the production of human monoclonal antibodies. His work paved the way for the generation of safer and more effective monoclonal antibody drugs. 1953-11-02T00:00:00+0000Milstein investigates the enzyme dehydrogenase for his doctorate under the supervision of Andres Stoppani in the Department of Medicine, University of Buenos Aires1954-01-01T00:00:00+0000The first polio vaccine, developed by Jonas Salk, was tested on children from Arsenal Elementary School in Pittsburg, Pennsylvania. Nearly 2 million children in 44 states were tested. The trial showed the vaccine to be effective. The vaccine radically reduced the number of polio victims around the world.1954-02-23T00:00:00+0000Herrick was an American physician and cardiologist who reported the first case of sickle-shaped red blood cells in 1910. These he found in the blood of a medical student from Grenada suffering from anaemia. Clinicians subsequently found that the condition, called sickle-cell anaemia, was inherited and was most common in black patients. Sickle-cell anemia was the first disease found to have a genetic cause. Herrick later also observed the first clinical features of coronary thrombosis. 1954-03-07T00:00:00+0000Performed on identical twins by Joseph E Murray together with J Hartwell Harrison and other colleagues. 1954-12-01T00:00:00+0000Niels Jerne, a Danish immunologist, David Talmage, and Ameican immunologist, and Macfarlane Burnet, an Austrialian immunologist, independently develop the clonal selection theory. This proposes that the cell is repsonsible for making antibodies and that a small number of antibodies can distinguish between a larger number of antigen determinants. 1955-01-01T00:00:00+0000Sanger's insulin results establish for the first time that proteins are chemical entities with a defined sequence. The technique Sanger develops for sequencing insulin later becomes known as the degradation or DNP method. It provides the basis for his later development of sequencing tecdhniques for nucleic acids, including RNA and DNA.1955-01-01T00:00:00+0000Avery was a Canadian-American physician who helped discover that the genetic information in genes and chromosomes is made up of DNA.1955-02-02T00:00:00+0000Fleming was a Scottish biologist and microbiologist. He first made his mark through his discovery of lysosyme in 1923. This is an enzyme produced in the tears, saliva, mucus and human milk which is an important part of the immune system. Today he is best known for having found penicillin, a mould subsequently developed as the first antibiotic drug to treat bacterial diseases. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1950 for this discovery.1955-03-11T00:00:00+0000An American chemist, Sumner showed that enzymes are proteins and can be crystalised.1955-08-12T00:00:00+0000Moore was the first to isolate male sex hormones andresterone and testosterone1955-10-16T00:00:00+0000The enzyme was discovered in Escherichia Coli. Its isolation paved the way to understanding how DNA is replicated, repaired and transcribed and the development of recombinant DNA. A collective group of scientists made the discovery: Arthur Kornberg, Maurice Bessman, Ernie Simms, I R Lehman.1955-12-01T00:00:00+0000Arthur Kornberg, American biochemist, discovers DNA polymerase, an enzyme that replicates DNA 1956-01-01T00:00:00+0000The experiments involve bone marrow transplants from mice where the donor marrow cells are marked with a specific chromosome marker, T6. The presence of the T6 marker in all blood cells of surviving recipient mice indicates their blood system was regenerated by a cell from the donor. This empirical evidence lends support to the concept of the blood stem cell.1956-01-01T00:00:00+0000Lays the basis for improving the treatment of leukaemia in humans.1956-01-01T00:00:00+0000In 1998 MacKinnon made a major breakthrough in establishing the 3-D structure of a potassium ion channel - a protein linked to transmitting electrical signals down the nerve and muscle cells. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 2003 on the back of this discovery. 1956-02-19T00:00:00+0000Building on the work of her parents, Marie and Pierre Curie, Irène Joliot-Curie managed to produce radioactive nitrogen from boron, radioactive isotopes of phosphorus from aluminium, and silicon from magnesium. The facilitated the application of radioactive materials for use in medicine. In 1935 she was awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1935 for her work on radioactive isotopes which today form the basis of much biomedical research and cancer treatment today. 1956-03-17T00:00:00+00001957-01-01T00:00:00+0000Milstein's first publication is C. Milstein, and A.O.M. Stoppani, 'Sensibilidad de aldehido deshidrogenasas para reactivos de tioles', An. Asoc. Quimica Argentina, 45 (1957), 33-51.1957-01-01T00:00:00+0000Ingram shows that the difference between sickle-cell and normal haemoglobulin lies in just one amino acid. 1957-01-01T00:00:00+0000Lewis Thomas and Frank MacFarlane Burnet develop a theory that the immune system regularly screens and protects the body against cancer, and that cancer only develops when this mechanism fails. 1957-01-01T00:00:00+0000Found by Charlotte Friend, the virus is now known as Friend leukaemia virus. 1957-01-01T00:00:00+00001957-01-01T00:00:00+0000Working with Hilary Koprowski, Plotkin worked on infectious diseases, including a report on the outbreak of anthrax among millworkers1957-01-01T00:00:00+0000The observation was made by Lazarus Astrachan and Elliot Voilin in an experiment to understand ho hereditary information encoded in DNA is used by living cells to synthesise proteins.1957-01-01T00:00:00+0000C.H. Waddington, The Strategy of the Genes: A Discussion of Some Aspects of Theoretical Biology (London, 1957).1957-01-01T00:00:00+0000ED Thomas, HL Lochte, WC Lu, JW Ferrebee, 'Intravenous infusion of bone marrow in patients receiving radiation and chemotherapy'. The New England Journal of Medicine, 257 (J.W. (12 September 1957), 491–6.1957-01-09T00:00:00+0000Hamilton was an American medical physicist who worked with the Manhattan Project to establish the safety of working with plutonium for laboratory personnel. He himself drank a radioactive sodium solution to test the toxicity of radioactive substances. His study of the medical effects of exposure to radioactive isotopes laid the foundation for the use of radioisotopes for treating and diagnosing disease. In particular, Hamilton showed that radioactive iodine would be useful for the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disorders. 1957-02-18T00:00:00+0000Crick presented his theory to the Society for Experimental Biology. He proposed that RNA acted as an intermediary between DNA and proteins, helping to translate information in the DNA into proteins and that three bases in the DNA always specify one amino acid in a protein. 1957-09-19T00:00:00+0000Achieved by Arthur Kornberg, the experiment was published in the Journal of Biological Chemsitry in May 1958.1957-10-01T00:00:00+0000The American molecular biologists Matthew Meselson and Franklin Stahl describe how DNA replicates, arguing that each strand of the DNA serves as a template for the replicated strand. 1958-01-01T00:00:00+0000The American molecular geneticist Joshua Lederberg and the Austrian-Australian biologist Gustav Nossal publish results from experiments confirming one cell is responsible for the production of just one type of antibody. This confirms the clonal selection theory. 1958-01-01T00:00:00+0000Milstein studies the enzyme phosphoglucomutase under the supervision of Malcolm Dixon and Edwin Webb at the Sir William Dunn School of Biochemistry.1958-01-01T00:00:00+0000Prize awarded to Sanger 'for his work on the structure of proteins, especially that of insulin'.1958-01-01T00:00:00+0000Franklin was a British biophysicist who provided the first evidence of the double helix structure of DNA. She captured the structure in photo 51, an image she made of DNA using x-ray crystallography in 1952. Data from the photo was pivotal to Crick and Watson's building of their DNA double helical structure of DNA which they won the Nobel Prize in 1962. Sadly Franklin died too young, age 37, to receive the Nobel Prize for her work. 1958-04-16T00:00:00+0000The patients are 6 Yugoslav physicians who had been accidentally irradiated at a nuclear power plant.1959-01-01T00:00:00+0000Each sick child was terminally ill and chemotherapy was of no further use. Lethal levels of radiation were used to try to eradicate the leukaemia, followed by the infusion of genetically identical marrow (from the healthy twin).1959-01-01T00:00:00+00001959-01-01T00:00:00+0000Fire is a biologist, pathologist and geneticist. In 1998 he and other colleagues working at Carnegie Institute reported in an article in Nature the discovery of tiny snippets of double-stranded RNA dsRNA) that appeared to silence specific genes which destroyed messenger RNA, a molecule involved in the production of proteins. They hypothesised that this was caused by a catalytic process. In 2006 he shared the Nobel Prize for Medicine for helping to show the mechanism that controlled the flow of genetic information. 1959-04-27T00:00:00+0000LJ Old, DA Clarke, B Benacerraf, 'Effect of bacillus calmette-guerin infection on transplanted tumours in the mouse', Nature, 184 (1959), 291-92.1959-07-25T00:00:00+0000Tanaka shared the 2002 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for the development of mass spectrophotometric methods for analysing biological molecules such as proteins. 1959-08-03T00:00:00+0000Georges Barski, Serge Sorieul and Francine Cornefert, French scientists at the Institut Gustave Roussy, spot cellular fusion occurs when two different tumour cell lines, taken from two different inbred strains of mice, are grown as a cell mixture in tissue cultures. This observation lays the basis for the development of new techniques for cellular fusion. 1960-01-01T00:00:00+0000Severity of GvHD in humans unforeseen, and seemingly insurmountable 1960-01-01T00:00:00+0000Non-profit institution founded by Robert S Ledley to explore the use of computers in biomedical research. It is eventually located at Georgetown University Medical Center in Washington, D.C.1960-01-01T00:00:00+00001960-01-01T00:00:00+0000Goodpasture developed a method of culturing viruses in chicken embryos and fertilized chicken eggs. Before this viruses were grown in living tissues which could be contaminated by bacteria. Goodpasture's method laid the foundation for the development of vaccines for smallpox, yellow fever, typhus and chicken pox.1960-09-20T00:00:00+0000Mello shared the 2006 Nobel Prize for Medicine for the discovery of RNA interference 1960-10-19T00:00:00+0000Work by Har Gobind Khorana, Indian-born American biochemist on RNA and Robert Holley, American biochemist, on transfer RNA, helps piece together the genetic code. 1961-01-01T00:00:00+00001961-01-01T00:00:00+0000Milstein heads up the newly-created Department of Molecular Biology, part of the National Institute of Microbiology within the Instituto Malbran.1961-01-01T00:00:00+0000This discovery sets the stage for all current research on adult and embryonic stem cells.1961-01-01T00:00:00+0000The phenomenon was named the 'Hayflick Limit' after Leonard Hayflick who discovered it. It is now known to relate to genetic instability in aging cells and the development of cancer.1961-01-01T00:00:00+0000Experiment conducted by Sydney Brenner, Francois Jacob and Matt Meselson1961-03-31T00:00:00+0000Bordet was a Belgian physician, immunologist and microbiologist. He is best known for winning the 1919 Nobel Prize for his discovery of two components in the blood - antibodies and complement proteins - that help destroy invading bacteria. They do this by rupturing the cell walls of the bacteria, a process known as bacteriolysis. Bordet made the discovery in 1895. He subsequently found, in 1898, that red blood cells from one animal species injected into another get destroyed by haemolysis - a process analogous to bacteriolysis. His research laid the foundation for the development of diagnostic tests that looked for antibodies in the blood to detect infectious agents. The first one was for typhoid, developed in 1896. 1961-04-06T00:00:00+0000Greider is best known for her discovery of telomerase, an enzyme made up of protein and RNA subunits that help elongate and protect chromosomes. The enzyme is found in fetal tissues, adult germ cells and also tumour cells. Greider made the discovery in 1984 when she was a graduate student of Elizabeth Blackburn. She was awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 2009 on the back of this work. 1961-04-15T00:00:00+0000M.F. Lyon, 'Gene action in the X-chromosome of the mouse', Nature, 190 (1961), 372–73.1961-04-22T00:00:00+0000Marshall Nirenberg, American biochemist, and Heinrich Matthaei, German biochemist, discover the coding mechanism for DNA.1961-05-01T00:00:00+0000Lorraine Kraus incubated bone marrow cells from a patient with sickle-cell anaemia with DNA from healthy donor. L.M. Kraus, ‘Formation of different haemoglobins in tissue culture of human bone marrow treated with human deoxyribonucleic acid’, Nature, 4807 (1961) 1055-57. 1961-12-16T00:00:00+0000Loewi shared the 1936 Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'discoveries relating to chemical transmission of nerve impulses.'1961-12-25T00:00:00+0000Independently Rodney Porter, a British scientist, and Gerald Edelman, an American biologist, determine the structure of antibodies to consist of heavy and light protein chains, which join together to form three sections yielding a molecule shaped like the letter Y.1962-01-01T00:00:00+0000Milstein decides to leave Argentina when the director of the Instituto Malbran and his supporters are dismissed in the wake of the tumoil created by a military coup led by General Raul Poggi.1962-01-01T00:00:00+0000Researchers return to animal models.1962-01-01T00:00:00+00001962-01-01T00:00:00+0000Sanger now has close contact with protein crystallographers, molecular geneticists and protein chemists1962-01-01T00:00:00+0000Created by Leonard Hayflick and Paul S Moorhead.1962-01-01T00:00:00+0000Werner Arber, Swiss microbiologist and geneticist, and his doctoral student Daisy Dussoix propose bacteria produce restriction and modification enzymes to counter invading viruses. W. Arber, D. Dussoix, Journal Molecular Biology, 5 (1962), 18–36 and 37-49.1962-01-23T00:00:00+0000The protein was discovered in a small mouse-sized jellyfish Aequorea victoria by the Japenese born scientist Osamu Shimomura while at Princeton University. It was published in O Shimomura, FH Johnson FH, Y Saiga, 'Extraction, purification and properties of aequorin, a bioluminescent protein from the luminous hydromedusan, Aequorea', Journal of Cellular and Comparative Physiology', 59/3 (1962), 223–39.1962-06-01T00:00:00+00001962-10-18T00:00:00+0000Niels Jerne, Danish immunologist, and Albert Nordin develop a plaque test which allows for the first time scientists to visualise and determine the number of antibody-producing cells with the naked eye. 1963-01-01T00:00:00+0000Milstein is awarded a three-year MRC contract, arranged by Fred Sanger, to work at the Laboratory of Molecular Biology.1963-01-01T00:00:00+0000Developed by Samuel Katz and John F Enders, the vaccine would later be incorporated into the MMR, a combination vaccine against measles, mumps and rubella.1963-01-01T00:00:00+0000The vaccine was made by Maurice Hilleman using material taken from his daughter, Jeryl Lynn, when she suffered measles. The Jeryl strain of the mumps vaccine is still in use today and used in the MMR vaccine.1963-01-01T00:00:00+0000Gasser was an American physiologist. He shared the 1944 Nobel Prize for Medicine for discovering different fibers in nerves that conduct electrochemical pulses at different rates. Discovered in the 1930s, this work laid the foundation for the theory that one type of fiber conducts pain signals and others conduct motor control signals. Gasser was the director of the Rockefeller Institute from 1936 to 1953. 1963-05-11T00:00:00+0000C.M. Milstein, 'Disulphide bridges and dimers of Bence-Jones Protein,' Journal of Molecular Biology, 9 (1964), 836-8.1964-01-01T00:00:00+0000Domagk was a German pathologist, physician and bacteriologist. He is best known for having found sulphonamide to be an effective drug against bacterial infections. The molecule had originally been synthesised by chemists at the German company Bayer in 1908. Domagk discovered the antibacterial properties of the drug through preliminary tests in mice in 1931. Soon after this he successfully treated his own daughter struck down by a severe streptococcal infection. His work paved the way to the widespread adoption of sulphonamide drugs, the first commercially available antibiotics, in the late 1930s to treat infections caused by streptococci, including blood infections, childbirth fever, and erysipelas. Domagk was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1939 but the Nazi regime forced him to refuse it, with the Gestapo putting him under arrest for a week. He finally received the Nobel Prize in 1947. 1964-04-24T00:00:00+0000E.J. Delorme, P. Alexander, 'Treatment of primary fibrosarcoma in the rat with immune lymphocytes', Lancet, 2 (1964), 117–120.1964-07-18T00:00:00+0000Transplant conducted by George Mathe at the Institute of Cancer and Immunotherapeutics, Paul-Brouse Hospital, Paris. The procedure focuses on genetically different patient and donor. 1965-01-01T00:00:00+0000The Institute is based in Manchester, UK1965-01-01T00:00:00+0000The cultivation is on solid (agar) media in petri dishes. This marks a major methodological advance as marrow is difficult to grow in the laboratory.1965-01-01T00:00:00+0000Robert Holley and colleagues sequence Escherichia coli alanine transfer RNA, laying the foundation for DNA sequencing. 1965-01-01T00:00:00+0000W. Arber, 'Host-controlled modification of bacteriophage', Annual Review Microbiology 19 (1965), 365-78.1965-01-01T00:00:00+0000The book contained all protein sequences known to-date. It was the result of a collective effort led by Margaret Dayhoff to co-ordinate the ever-growing amount of information about protein sequences and their biochemical function. It provided the model for GenBank and many other molecular databases. 1965-01-01T00:00:00+0000900 page monograph provides the first introduction to the application of digital computing in biology and medicine. 1965-01-01T00:00:00+0000Tested on ribosomal RNA1965-01-01T00:00:00+0000Hench was a physician who helped discover cortisone, a hormone of the adrenal cortex, and demonstrate its utility for treating rheumatoid arthritis. He headed up the Department of Rheumatic Diseases at the the Mayo Clinic. Early on he hypothesised that steroids could alleviate the pain associated with the disease, but the difficulty and expense of production hindered his ability to try out his theory. The clinical trials were finally carried out in 1948 and 1949. Hench was jointly awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine for his work in 1950.1965-03-30T00:00:00+0000Erlanger shared the 1944 Nobel Prize for Medicine for research into the the actions of nerve fibers. 1965-12-05T00:00:00+0000S. Brenner, C. Milstein, 'Origin of antibody variation', Nature, 211 (1966), 242-3.1966-07-16T00:00:00+0000LJ Old, EA Boyse, E Oettgen, ED Harven, ED Geering, B Williamson, P Clifford, 'Precipitating antibody in human serum to an antigen present in cultured Burkitt's lymphoma cells', Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 56 (1966), 1699–1704.1966-12-01T00:00:00+0000S. Rogers, ‘Shope papilloma virus: A passenger in man and its significance to the potential control of the host genome’, Nature, 212, 1120 (1966), 1220-22.1966-12-10T00:00:00+0000The sequencer was developed by Pehr Victor Edman with Geoffrey Begg1967-01-01T00:00:00+0000Muller was an American geneticist. He demonstrated that X-rays could change the genetic make-up fruit-flies and that the mutations could be passed on to subsequent generations. Published in 1927 this work attracted widespread attention it marked the first time the genetics of a species was intentionally altered. Muller's work opened up new understanding of how mutations are caused and heralded a revolution in genetics research. He was awarded he 1946 Nobel Prize for 'the discovery of the production of mutations by means of X-ray irradiation'.1967-04-15T00:00:00+0000Pincus was a biologist. He first came to public attention in 1934 when he announced the creation of baby rabbits with in vitro fertilisation. His technique involved the removal of an ovum from the mother rabbit, soaking it in a solution with a mixture of saline and estrone and then placing it back in the rabbit. The experiment could not be repeated by other scientists and prompted wide-scale condemnation. It cost him his tenure position at Harvard University. In order to continue his research Pincus helped found the Worcester Foundation for Experimental Biology in 1944, where he led the development of the first contraceptive pill in the early 1950s. 1967-08-22T00:00:00+0000Ray Wu and A.D. Kaiser report on the partial sequence of bacteriophage lambda DNA in the Journal of Molecular Biology, 35/3 (1968), 523-37. 1968-01-01T00:00:00+0000The proceedure was performed by physician-scientist Robert Good to treat boy born with severe combined immunodeficiency. 1968-01-01T00:00:00+00001968-01-01T00:00:00+0000Florey was an Australian pharmacologist and pathologist. In 1941 he helped carry out the first clinical trials with penicillin which were undertaken at the Radcliffe Infirmary in Oxford. Florey and his team pioneered the first large-scale production of penicillin. In 1945 he was awarded the Nobel Prize in recognition of his work. 1968-02-21T00:00:00+0000Alexander was an American paediatrician and microbiologist. In the 1940s she developed the first effective treatment against Haemophilus influenzae (Hib), a major killer of infants. Her treatment helped reduced mortality from the disease from nearly 100 per cent to less than 25 per cent. It involved the combination of antiserum therapy with sulfa drugs. Alexander was also one of the first scientists to identify and study antibiotics resistance, which emerged out of her search for antibiotics to treat Hib. She worked out that the resistance was due to random genetic mutations in DNA that were positively selected through evolution.1968-06-24T00:00:00+0000Heymans, a pharmacologsit, won the 1938 Nobel Prize for Medicine for discovering how respiration is regulated by pressure sensory organs associated with the cartoid artery and aortic arch.1968-07-18T00:00:00+0000Dale shared the 1936 Nobel Prize for Medicine for helping to identify the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and the chemical process by which nerve impulses are transmitted.1968-07-23T00:00:00+0000T. Friedmann, J.E. Seegmiller, J.H. Subak-Sharpe, 'Metabolic Cooperation between Genetically Marked Human Fibroblasts in Tissue Culture', Nature, 220 (1968), 272-74.1968-10-19T00:00:00+0000Funded by the multinational pharmaceutical company F. Hoffman La Roche, the Basel Institute of Immunology was designed to keep the pharmaceutical company keep ahead of developments in biology, cell biology and biochemistry. It rapidly became the world's largest centres for immunological research and antibody investigation.1969-01-01T00:00:00+0000Joseph Sinkovics, a Hungarian clinical pathologist and laboratory clinical virologist, successfully develops a cell line of antibodies with known specificity that could be grown indefinitely by fusing antibody-producing plasma cells with lymphoma cells.1969-01-01T00:00:00+0000Norman Klinman, an American immunologist, devises a splenic fragments culture technique for growing antibodies.1969-01-01T00:00:00+0000The tumour stem cell idea emerges from the study of teratomas in tumour biology. Teratomas are a group of tumours, some benign and some malignant. Such tumours develop from cells early in their development before they become muscle cell, or a nerve cell, etc. 1969-01-01T00:00:00+0000Kjell Kleppe, a Norwegian scientist working in H. Gobind Khorana's Institute for Enzyme Research at University of Wisconsin publishes papers describing the principles of PCR.1969-01-01T00:00:00+0000Called Thermus aquaticus (Taq) this enzyme becomes a standard source of enzymes because it can withstand higher temperatures than those from E Coli. Taq is later important in the PCR technique. 1969-01-01T00:00:00+0000This was developed by Peter Lobhan, a graduate student of Dale Kaiser at Stanford University.1969-01-01T00:00:00+0000The vaccine, RA27/3 had been developed by a team headed by Stanley Plotkin.1969-01-01T00:00:00+0000I. Hellstrom, K. E. Hellstrom, C. A. Evans, G. Heppaer, G. E. Piece, I. P. S. Yang, 'Serum-mediated protection of neoplastic cells from inhibition by lymphocytes immune to their tumor-specific antigens', PNAS USA, 1969, 62, 362-9.1969-02-01T00:00:00+0000W. Arber, S.Linn, 'DNA modification and restriction', Annual Review Biochemistry, 38 (1969), 467-500.1969-07-01T00:00:00+0000Brigette Askonas, a Canadian biochemist, Alan Williamson, a British immunologist, and Brian Wright clone B cells in vivo using spleen cells from mice immunised with haptenated carrier antigen.1970-01-01T00:00:00+0000The American geneticist Leonard Herzenberg creates the flueorcence-activated cell sorter, or FACS, an invaluable tool for studying cell structure and function. Coupled later with monoclonal antibodies the FACS is today a vital not only for basic research but medical diagnosis. 1970-01-01T00:00:00+0000Achived by Har Gobind Khorana at the University of Wisconsin-Madison1970-01-01T00:00:00+0000Treatment given by Stanfield Rogers, Oak Ridge Laboratory and H G Terheggen, municipal hospital, Cologne, in attempt to cure hyperargininemia, an extremely rare genetic disorder that causes brain damage. H. G. Terheggen, A. Lowenthal, F. Lavinha and J.P. Colombo, Familial hyperargininaemia, Archive Disease Childhood, 50 (1975), 57.1970-01-01T00:00:00+00001970-01-01T00:00:00+0000Milstein working with his doctoral student, David Secher, and post-doctoral researcher Dick Cotton, start their hunt for somatic mutants among antibodies. Reported in R.G.H. Cotton, D.S. Secher, C. Milstein, 'Somatic mutation and the origin of antibody diversity, Clonal variability of the immunoglobulin produced by MOPC21 cells in culture', European Journal Immunology, 3 (1973), 135-40. 1970-07-01T00:00:00+0000Hamilton O Smith, Kent W Wilcox, Journal of Molecular Biology 51/2 (1970), 379-91. 1970-07-01T00:00:00+0000Sera-Lab is established in Crawley-Down, UK, to commercially supply serum reagents to the scientific community. Sera-Lab was to become the first company to commercialise monoclonal antibodies. 1971-01-01T00:00:00+0000Ronald Cape, Peter Farley and Donald Glaser establish Cetus Corporation to generate industrial micro-organisms for the production of greater amounts of chemical feedstocks, antibiotics and vaccine compounds. 1971-01-01T00:00:00+0000K. Kleppe, E Ohtsuka, R Kleppe, I Molineux, HG Khorana, "Studies on polynucleotides *1, *2XCVI. Repair replication of short synthetic DNA's as catalyzed by DNA polymerases", Journal of Molecular Biology, 56/2 (1971), 341-61. The method provides an artificial system of primers and templates that allows DNA polymerase to copy segments of the gene being synthesised. 1971-01-01T00:00:00+0000This was done in Dale Kaiser's laboratory by Douglas Berg together with Janet Mertz and David Jackson1971-01-01T00:00:00+0000The 12 base sequence of bacteriophage lambda DNA is published by Ray Wu and Ellen Taylor in the Journal of Molecular Biology, 57 (1971) 0, 491-511. 1971-05-01T00:00:00+0000Robert Pollack contacted Paul Berg to raise concerns about the potential biohazards of experiments his doctoral research plans to do involving the introduction of genes from the oncovirus SV40 in the human gut bacteria, E-Coli. Following this Berg self-imposed a moratorium on experiments in his laboratory involving the cloning of SV40 in E-Coli. 1971-06-01T00:00:00+0000H. O. Sjogren, I. Hellstrom, S. C. Bansal, K. E. Hellstom, 'Suggestive evidence that the blocking antibodies of tumor-bearing individuals may be antigen--antibody complexes', PNAS, USA, 1971, 68/6, 1372-5. 1971-06-01T00:00:00+0000Stanley was an American biochemist who shared the 1946 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for the 'preparation of enzymes and virus proteins in a pure form.'1971-06-15T00:00:00+0000Bragg was a physicist. He shared the 1915 Nobel Prize in Physics with his father, William Henry Bragg, for the development of x-ray crystallography. The technique proved important for deciphering the crystal structure of proteins and later DNA.1971-07-01T00:00:00+0000Houssay was an Argentinian physiologist. He is best known for having discovered how the pituitary gland regulates glucose or blood sugar levels. This he determined while studying the pituitary gland in dogs and toads during the early 1940s. In 1947 he was awarded the Nobel Prize on the back of this achievement. He was the first Latin American to receive the Nobel Laureate in the sciences. The award was particularly poignant given that four years before he had been dismissed by the Argentinian military government from his position at the University of Buenos Aires Medical school where he had built up an internationally respected department in experimental physiology and medicine from 1919. He was later reinstated in 1955 following the fall of Juan Peron from power.1971-09-21T00:00:00+0000A Swedish biochemist, Tiselius developed the devise electrophoresis to separate and measure charged particles through a stationary liquid in an electric field. He also pioneered synthetic blood plasma.1971-10-29T00:00:00+0000The power of restriction enzymes to cut DNA was demonstrated by Kathleen Danna, a graduate student, with Daniel Nathans, her doctoral supervisor, at Johns Hopkins University. They published the technique in PNAS, 68/12 (1971), 2913-17.1971-12-01T00:00:00+00001972-01-01T00:00:00+0000An American pathologist, Rous won the 1966 Nobel Prize for showing how viruses could cause cancer. He demonstrated this in 1910 by transplanting some material from a cancer tumour taken from a chicken into a healthy chicken. The healthy chicken developed cancer. Other scientists struggled to replicate his experiment in mammals so his discovery was initially dismissed. 1972-02-16T00:00:00+0000T. Friedmann, R. Roblin, 'Gene therapy for human genetic disease?'. Science, 175/4025 (1972), 949-55.1972-03-03T00:00:00+0000Kendall made several contributions to biochemistry and medicine. He is best known for isolating the steroid cortisone from the adrenal gland cortex, subsequently used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, for which he shared the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1950. He also isolated thyroxine, the main hormone secreted by the thyroid gland which is vital to digestion, heart and muscle function and brain development and bone maintenance. 1972-05-04T00:00:00+0000Key architect of legislation was Bernice Sandler, part-time lecturer at University of Maryland who three-times was denied tenure-track positions despite being on the short-list. She failed to get the appointments based on claims she was ‘too strong for a woman’. 1972-06-23T00:00:00+0000Theiler won the 1951 Nobel Prize for Medicine for helping to develop a vaccine against yellow fever. 1972-08-11T00:00:00+0000This took place during an unscheduled extra session held at a three-day EMBO workshop on DNA restriction and modification. The session was chaired by Norton Zinder.1972-09-26T00:00:00+0000D A Jackson, R H Symons, P Berg, 'Biochemical Method for Inserting New Genetic Information into DNA of Simian Virus 40: Circular SV40 DNA Molecules Containing Lambda Phage Genes and the Galactose Operon of Escherichia coli', PNAS USA, 69/10 (1972), 2904-09.1972-10-01T00:00:00+0000The technique was developed by Janet Mertz and Ronald Davis at Stanford University. J. Mertz, R. Davis, Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, USA 69/11, pp. 2270-74. 1972-11-01T00:00:00+0000This was prompted by the publication of the recombinant DNA experpiments published by Berg, Jackson and Symons1972-11-01T00:00:00+0000Stanley Cohen and Herbert Boyer publish genetic engineering techniques to cut and paste DNA (using restriction enzymes and ligases) and reproduce the new DNA in bacteria1973-01-01T00:00:00+0000Niels Jerne, Danish immunologist, electrifies research into antibodies with his proposition that within the body there are a vast number of immune responses going on all the time and that antibodies form not only to external antigens but also in response to internal antigens within the body. 1973-01-01T00:00:00+0000Kohler hears Milstein present work on myeloma cellular fusions and asks to join Milstein's team in Cambridge1973-01-01T00:00:00+0000This is achieved by Walter Gilbert and Allan Maxam at Harvard University using a method known as wandering-spot analysis.1973-01-01T00:00:00+0000Waldmann, under the mentorship of Alan Munro, launches research to understand the mechanism behind immune tolerance. 1973-01-01T00:00:00+0000The transplant was carried out by Richard O'Reilly and Robert Good. This lays the foundation for the routine use of bone marrow transplants for treating some blood cancers. Such transplants are classed as immunotherapy because immune cells from the donor kill cancer cells in the recipient. 1973-01-01T00:00:00+0000Milstein and Cotton's create hybrid cell to study allelenic exclusion in antibodies. Reported in R.G.H. Cotton, C. Milstein, 'Fusion of two immunoglobulin-producing myeloma cells', Nature 244 (1973), 42-3. This work lays the foundation for the later development of monoclonal antibodies.1973-07-06T00:00:00+0000Hess was a Swiss physiologist who identified parts of the brain that control internal organs. He used brain stimulation techniques using electrodes to map regions of the brain associated with specific physiological responses. He also found it possible to induce excitement and apathy by stimulating different parts of the hypothalamus. 1973-08-12T00:00:00+0000Waksman was a biochemist and microbiologist. He was the first to coin the term 'antibiotic' and was responsible for the development of many different antibiotics, including streptomycin, used to treat tuberculosis.1973-08-16T00:00:00+00001974-01-01T00:00:00+0000O Stutman, 'Tumor development after 3-methylcholanthrene in immunologically deficient athymic-nude mice', Science, 183 (1974), 534-6.1974-02-08T00:00:00+0000Sutherland was a American pharmacologist and biochemist. He determined how hormones work through the isolation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate. This he demonstrated acts as a second messenger in cells and has an important role in the actions of hormones at the cellular level. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1971 on the back of this work. 1974-03-09T00:00:00+0000The investigation into somatic mutation lays the basis for the hunt for an antibody which has known specificity for particular antigens.1974-06-01T00:00:00+0000Berg, P, Baltimore, D, Boyer, J W, Cohen, S N, et al, 'Biohazards of Recombinant DNA,' Science, 185 (1974): 3034.1974-07-05T00:00:00+0000Asilomar Conference in California declares moratorium on genetic engineering research in order to have time to estimate the biohazard risks of recombinant DNA research and develop guidelines.1975-01-01T00:00:00+0000Cesar Milstein, an Argentinian scientist, and Georges Kohler, a German scientist, develop the first long-lasting monoclonal antibodies as part of their basic research project to investigate the mechanism behind the diversity of antibodies. 1975-01-01T00:00:00+0000Swiss-born immunologist Walter Gerhard cultivates single antibodies with known specificity against influenza viruses using Klinman's splenic fragment technique.1975-01-01T00:00:00+0000The Argentinian born scientists Claudio Cuello and Cesar Milstein generate a monoclonal antibody against substance P, a peptide involved in the neurotransmission of pain. This marks the first application of monoclonal antibodies to neuroscience paving the way to an explosion of research into the brain the central nervous system bringing with it better understandings of neurological disease and neuropharmacological intervention. The work is published in A.C. Cuello, G. Galfre, C. Milstein, 'Detection of substance P in the central nervous system by a monoclonal antibody', Proceedings of the National Academy Science, USA, 76 (1979), 3532-6. 1975-01-01T00:00:00+00001975-01-01T00:00:00+0000The method enables 80 nucleotides to be sequenced in one go. Represents radical new approach which allows direct visual scanning of a sequence. 1975-01-01T00:00:00+0000A.D. Riggs, 'X inactivation, differentiation, and DNA methylation', Cytogenet Cell Genet, 14 (1975), 9–25; R. Sager, R. Kitchin, 'Selective silencing of eukaryotic DNA', Science, 189/4201 (1975), 426-33. 1975-01-01T00:00:00+0000R. Holliday, J.E. Pugh, 'DNA modification mechanisms and gene activity during development', Science, 187 (1975), 226–32.1975-01-01T00:00:00+0000R Kiessling, E Klein, H Pross, H Wigzell, 'Natural” killer cells in the mouse. II. Cytotoxic cells with specificity for mouse Moloney leukemia cells. Characteristics of the killer cell', European Journal of Immunology, 5 (1975), 117-121.1975-02-01T00:00:00+0000M Jondal, H Pross, 'Surface markers on human B and T lymphocytes, Cytotoxicity against cell lines as a functional marker for lymphocyte subpopulations', International Journal of Cancer, 15 (1975) 15, 596-605. 1975-04-15T00:00:00+0000Julian was a chemist who was a renowned pioneer of pharmacological synthesis. He was the first African-American granted a doctoral degree in chemistry and the first to be inducted into the National Academy of Sciences. In 1935 he achieved the first synthesis of physostigmine. This he produced from soybean oil. The drug is used to treat glaucoma and delayed gastric emptying. A year later he joined the Gidden Company in Chicago where he oversaw the development of the industrial large-scale chemical synthesis of the human sex hormones progesterone, oestrogen and testosterone from soybean plant sterols. This work laid the foundation for the industrial production of cortisone, other corticosteroids, and the oral contraceptive pill. Julian left Gidden in 1953 to found his own company, Julian Laboratories Inc.1975-04-19T00:00:00+0000GT Stevenson, F K Stevenson, 'Antibody to a molecularly defined antigen confined to a tumour cell surface', Nature, 254 (1975), 714-16.1975-04-24T00:00:00+0000The marker was found by George and Freda Stevenson, a husband and wife team at the Tenovus Research Laboratory, Southampton University. This they found during investigations of leukaemia in guinea-pigs. They called the marker 'idiotype' because it was identical on every tumour cells but different for every other normal B lymphocytes. Their findings paved the way to development of cancer immunotherapy. The work was published in G T Stevenson, F K Stevenson, 'Antibody to a molecularly-defined antigen confined to a tumour cell surface', Nature, 254 (1975), 714-16. 1975-04-25T00:00:00+0000Cesar Milstein, with the help of Tony Vickers, submits the monoclonal antibody technique to the British National Development Corporation for patenting,1975-08-07T00:00:00+0000G. Kohler, C. Milstein, 'Continuous cultures of fused cells secreting antibody of predefined specificity', Nature 256 (1975), 495-7. Article highlighted that monoclonal antibodies could be invaluable for medical and industrial purposes. By 1993 the paper had been cited in more than 6,905 publications.1975-08-07T00:00:00+0000EA Carswell, LJ Old, RL Kassel, S Green, N Fiore, B Williamson, 'An endotoxin-induced serum factor that causes necrosis of tumors', Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 72/9 (1975), 3666-70.1975-09-01T00:00:00+0000Tatum shared the 1958 Nobel Prize for Medicine for discovering how genes regulate biochemical events in cells. 1975-11-05T00:00:00+0000The experiments use antibodies generated by in sheep with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia cells taken from humans. The research is carried out by Freda and George Stevenson at the Tenovus Research Laboratory, Southampton University.1976-01-01T00:00:00+0000Robert Swanson, venture capitalist and Herbert Boyer, American biochemist, establish Genentech in San Francisco. It is the first biotechnology company established specifically dedicated to commercialising recombinant DNA. Its founding marks the start of what is to become a burgeoning biotechnology industry. 1976-04-01T00:00:00+0000Dam was a biochemist and physiologist who shared the 1943 Nobel Prize for Medicine for the discovery of vitamin K, which he established was important for blood-clotting. He made the discovery based on experiments during which he noticed that chickens fed with a cholesterol-free diet developed haemorrhages and started bleeding. Unable to rectify the problem by adding cholesterol to the diet, Dam found that a second compound- vitamin K - was responsible.1976-04-17T00:00:00+0000Monod was a French biochemist who together with Francois Jacob worked out the genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis based on their experiments with Escherichia coli in the early 1960s. They proposed that a messenger molecule in cells carried codes from the DNA in the cell nucleus to the site of protein synthesis in the cell's cytoplasm. This messenger was later called messenger RNA. Based on his work Monrod was awarded a Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1965. 1976-05-31T00:00:00+0000T. Maniathis, S. GekKee, A. Efstratiadis, F.C.Kafatos, ‘Amplification and characterization of a beta\r\n-globin gene synthesized in vitro’, Cell, 8/2 (June 1976), 163-82.1976-06-01T00:00:00+0000Koprowski uses myeloma cells from Milstein's laboratory to generate monoclonal antibodies against tumour antigens. This work forms the basis of the first patent later awarded for monoclonal antibodies.1976-09-01T00:00:00+0000DA Morgan, FW Ruscetti, RC. Gallo, 'Selective in vitro growth of T lymphocytes from normal human bone marrows', Science, 193 (1976), 1007-08. 1976-09-10T00:00:00+0000The British National Research Development Corporation executives indicate that they will not pursue a patent the technique for producing monoclonal antibodies because they cannot see what diagnostic application it can be used for or any industrial end-products.1976-10-01T00:00:00+0000A Russian biologist, Lysenko rejected the priniciples of Mendelian genetics based on Lemark's theory which sees inheritance as governed by the environment. His leadership of Soviet agriculture and biology under Stalin set back Russian biology by decades. 1976-11-20T00:00:00+0000Wigler, A, Silverstein, S, Lee, L, Cheng, Y, Axel, R, 'Transfer of purified Herpes Virus thymidine kinase gene to cultured mouse cells', Cell, 11 (1977), 223-32.1976-12-01T00:00:00+0000American geneticist and biochemist, Leonard Herzenberg and Argentinian biochemist, Cesar Milstein, devise monoclonal antibodies for use on an automatic fluorescence-activated cell sorter, FACS. This improves the reliability of the FACS allowing the instrument to go on to become a major tool not only for cell sorting and cellular biology but the diagnosis of disease. The work is done in collaboration with the American geneticist and immunologist Leonore Herzenberg and Vernon Oi, then a graduate student in genetics at Stanford University. 1977-01-01T00:00:00+0000First long-term clinical study of bone marrow transplants in over 100 terminally ill acute leukaemia patients in whom chemotherapy was of no further use reports the survival of thirteen patients. This marks a breakthrough in leukaemia therapy, and sets the scene for the use of bone marrow transplants as a routine therapeutic option for some patients with some forms of acute leukaemia.1977-01-01T00:00:00+0000This is found to contain 5,385 nucleotides. It is the first DNA based organism to have its complete genome sequenced. Sanger and his team use the plus and minus technique to determine the sequence. 1977-01-01T00:00:00+0000Duncan McCallum, a business computer programmer in Cambridge writes the first computer programme for DNA sequencing. This is used by Sanger's sequencing group at the MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology. 1977-01-01T00:00:00+0000Two separate teams, one led by Fred Sanger at the MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, UK, and one composed of Allan Maxam, and Walter Gilbert at Harvard University publish two different methods for sequencing DNA. The first, known as the Sanger Method, or dideoxy sequencing, involves the breaking down and then building up of DNA sequences. The second, the Maxam-Gilbert method, involves the partial chemical modification of nucleotides in DNA. 1977-02-01T00:00:00+0000Cesar Milstein and David Murray from Sera-Lab agree partner to commercially distribute cells for producing monoclonal antibodies to meet the worldwide requests flooding into Milstein's laboratory for access to such cells. 1977-02-01T00:00:00+0000JH Robinson, JJT Owen, 'Generation of T-cell function in organ culture of foetal mouse thymus I. Mitogen responsiveness', Clin Exp Immunol 23 (1977), 347-54.1977-02-01T00:00:00+0000AW Burghess, J Camakaris, D Metcalf, 'Purification and properties of colony-stimulating factor from mouse lung conditioned medium', Journal Biol Chem, 252 (1977), 1998-2003.1977-03-25T00:00:00+0000Together with Australian immunologist, the Argentinian biochemist Cesar Milstein and Italian biochemist Giovanni Galfre develop monoclonal antibodies against rat histocompatibility antigens. This research demonstrates the practical applications of monoclonal antibodies for the first time, opening the way to their use for tissue typing for organ transplants. he work is published as A. F. Williams, G. Galfre, C. Milstein, 'Analysis of Cell Surfaces by Xenogeneic Myeloma-Hybrid Antibodies Differentiation Antigens of Rat Lymphocytes', Cell 12 (Nov 1977), 663-73. This paper would go on to cited in more than 1,490 publications by 1993. 1977-04-01T00:00:00+0000FK Stevenson, E V elliott, G T Stevenson, 'Some effects of leukaemic B lymphocytes of antibodies to defined regions of their surface immunoglobulin', Immunology 3 (1977), 54-9.1977-04-01T00:00:00+0000Hilary Koprowski, Polish born virologist and Carlo Croce, Italian born geneticist, both based at the Wistar Institute, file for the first US patent for monoclonal antibodies. The antibodies are made against viral antigens using cells supplied from Milstein's laboratory in September 1976. 1977-06-01T00:00:00+0000FW Ruscetti, DA Morgan, RC Gallo, 'Functional and morphologic characterization of human T cells continuously grown in vitro', Jounral Immunology, 119 (1977), 131-8.1977-07-01T00:00:00+0000Fieser was an organic chemist. He won many research awards for his work on blood-clotting agents, including for the synthesis of vitamin K, which he achieved in 1939 and for which he was nominated as a contender for the Nobel Prize in 1941 and 1942 (when no prizes were awarded). His work on steroids also laid the foundation for the synthesis of cortisone. In addition he helped develop quinones as antimalarial drugs. Fieser had two chemical reagents named after him. He is also famous for the creation of napalm, a flammable liquid he developed during World War II, which was controversially used as an incendiary device in the Vietnam war.1977-07-25T00:00:00+0000Argentinian biochemist Cesar Milstein, Italian biochemist Giovanni Galfre, and Australian scientist Alan Williams publish technique for the development of monoclonal antibodies against unknown rat cell surface antigens, predicting it will be possible to make monoclonals against any sort of cell surface molecule. The publication marks the beginning of the major use of monoclonals for understanding cellular function and disease. The article is published as A.F. Williams, G. Galfre and C. Milstein, 'Analysis of cell surfaces by xenogeneic myeloma-hybrid antibodies: Differentiation antigens of rat lymphocytes', Cell, 12/3 (1 Nov 1977), 663-73.1977-11-01T00:00:00+0000Ivor Royston, British-American onclologist together with American scientist Howard Birndorf set up Hybritech in San Diego. Hybritech is the first American company established to commercialise monoclonal antibodies for medical diagnostics and therapeutics. 1978-01-01T00:00:00+0000Argentinian biochemist Cesar Milstein and British immunologist Andrew McMichael produce the first monoclonal antibodies that target human T-cells. This lays the foundation for new understandings of the immune responses and disease. While initially rejected for publication, this work is published in A.J. McMichael, J.R. Pitch, J.W. Fabre, David Y. Mason, G. Galfre, 'A human thymocyte antigen defined by a hybrid myeloma monoclonal antibody', European Journal of Immunology, 9/3 (March 1979), 205-210. 1978-01-01T00:00:00+0000Cesar Milstein and Alan Williams generate a monoclonal antibody that targets blood group A cells. 1978-01-01T00:00:00+00001978-01-01T00:00:00+0000Waldmann joins the Laboratory of Molecular Biology to learn how to produce monoclonal antibodies.1978-01-01T00:00:00+0000Sera-Lab, a British company specialising in antiserum, issues its first catalogue advertising monoclonal antibody cells from Milstein's laboratory. It represents the first commercialisation of monoclonal antibodies. 1978-02-01T00:00:00+0000An American-Canadian physiologist, Best is best known as the medical student who helped Frederick Banting discover insulin, a pancreatic hormone, which laid the foundation for the effective treatment of diabetes. In 1923 he was jointly awarded the Nobel Prize for the discovery. 1978-03-31T00:00:00+0000Hinden, A, Hicks, J B, Fink, G R, 'Transformation of yeast', PNAS, 75/4 (1978), 1929-33.1978-04-01T00:00:00+0000Awarded to Werner Arber, Daniel Nathans and Hamilton O Smith.1978-10-01T00:00:00+0000MJ Berendt, RJ North, DP, Kirstein, 'The immunological basis of endotoxin-induced tumor regression: requirement for T-cell-mediated immunity', J Exp Med, 148 (1978), 1550-9. 1978-12-01T00:00:00+0000du Vigneaud was an American biochemist whose research focused on sulfur, proteins and peptides. In late 1940s he helped isolate and synthesise two pituitary hormones: vasopressin and oxytocin. Vasopressin is an antidiurtic hormone that helps protect cells from sudden increases or decreases in water which can affect the cell's function. Oxytocin is a neurohormone that helps contract the uterus during labour and stimulate the secretion of milk during lactation. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1955 for this work. Prior to this, in the 1930s, he helped identify the chemical structure of insulin and worked out the structure of biotin, a sulfur-bearing vitamin.1978-12-11T00:00:00+0000Work begins on the development of an anti-T-cell monoclonal antibody that can fix human complement to be used as a tool to prevent graft-versus-host disease in patients receiving bone marrow transplants. 1979-01-01T00:00:00+0000Six groups of investigators working independently from each other made the discovery. Those involved in the work included Lionel Crawford and David Lane; Albert Deleo and Lloyd Old; and Arnold Levine. 1979-01-01T00:00:00+00001979-01-01T00:00:00+0000Hilary Koprowski, Polish-born virologist and director of the Wistar Institute, together with American entrepreneur Michael Wall establish Centocor with Dutch-born biochemist Hubert Schoemaker and American scientist Ted Allen. Located in Philadelphia, Centocor is the second American company established to commercialise monoclonal antibodies for medical diagnostics and therapeutics.1979-05-01T00:00:00+0000Woodward as an organic chemist who won the 1965 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for opening up the field of artificial synthesis. He first made his mark in the early 1940s by demonstrating the application of ultraviolet spectroscopy for elucidating the structure of natural products. His method helped reduce the long and extremely tedious steps previously used to decipher the chemical structures of such products. In 1944 he and his postdoctoral researcher, William von Eggers Doering reported the successful synthesis of quinine, an organic compound used for the treatment for malaria. He went on to synthesis other organic compounds like cholesterol, cortisone, strychnine, and chlorophyll.1979-07-08T00:00:00+0000Lynen was a German biochemist who was director of the Max Plank Institute for Cellular Chemistry. He is best known for having helped determine the chemical mechanism for the production and regulation of cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism. In 1964 he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine for this work. His findings opened the pathway to understanding the role of cholesterol in heart disease and stroke. 1979-08-06T00:00:00+0000Chain was a German-English biochemist who helped isolate and purify pencilin used in the first clinical trials of the drug.1979-08-12T00:00:00+0000Hilary Koprowski, Polish-born virologist, and colleagues granted US patent for monoclonal antibodies against tumour antigens (US Patent 4,172,124). The patent helps in the building of Centocor, the second American biotechnology set up to commercialise monoclonal antibodies. It also causes a major political controversy in Britain as the patent makes broad claims, essentially patenting the technique first developed by Cesar Milstein and George Kohler in 1975.1979-10-01T00:00:00+0000The American scientists Stanley Cohen and Herbet Boyer are awarded the first US patent for gene cloning.1980-01-01T00:00:00+0000The British scientist, David Secher, based at the Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Cambridge, together with Derek Burke, a British scientist at Warwick University, create the first monoclonal antibody suitable for purifying interferon. This lays the foundation for the use of monoclonal antibodies as tools for the purification of human therapeutic proteins and other natural compounds.1980-01-01T00:00:00+0000The identity of the blood stem cell, especially that in the human, and even its existence remains the subject of debate because the cell is difficult to isolate. Those involved in the debate include the Manchester group (Dexter, Lord) and American groups (Weissmann and Morrison). Part of the problem is that techniques for studying the human blood stem cell lagged behind that of animal models. 1980-01-01T00:00:00+0000Milstein suggests at a Wellcome Foundation lecture that by using genetic engineering scientists might be able to design tailor-made monoclonal antibodies that mimic antibodies made by the human body. This would free them up from a dependence on rodents for producing monoclonal antibodies. He publishes the idea in C. Milstein, 'Monoclonal antibodies from hybrid myelomas: Wellcome Foundation Lecture 1980', Proceedings Royal Society of London, 211 (1981), 393-412.1980-01-01T00:00:00+0000Referred to as Campath-1 (CAMbridge Pathology) family of antibodies, these are the first set of monoclonal antibodies against human lymphocytes derived from a rat. 1980-01-01T00:00:00+0000Treatment given by Martin Cline to one patient in Israel and one in Italy. Cline criticised for failing to get secure permission from his Institutional Review Board at his home university - the University of California Los Angeles - and for not having sufficient animal data to show his method worked. 1980-01-01T00:00:00+0000Prize shared with Walter Gilbert. Awarded on the basis of their 'contributions concerning the determination of base sequences in nucleic acids.' 1980-01-01T00:00:00+0000Waldmann is granted a programme grant to investigate the immunobiology of bone marrow transplantation.1980-01-01T00:00:00+0000The vaccine was developed by Stanley Plotkin, Hilary Koprowski and Tadeusz Wiktor at the Wistar Institute1980-01-01T00:00:00+0000It was one of the largest tracts of eukaryotic DNA sequenced up this time. The work was published in E Soeda, JR Arrand, N Smolar, JE Walsh, BE Griffin, ‘Coding potential and regulatory signals of the polyoma virus genome’, Nature, 283 (1980) 445-53.1980-01-01T00:00:00+0000Stein shared the 1972 Nobel Prize for contributing to understanding the 'connection between chemical structure and catalytic activity of the active centre of the ribonuclease molecule.'1980-02-02T00:00:00+0000Spinks Report on Biotechnology points finger at Cesar Milstein and his colleagues for not attempting to patent the technique for producing monoclonal antibodies.1980-07-03T00:00:00+0000The call followed an investigation undertaken by Bernice Sandler into sexual harassment of students in higher education institutions. She was an American women's rights activist who was instrumental in getting Title IX passed, a US Law that prevented any education programme receiving Federal financial assistance discriminating on the basis of sex. 1980-08-01T00:00:00+0000Shankman, a Canadian born pathologist, was the first to describe how a healthy cell changes into a cancerous cell. Her work helped transform cervical cancer into an easily diagnosed and treatable condition. She also demonstrated the links between the herpes simplex virus and cervical cancer and between cervical cancer and the oral contraceptive pill.1980-08-18T00:00:00+0000Gordon, J W, Scangos, G A, Plotkin, D J, Barbosa, J A, Ruddle, F H, 'Genetic transformation of mouse embryos by microinjection of purified DNA', PNAS USA 77 (1980), 7380–4.1980-09-01T00:00:00+0000Database was started by Margaret Dayhoff at the NBRF in the mid 1960s and comprised over 200,000 residues. Within a month of its operation more than 100 scientists had requested access to the database. The database was funded with contributions from m Genex, Merck, Eli Lilly, DuPont, Hoffman–La Roche, and Upjohn, and computer time donated by Pfizer Medical Systems.1980-09-15T00:00:00+0000M Capecchi, 'High efficiency transformation by direct microinjection of DNA into cultured mammalian cells', Cell, 22/2 (1980), 479-88.1980-11-01T00:00:00+0000Tests begin with 17-1A, also known as edrecolomab, a monoclonal antibody developed at the Wistar Institute. 1980-12-01T00:00:00+0000Argentinian scientists Cesar Milstein and Claudio Cuello demonstrate the feasibility of monoclonal antibodies for use in radioimmunoassay.1981-01-01T00:00:00+00001981-01-01T00:00:00+0000Philip Karr, a patient with lymphoma, is treated by Ron Levy at Stanford University with a customised monoclonal antibody. It marks the first time a monoclonal antibody successfully treats cancer in a patient.1981-01-01T00:00:00+00001981-01-01T00:00:00+0000A German biophysicist, Delbruck helped discover how viruses replicate their genetic structure, showing that bacterial resistance from viruses is due to random mutation and not the result of adaptive changes. In 1969 he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine on the back of this work. 1981-03-09T00:00:00+0000S.J. Compere, R.D. Palmiter, 'DNA methylation controls the inducibility of the mouse metallothionein-I gene lymphoid cells', Cell, 25 (1981), 233–240. 1981-07-01T00:00:00+0000MJ Evans, MH Kaufman, 'Establishment in culture of pluripotential cells from mouse embryos', Nature, 292/154 (1981), 154-56.1981-07-09T00:00:00+0000The work opened up the possibility of sequencing the virus. It was published in J R Arrand, L. Rymo, J E Walsh, E Bjorck, T Lindahl and B E Griffin, ‘Molecular cloning of the complete Epstein-Barr virus genome as a set of overlapping restriction endonuclease fragments’, Nucleic Acids Research, 9/13 (1981), 2999-2014.1981-07-10T00:00:00+0000Orr-Weaver, T L, Szostak, J W, Rothstein, R J, 'Yeast transformation: A model system for the study of recombination', PNAS, 78/10 (1981), 6353-8.1981-10-01T00:00:00+0000Costantini, F, Lacy, E, 'Introduction of a rabbit b-globin gene into the mouse germ line', Nature, 294 (1981), 92–4.1981-11-05T00:00:00+0000Krebs was a biochemist who discovered a series of chemical reactions in the cell that breaks down food molecules into carbon dioxide, water and energy. This is known as the Krebs cycle. 1981-11-22T00:00:00+0000Held in Paris, the international workshop on human differentiation helped formulate a system for classifying monoclonals and bring out standardisation. Importantly it established a system based on identifying monoclonals found clustered around specific antigens. This laid the foundation for the CD nomeclature which has become a univeral tool for scientists to share and exchange knowledge about immune responses and disease. 1982-01-01T00:00:00+0000Encouraged by Cesar Milstein, collaborative research undertaken by Steven Sacks, Edwin Lennox and Douglas Voak produces monoclonal antibodies suitable for patenting and commercialisation for routine blood typing. 1982-01-01T00:00:00+0000Work commences on the cancer stem cell theory as an explanation for leukaemia, and as an explanation for remission in this form of cancer. 1982-01-01T00:00:00+0000The man treated is suffering from non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. While unable to prevent the death of the patient, the trial shows Campath-1M to be effective at depleting T-cells and well-tolerated.1982-01-01T00:00:00+0000The woman's bone marrow recovers after treatment. Treatment is halted after it is shown that the woman's bone marrow has been reconstituted by her own stem cells rather than those of her donor. 1982-01-01T00:00:00+0000The aim of the experiment was to see if it was possible to replace a mutant human beta globin gene with a normal human beta globin gene in a human genome. The mutant human globin gene is known to cause sickle cell anaemia, the first disease linked to a single gene which commonly affects people of African descent. The experiment was conducted by Oliver Smithies who adapted a gene-rescuing procedure developed by Mitchell Goldfarb and colleagues. It proved successful and was the first time any scientist had shown it possible to modify a single gene in a genome as large as that of humans or other mammals. Scientists had already demonstrated it was possible to do in yeast which had a genome of less than one hundredth the size. 1982-04-22T00:00:00+0000EA Grimm, A Mazumder, HZ Zhang, SA Rosenberg, 'Lymphokine-activated killer cell phenomenon', Journal Experimental Medicine, 155 (1982), 1823-41.1982-06-01T00:00:00+0000Theorell won the 1955 Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'discoveries concerning the nature and mode of action of oxidation enzymes.'1982-08-15T00:00:00+0000JP Allison, BW McIntyre, D Bloch, 'Tumor-specific antigen of murine T-lymphoma defined with monoclonal antibody', Journal Immunology, 129 (1982), 2293.1982-11-01T00:00:00+00001982-12-01T00:00:00+0000A N Houghton, M Eisinger, A P Albino, J G Cairncross, L J Old, 'Surface antigens of melanocytes and melanomas. Markers of melanocyte differentiation and melanoma subsets', Journal Experimental Medicine, 156/6 (1982), 1755-66.1982-12-01T00:00:00+0000Argentinian scientists Cesar Milstein and Claudio Cuello demonstrate the feasibility of creating bispecific monoclonal antibodies for use in immunohistochemistry, but application for patent, filed in 1983, is abandoned as result of prior patent promoting theory of such a technique. 1983-01-01T00:00:00+0000The course is started at Cold Harbour Laboratory together with collaborators from other centres.1983-01-01T00:00:00+0000Testing is undertaken as part of a collaboration between Waldmann and Shimon Slavin at Haddasah Hospital, Jerusalem. Results are promising but two patients reject their transplants, so Waldmann and his team take a break from testing.1983-01-01T00:00:00+0000The aim is to generate Campath monoclonal antibodies that can be infused directly into patients. 1983-01-01T00:00:00+00001983-01-01T00:00:00+0000M Oren, A J Levine, 'Molecular cloning of a cDNA specific for the murine p53 cellular tumor antigen', PNAS, 80 (1983), 56–9. 1983-01-01T00:00:00+0000LV Crawford, DC Pim, EG Gurney, P Goodfellow, J Taylor-Papaidmitriou,'The 53,000-dalton cellular protein and its role in transformation', International Review of Experimental Pathology, 25 (1983) 1-50. 1983-01-01T00:00:00+0000A.P. Feinberg, B. Vogelstein, 'Hypomethylation distinguishes genes of some human cancers from their normal counterparts', Nature, 301/5895 (1983), 89-92.1983-01-06T00:00:00+0000Speigelman developed the nucleic acid hybridization technique that enables specific DNA and RNA strands to be removed from cells and is the foundation of present day recombinant DNA technology. 1983-01-20T00:00:00+0000Dayhoff is known as the founder of bioinformatics. This she did by pioneering the application of mathematics and computational techniques to the sequencing of proteins and nucleic acids and establishing the first publicly available database for research in the area. 1983-02-05T00:00:00+0000GC Bosma, RP Custer, MJ Bosma, 'A severe combined immunodeficiency mutation in the mouse', Nature, 301 (1983), 527-30. 1983-02-10T00:00:00+0000Von Euler was a Swedish physiologist and pharmacologist best known for working out the distribution and fate of noradrenaline in biological tissues and the nervous system. In 1970 he shared the Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'discoveries concerning the humoral transmittors in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release and inactivation.'1983-03-09T00:00:00+0000T Taniguchi et al, 'Structure and expression of a cloned cDNA for human interleukin-2', Nature, 302 (1983), 305-10.1983-03-24T00:00:00+0000Kary Mullis, an American biochemist based at Cetus, proposed an alternative method to Sanger's DNA sequencing method to analyse Sickle cell Anaemia mutation which laid the foundation for the development of the PCR technique. 1983-05-01T00:00:00+0000Murine leukaemia retrovirus genetically modified to produce the vector. R. Mann, R.C. Milligam, D. Baltimore, ‘Construction of a Retrovirus Packaging Mutant and Its Use to Produce Helper-Free Defective Retrovirus’, Cell, 33/1 (1983), 153-59.1983-05-01T00:00:00+0000Claude was a Belgian physician and cell biologist. In 1930 he developed the process of cell fractionation which involves grinding up cells to break up the membrane and their contents. The material is then placed in a centrifuge to separate out the cells's components. With the technique he was able to identify and purify the RNA from the Rous sarcoma virus which causes cancer in chickens. Claude was also one of the first to use of the electron microscope to study biological cells, which enabled him to discover that ribosomes are the power houses of all cells. In addition he helped show that all eukaryotic cells have a lace-work structure. In 1974 he shared the Nobel Prize for Medicine for discoveries concerning cell structure and function.1983-05-22T00:00:00+0000M Durst, L Gissmann, H Ikenberg, H zur Hausen, 'A papillomavirus DNA from a cervical carcinoma and its prevalence in cancer biopsy samples from different geographic regions', Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 80 (1983), 3812-15.1983-06-01T00:00:00+0000G. Hale et al, 'Removal of T cells from bone marrow for transplantation: a monoclonal antilymphocyte antibody that fixes human complement', Blood, 62, (1983), 873-82.1983-10-25T00:00:00+0000J Kappler et al, 'The major histocompatibility complex-restricted antigen receptor on T cells in mouse and man', Cell, 35 (1983), 295-02. 1983-11-01T00:00:00+0000C Czerkinsky, L Nilsson, H Nygren, O Ouchterlony, A Tarkowski, 'A solid-phase enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay for enumeration of specific antibody-secreting cells', Journal of Immunology Methods, 65/1-2 (1983), 109-21.1983-12-16T00:00:00+0000Identified by Curt Civin and his team at Johns Hopkins, the subset of cells bearing the CD34 (surface) marker is shown also to contain other kinds of cell. The research shows that the blood stem cell can be enriched for, but not purified. The advance proves useful in the clinical setting where enrichment for the CD34 cell can aid faster recovery of the blood system in patients undergoing chemotherapy and/or bone marrow transplants for serious blood disorders. 1984-01-01T00:00:00+0000Two independent teams demonstrate the phenomenon: Jonathan Izzant and Harold Weintraub; John Rubenstein and Jean-Francoise Nicolas.1984-01-01T00:00:00+0000Smithies, O, Koralewski, M A, Song, K Y, Kucherlapati, R S, 'Homologous recombination with DNA introduced into mammalian cells', Cold Spring Harbor symposia on quantitative biology, 49 (1984), 161-70.1984-01-01T00:00:00+0000SA Rosenberg, 'Adoptive immunotherapy of cancer: accomplishments and prospects', Cancer Treat Rep, 68/1 ( (1984): 233–55.1984-01-01T00:00:00+0000D Wolf, V Rotter, 'Inactivation of p53 gene expression by an insertion of Moloney murine leukemia virus-like DNA sequences', Mol Cell Biol, 4 (1984), 1402–10. 1984-01-01T00:00:00+0000G Matlashewski, et al, 'Isolation and characterization of a human p53 cDNA clone: expression of the human p53 gene', EMBO Journal, 3 (1984), 3257–62.1984-01-01T00:00:00+0000The transfer of an embryo from one human to another was carried out by John Buster at UCLA Medical Center. 1984-02-03T00:00:00+0000Mullis reports on his production of olgionucleotides and some results from his experiments with PCR to Cetus Corporation's annual meeting but few show any interest. 1984-06-01T00:00:00+0000A Knuth, B Danowski, HF Oettgen, LJ Old, 'T cell-mediated cytotoxicity against malignant melanoma', Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 81 (1984), 3511-15. 1984-06-01T00:00:00+0000The first genetic fingerprint was discovered by accident by Alec Jeffrey when conducting experiments to look at how genetic variations evolved. 1984-09-10T00:00:00+0000Two teams of scientists publish methods for the generation of chimeric monoclonal antibodies, that is antibodies possessing genes that are half-human and half mouse. Each team had developed their techniques separate from each other. The first team was lead by Michael Neuberger together with Terence Rabbitts and other colleagues at the Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge. The second team consisted of Sherie Morrison and colleagues at Stanford University together with Gabrielle Boulianne and others at the University of Toronto. 1984-12-01T00:00:00+0000Susumu Tonegawa, Japanese scientist, identifies immunoglobulin genes1985-01-01T00:00:00+0000The American scientist George Smith develops a method using bacteriophages for studying protein-protein, protein-peptide and protein-DNA interaction. Today phage display is a major tool for drug discovery.1985-01-01T00:00:00+0000The suggestion involves the insertion of gene segments from a human antibody into the DNA of early mouse embryos. It is put forward by scientists at Columbia University, this idea is published in FW. Alt, TK. Blackwell, GD. Yancopoulos, 'Immunoglobulin genes in transgenic mice', Trends Genetics, 1 (1985), 231–6.1985-01-01T00:00:00+0000The patient is being cared for by Martin Dyer and Frank Hayhoe. He is suffering from chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). Although the patient died shortly after treatment from his underlying disease, the result from the testing is promising. 1985-01-01T00:00:00+0000Campath-1G is seen as a possible means to reduce immunosuppressive drugs. Fears about the toxicity of the drug prevent work going any further. 1985-01-01T00:00:00+0000These are created with the objective of studying self-tolerance. 1985-01-01T00:00:00+0000Miller, J, McLachlan, A D, Klug, A, 'Repetitive zinc-binding domains in the protein transcription factor IIIA from Xenopus oocytes', EMBO Journal, 4 (1985), 1609-14.1985-01-01T00:00:00+0000PJ Maddon et al, Cell, 42 (1985), 93-104; Littman et al, Cell, 40 (1985), 237-46. 1985-01-01T00:00:00+0000A. Bird, M. Taggart, M. Frommer, O.J. Miller, D. Macleod, ‘A fraction of the mouse genome that is derived from islands of nonmethylated, CpG-rich DNA’, Cell, 40/1 (1985 Jan;40(1):91-9. 1985-01-01T00:00:00+0000The application establishes polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as a method for amplifying DNA in vitro. PCR uses heat and enzymes to make unlimited copies of genes and gene fragments. The application is broad and is based on analysis of Sickle Cell Anaemia mutation via PCR and Oligomer restriction. 1985-03-01T00:00:00+0000This was developed by the British geneticist Jeffreys. He developed the technique as part of his efforts to trace genes through family lineages. It was based on his discovery that each individual had unique numbers of repeated DNA fragments, called restriction fragment length polymorphisms, in their cells. The principle was described in A J Jeffreys, V Wilson, S L Thein, 'Hypervariable 'minisatellite' regions in human DNA', Nature, 314 (1985), 67-73. 1985-03-07T00:00:00+0000Undertaken to prove maternity of a 15 year old boy threatened with deportation to Ghana by the UK Home Office because of doubts over the identity of his mother, an immigrant based in the UK. The test proved the boy was related to his mother. Without the test the mother and son would not have been able to remain together in the same country. 1985-05-17T00:00:00+0000An Australian virologist and physician, MacFarlane Burnet is most well known for his discovery of acquired immunological tolerance and demonstrating how the body recognises the difference between self and non-self. His work helped advance the development of vaccines, tissue transplantation, monoclonal antibodies and associated therapies. 1985-08-31T00:00:00+0000An English biochemist, Porter helped determine the chemical structure of antibodies. 1985-09-07T00:00:00+0000An American microbiologist, Enders shared the 1954 Nobel Prize for helping to develop a technique to grow the poliomyeltitis virus, paving the way to a vaccine against polio. 1985-09-08T00:00:00+0000Smithies, O, Gregg, R G, Boggs, S S, Koralewski, M A, Kucherlapati, R S, 'Insertion of DNA sequences into the human chromosomal beta-globin locus by homologous recombination', Nature, 317 (1985): 230-34.1985-09-19T00:00:00+0000Rose was an American biochemist and nutrition. He isolated the amino acid threonine in 1932 and demonstrated in rats that a diet that lacked the amino acid stunted their growth. By 1949 he had established that ten amino acids were vital to human health: histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan and valine. Based on this work he was appointed to the US Food and Nutrition Board of the National Research Council which drew up dietary recommendations. 1985-09-25T00:00:00+0000Jasin, M, de Villiers, J, Weber, F, Schaffner, W, 'High frequency of homologous recombination in mammalian cells', Cell, 43/3 part 2 (1985), 695-703.1985-12-01T00:00:00+0000SA Rosenberg et al, 'Observations on the systemic administration of autologous lymphokine-activated killer cells and recombinant interleukin-2 to patients with metastatic cancer', New England Journal of Medicine, 313 (1985), 1485-92.1985-12-05T00:00:00+0000JM Adams, AW Harris, CA Pinkert, LM Corcoran, WS Alexander, S Cory, RD Palmiter, RL, Brinster, 'The c-myc oncogene driven by immunoglobulin enhancers induces lymphoid malignancy in transgenic mice', Nature, 318 (1985), 533-38.1985-12-12T00:00:00+0000The technique enabled the amplification of small fragments of DNA on a large scale. It was published in RK Saiki et al, Enzymatic Amplification of beta-globin Genomic Sequences and Restriction Site Analysis for Diagnosis of Sickle Cell Anemia, Science, 230 (1985), 1350-54.1985-12-20T00:00:00+0000Leroy Hood and colleagues at the California Institute of Technology together with a team including Lloyd Smith and Michael and Tim Hunkapiller, develop the first automated DNA sequencing machine. The machine is commercialised by Applied Biosystems. 1986-01-01T00:00:00+0000Injections of a gene for pigment coloration in peturnias unexpectedly results in white flowers instead of purple flowers. US plant geneticists carrying out the experiment, Richard Jorgensen and Carolyn Napoli, call the phenomenenon 'cosuppression'.1986-01-01T00:00:00+0000Thomas, K R, Folger, K R, Capecchi, M R, 'High frequency targeting of genes to specific sites in the mammalian genome,' Cell, 44 (1986), 419–28. 1986-02-14T00:00:00+0000Biologists gathered at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory laid out the first plans for mapping and sequencing the human genome. Among those attending were Walter Gilbert, James Watson and Paul Berg. Many scientists were highly sceptical that such a project was feasible because of the large size of the genome and the time and costs involved. Up to this point scientists had only managed to sequence some viral DNAs which had 100,000 DNA base pairs. The human genome was 10,000 bigger in size. 1986-04-30T00:00:00+0000Greg Winter together with other colleagues from the Laboratory Molecular Biology demonstrate the feasibility of building a new more human-like monoclonal antibody by grafting on to the humab antibody portions of a variable region from a mouse antibody. This reduced the mouse component of the monoclonal antibody to just 5%, making the monoclonal antibody safer and more effective for use in humans. The technique was published in PT Jones, PH Dear, J Foote, MS Neuberger, G Winter, 'Replacing the complementarity-determining regions in a mouse antibody with those from a mouse', Nature, 321 (29 May 1986), 522-5.1986-05-01T00:00:00+0000Orthoclone OKT3, developed by Ortho Pharm, was approved as an immunosuppressant drug to reduce acute rejection in patients with kidney transplants. It is a mouse-derived (murine) monoclonal antibody (Muromonab-CD3) that targets a membrane protein on the surface of T cells.1986-06-19T00:00:00+0000Lipmann shared the 1953 Nobel Prize for Medicine for the discovery of coenzyme A and its role in nutrition.1986-07-24T00:00:00+0000S.A. Rosenberg, P. Spiess, R. Lafreniere, 'A New Approach to the Adoptive Immunotherapy of Cancer with Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes', Science, 233/4770 (1996), 1318-21.1986-09-19T00:00:00+0000An Austrian biochemist, Albert Szent-Gyorgyi was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1937 for his discoveries of vitamin C work on the biochemistry of respiration and his discovery of vitamin C and the components and reactions of the citric acid cycle.1986-10-22T00:00:00+0000MT Lotze, AE Chang, CA Seipp, C Simpson, JT Vetto, AS Rosenberg, 'High-dose recombinant interleukin 2 in the treatment of patients with disseminated cancer', JAMA, 256 (1986), 3117-24. 1986-12-12T00:00:00+0000Benesch was a biochemist who co-discovered how haemoglobin transports oxygen during respiration. 1986-12-30T00:00:00+00001987-01-01T00:00:00+0000The research was led by Thierry Boon and Etienne De Plaen at the Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Belgium1987-01-01T00:00:00+0000J. F. Brunet, J. Denizot, M-F. LLuciani, M. Roux-Dosseto, M. Suzan, M-G. Matte, P. Golstein, 'A new member of the immunoglobulin super- family–CTLA-4', Nature, 328 (1987), 267-70. 1987-01-01T00:00:00+0000The clones were isolated from the blood of melanoma patient with long-term remission following vaccination with irradiated mutagenized autologous tumor cells. M Hein et al, 'Production of stable cytolytic T-cell clones directed against autologous human melanoma', International Journal of Cancer, 39 (1987), 390-96. 1987-03-15T00:00:00+0000Z Dembi et al, 'Transfection of the CD8 gene enhances T-cell recognition', Nature, 326 (1987), 510-11.1987-04-02T00:00:00+0000SA Rosenberg et al, 'A progress report on the treatment of 157 patients with advanced cancer using lymphokine-activated killer cells and interleukin-2 or high-dose interleukin-2 alone', New England Journal of Medicine, 9/316 (1987), 889-97. 1987-04-09T00:00:00+0000Northrop shared the 1946 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for helping to develop the technique for purifying and crystallising enzymes and virus proteins. His work showed that enzymes obey the laws of chemical reactions and that they are proteins. In 1930 he crystallised pepsin, a enzyme present in gastric juice necessary for digestion. Eight years later he isolated the first bacterial virus (bacteriophage). This he proved to be a nucleoprotein. Other enzymes that he managed to isolate and crystalise were trypsin and chymotrypsin, both important to the digestive process. 1987-05-27T00:00:00+00001987-06-17T00:00:00+0000JF Brunet et al, 'A new member of the immunoglobulin superfamily--CTLA-4', Nature 328 (1987), 267-70. 1987-07-16T00:00:00+0000Medawar was a zoologist and biologist whose work on skin grafts demonstrated the principle of acquired immunological tolerance, the state by which substances originally considered foreign become regarded as self by the immune system. His work helped improve the success of tissue and organ transplants. In 1960 Medawar was awarded the Nobel Prize for the work he did in the area. 1987-10-02T00:00:00+0000Capecchi, M, 'Site-directed mutagenesis by gene targeting in mouse embyo-derived stem cells', Cell, 51/3 (1987), 503-12.1987-11-06T00:00:00+0000C Doyle, JL Strominger, 'Interaction between CD4 and class II MHC molecules mediates cell adhesion', Nature, 330 (1987), 256-9.1987-11-19T00:00:00+0000Ishino Y, Shinagawa H, Makino K, Amemura M, Nakata A (December 1987). "Nucleotide sequence of the iap gene, responsible for alkaline phosphatase isozyme conversion in Escherichia coli, and identification of the gene product". Journal of Bacteriology 169 (12): 5429–5433; Takase, I, Ishino, F, Wachi, M, et al, 'Genes encoding two lipoproteins in the leuS-dacA region of the Escherichia coli chromosome', Journal of Bacteriology, 169/12 (1987): 5692-99.1987-12-01T00:00:00+0000Leloir, an Argentinian physician and biochemist, won the 1970 winner of the Nobel Prize for Chemistry for 'his discovery of sugar nucleotides and their role in the biosynthesis of carbohydrates.' 1987-12-02T00:00:00+0000Blood stem cells from the umbilical cord are understood, theoretically, to be both especially potent and unlikely to provoke a strong immunological response in the recipient. 1988-01-01T00:00:00+0000Campath-1G is humanised, resulting in Campath-1H. It is accomplished with technology developed by Greg Winter.1988-01-01T00:00:00+0000This patent is filed on the basis of work reported in M Brüggeman, HM Caskey, C Teale, H Waldmann, Williams, Surani, and MS Neuberger, A repertoire of monoclonal antibodies with human heavy chains from transgenic mice, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 86 (Sept 1989), 6709-13. 1988-01-01T00:00:00+0000The patient is a 69 year old woman suffering from non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The drug dramatically improves her health. 1988-01-01T00:00:00+00001988-01-01T00:00:00+0000Steptoe was an obstetrtician and gynaecologist who co-pioneered in vitro fertilization, the technique that produced the first test tube baby, Louise Brown, in 1978. This involved collecting ova from Louise's mother using laparoscopy. While Steptoe faced a lot of criticism for his work, many clinics began offering IVF following the birth of Louise. 1988-03-21T00:00:00+0000This method, called FASTA, is published by William R Pearson and David J Lipman in Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 85/8 (April 1988), 2444-8. This is now a common tool for bioinformatics. It allos for the comparison and aligning of sequences. 1988-04-01T00:00:00+0000USPTO patent 4,736,866 awarded for transgenic mouse with activated oncogenes created by Philip Leder and Timonthy A Stewart at Harvard University. The two scientists isolated a gene that causes cancer in many mammals, including humans, and inserted it into fertilised mouse eggs. The aim was to genetically engineer a mouse as a model for furthering cancer research and the testing of new drugs. It was the first animal ever given patent protection in the USA. 1988-04-12T00:00:00+0000G Degiovanni et al, European Journal Immunology, 18 (1988+), 671-6; Knuth et al, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 86 (1989), 2804-08; Van den Eynde et al, International Journal of Cancer, 15 /44 (1989), 634-40. 1988-05-01T00:00:00+0000CE Rudd, JM Trevillyan, JD Dasgupta, LL Wong, SF Schlossman, 'The CD4 receptor is complexed in detergent lysates to a protein-tyrosine kinase (Pp58) from human T lymphocytes', Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 85 (1988), 5190-94.1988-07-01T00:00:00+0000 GJ Spangrude, S Heimfeld, IL Weissman, 'Purification and characterization of mouse hematopoietic stem cells', Science, 241 (1988), 58-62. 1988-07-01T00:00:00+0000T. Bestor, A. Laudano, R. Mattaliano, V. Ingram, 'Cloning and sequencing of a cDNA encoding DNA methyltransferase of mouse cells', Journal Molecular Biology, 203 (1988), 971–83. 1988-10-20T00:00:00+0000Gregory Winter at the Laboratory of Molecular Biology develops the technique as part of his strategy to create an artificial immune system for generating monoclonal antibodies. The technique is published in R Olandi, DH, Gussow, PT Jones and G Winter, 'Cloning immunoglobulin variable domains for expression by polymerase chain reaction', Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 86 (May 1989), 3833-7. 1988-11-01T00:00:00+0000Patients show marked improvements with the drug.1988-11-01T00:00:00+0000Jasin, M, Berg, P, 'Homologous integration in mammalian cells without target gene selection', Genes Development, 2/11 (1988): 1353-63.1988-11-01T00:00:00+0000Mansour, S L, Thomas, K R, Capecchi, M R, 'Disruption of the proto-oncogene int-2 in mouse embryo-derived stem cells: a general strategy for targeting mutations to non-selectable genes', Nature, 336 (1988): 348–52.1988-11-01T00:00:00+0000P Dariavach, MG Mattei, P Golstein, MP Lefranc, 'Human Ig superfamily CTLA-4 gene: chromosomal localization and identity of protein sequence between murine and human CTLA-4 cytoplasmic domains', European Journal Immunology, 18 (1988), 1901-05.1988-12-01T00:00:00+0000SA Rosenberg et al, 'Use of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and interleukin-2 in the immunotherapy of patients with metastatic melanoma. A preliminary report', New England Journal of Medicine, 319 (1988), 1676-80.1988-12-22T00:00:00+0000Gregory Winter together with David Chiswell set up CAT to develop phage display technology for monoclonal antibodies1989-01-01T00:00:00+0000SJ Baker et al, 'Chromosome 17 deletions and p53 gene mutations in colorectal carcinomas', Science, 244 (1989), 17-21, 1989; D Eliyahu et al, 'Wild-type p53 can inhibit oncogene-mediated focus formation', PNAS, 86 (1989), 8763–7; CA Finlay et al, 'The p53 proto-oncogene can act as a suppressor of transformation', Cell, 57 (1989), 1083–93.1989-01-01T00:00:00+0000D Malkin et al, 'Germ line p53 mutations in a familial syndrome of breast cancer, sarcomas, and other neoplasms', Science, 250 (1990), 1233–8; S Srivastava et al, 'Germ-line transmission of a mutated p53 gene in a cancer-prone family with Li-Fraumeni syndrome', Nature, 348 (1990), 747–9.1989-01-01T00:00:00+0000CV Thompson, T Lindsten, JA Ledbetter, SL Kunkel, SA Young, SG Emerson, JM Leiden, CL June, 'CD28 activation pathway regulates the production of multiple T-cell-derived lymphokines/cytokines', Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A , 86 (1989),1333-7.1989-02-01T00:00:00+0000Study conducted by French Anderson in collaboration with Steven Rosenberg in 52 year old cancer patient as preliminary experiment to test gene therapy in children with severe combined immunodeficiency disorder. 1989-05-01T00:00:00+0000Beadle, an American geneticist, was jointly awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1958 for discovering the role of genes in regulating biochemical events within cells.1989-07-09T00:00:00+0000M Kobayashi, L Fitz, M Ryan, RM Hewick, SC Clark, S Chan, R Loudon, F Sherman, B Perussia, G Trinchieri, ' Identification and purification of natural killer cell stimulatory factor (NKSF), a cytokine with multiple biologic effects on human lymphocytes', Journal Expermental Medicine', 170 (1989), 827-45.1989-09-01T00:00:00+0000V. Greger, E. Passarge, W. Hopping, E. Messmer, B. Horsthemke, 'Epigenetic changes may contribute to the formation and spontaneous regression of retinoblastoma', Human Genetics, 83 (1989), 155–58. 1989-09-01T00:00:00+0000G Gross, T Waks, Z Eshhar, 'Expression of immunoglobulin-T-cell receptor chimeric molecules as functional receptors with antibody-type specificity (chimeric genes/antibody variable region)', Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 86 (1989), 10024-8.1989-12-01T00:00:00+0000G. Gross, T. Waks, Z. Eshhar, 'Expression of immunoglobulin-T-cell receptor chimeric molecules as functional receptors with antibody-type specificity', PNAS USA, 86 (1989), 10024–8.1989-12-01T00:00:00+0000JM Nigro et al, 'Mutations in the p53 gene occur in diverse human tumour types', Nature, 342 (1989), 705-08.1989-12-07T00:00:00+0000Gregory Winter together with CAT create the first phage monoclonal antibodies, laying the foundation for the generation of diverse libraries of randomly shaped human antibodies. With this scientists are no longer dependent on the natural immune system of animals or humans and the limitations this poses for the production of monoclonal antibodies. 1990-01-01T00:00:00+0000Discovered by Urban Lendahl.1990-01-01T00:00:00+0000The approval was given based on results from a clinical trial carried out by Harry Herr and Herbert Oettgen. The BCG vaccine stimulates an immune response that targets both the tuberculosis bacteria and bladder cancer cells. 1990-01-01T00:00:00+0000A. Kasid et al, 'Human gene transfer: characterization of human tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes as vehicles for retroviral-mediated gene transfer in man', PNAS USA, 87/1 (1990), 473-77.1990-01-01T00:00:00+0000F. Triebel, S. Jitsukawa, E. Baixeras, G. Roman-Roman, C. Genevee, E. Viegas-Pequinot, T. Hecend, 'LAG-3, a novel lymphocyte activation gene closely related to CD4', Journal Experimental Medicine, 171 (1990), 1393-1405. 1990-05-01T00:00:00+0000D Michalovitz, O Halevy, M Oren, 'Conditional inhibition of transformation and of cell proliferation by a temperature-sensitive mutant of p53', Cell, 62 (1990), 671–80; WE Mercer et al, 'Negative growth regulation in a glioblastoma tumor cell line that conditionally expresses human wild-type p53', PNAS 87/16 (1990), 6166-70.1990-08-01T00:00:00+0000S.A. Rosenberg et al, 'Gene Transfer into Humans — Immunotherapy of patients with advanced melanoma, using tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes modified by retroviral gene transduction', NEJM, 323 (1990), 570-78.1990-08-30T00:00:00+0000The aim of the centre is to facilitate the production of Campath and other monoclonal antibodies for clinical testing.1990-09-01T00:00:00+0000DeSilva treated by French Anderson in collaboration with Michael Blease1990-09-01T00:00:00+0000The link between the gene BRCA1 and breast cancer was identifed by a team at the University of Washington, led by Mary-Claire King.1990-12-21T00:00:00+0000This is achieved by Richard Lerner and Carlos Barbas at the Scripps Research Institute with the backing of Stratagene, an American biotechnology specialising in antibody engineering.1991-01-01T00:00:00+0000The research is undertaken by John Isaacs in collaboration with Brian Hazelman at Addenbrooke's Hospital.1991-01-01T00:00:00+0000Herman Waldmann and Alastair Compston begin a collaboration to test Campath-1H for treating multiple sclerosis (MS).1991-01-01T00:00:00+0000The drug dramatically improves the patient's condition.1991-01-01T00:00:00+0000J Bargonetti et al, Cell 65/6 (1991), 1083-91; S Kern et al, Science, 252 (1991), 1708-11; WS el-Deiry et al, Nature Genetics, 1 (1991), 145-9; WD Funk et al, Molecular Cell Biology, 12 (1992), 2866-71; G Farmer et al, Nature, 358 (1992), 8306. 1991-01-01T00:00:00+0000E Yonish-Rouach et al, 'Wild-type p53 induces apoptosis of myeloid leukaemic cells that is inhibited by interleukin-6', Nature 352 (1991), 345–7; P Shaw et al, 'Induction of apoptosis by wild-type p53 in a human colon tumor-derived cell line', PNAS, 89 (1992), 4495–9.1991-01-01T00:00:00+0000Luria shared the 1969 Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses.'1991-02-06T00:00:00+0000European Committee for Proprietary Medicinal Products recommends the approval of Centoxin (Nebacumab) , a drug originally developed by Henry Kaplan and Nelson Tang at Stanford University and prepared for market by Centocor. Based on this recommendation the drug was subsequently approved for market in The Netherlands, Britain, Germany and France between March and December 1991.1991-03-01T00:00:00+0000Heidelberger was one of the founders of immunochemistrty, a branch of biochemistry that investigates the mammalian immune system at the molecular level. He first made his mark in 1923 when he found with Oswald Avery that that the immune system could target bacterial sugars. The two scientists made the discovery while investigating a capsular substance that envelops pneumococcus and other species of bacteria. Their work helped determine that antibodies were proteins. It also paved the way to improving the production of more effective serum therapies for the prevention of bacterial infectious like pneumonia and meningitis.1991-06-25T00:00:00+0000This supplies blood cord from siblings to treat childhood Fanconi anaemia. 1992-01-01T00:00:00+0000Procedure devised by Claudio Bordignon at Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan. 1992-01-01T00:00:00+0000Bradley, A, Ramirez-Solis, R, Zheng, H, Hasty, P, Davis, A, 'Genetic manipulation of the mouse via gene targeting in embryonic stem cells', Ciba Foundation Symposium 165 (1992): 256–69.1992-01-01T00:00:00+0000J Momand et al, 'The mdm-2 oncogene product forms a complex with the p53 protein and inhibits p53-mediated transactivation', Cell, 69 (1992), 1237–45.1992-01-01T00:00:00+0000LA Donehower, 'Mice deficient for p53 are developmentally normal but susceptible to spontaneous tumours', Nature, 356 (1992), 215–21.1992-01-01T00:00:00+0000LR Livingstone et al, 'Altered cell cycle arrest and gene amplification potential accompany loss of wild-type p53', Cell, 70 (1992), 923–35; Y Yin et al 'Wild-type p53 restores cell cycle control and inhibits gene amplification in cells with mutant p53 alleles', Cell, 70 (1992) 937–48.1992-01-01T00:00:00+0000Developed to treat Gram-negative sepsis, Centoxin originated from research conducted by Henry Kaplan and Nelson Teng based at Stanford University. It was licensed to Centocor, a small biotechnology company in Philadelphia. Following the FDA's request for more information, Centocor watched US$1.5 billion of its market capitalisation disappear. The news also had a devastating impact on other companies developing monoclonal antibody drugs. 1992-02-20T00:00:00+0000Sheehan was an American organic chemist. He is best known for having developed the first synthetic penicillin. It took him 9 years to develop the method. His breakthrough laid the foundation for the development of customised forms of antibiotics to treat specific bacteria. He is also associated with the development of ampicillin, a semi-synthetic penicillin that can be taken orally instead of by injection. 1992-03-21T00:00:00+0000Bovet was a Swiss-born Italian. He won the 1957 Nobel Prize for Medicine for discovering 'synthetic compounds that inhibit the action of certain bodily substances, especially their action on the vascular system and the skeletal muscles.' This was awarded on the back of his discovery of antihistamines in 1937. Antihistamines block the neurotransmitter histamine and are now widely used to treat allergies.1992-04-18T00:00:00+0000Mouse genetated with genes knocked out that produce the enzyme DNA methyltransfgerase involved in DNA methylation. E. Li, T.H. Bestor, R. Jaenisch, 'Targeted mutation of the DNA methyltransferase gene results in embryonic lethality', Cell, 69/6 (1992), 915-26.1992-06-12T00:00:00+0000McClintock won the 1983 Nobel Prize. She demonstrated in maize experiments how genes can shift to different locations by themselves and established that genes are responsible for turning physical characteristics on and off.1992-09-02T00:00:00+0000W.F. Zapisek, G.M. Cronin, B.D. Lyn-Cook, L.A. Poirier, 'The onset of oncogene hypomethylation in the livers of rats fed methyl-deficient, amino acid-defined diets', Carcinogenesis, 13/10 (1992), 1869-72.1992-10-01T00:00:00+0000Y. Ishida, Y. Agata, T. Honjo, 'Induced expression of PD-1, a novel member of the immunoglobulin gene superfamily, upon programmed cell death', EMBO J, 11 (1992), 3887-95.1992-11-01T00:00:00+0000BTG starts negotiations to license Campath to a commercial partner.1993-01-01T00:00:00+0000Z Eshhar, 'Specific activation and targeting of cytotoxic lymphocytes through chimeric single chains consisting of antibody-binding domains and the gamma or zeta subunits of the immunoglobulin and T-cell receptors', PNAS USA, 90/2 (1989), 720-24.1993-01-15T00:00:00+0000Holley shared the 1968 Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis.'1993-02-11T00:00:00+0000G Dranoff, E Jaffee, A Lazenby, P Golumbek, H Levitsky, K Brose, V Jackson, H Hamada, D Pardoll, RC Mulligan, 'Vaccination with irradiated tumor cells engineered to secrete murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor stimulates potent, specific, and long-lasting anti-tumor immunity', Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 90 (1993), 3539–43.1993-04-15T00:00:00+0000WS el-Deiry et al, 'WAF1, a potential mediator of p53 tumor suppression', Cell, 75 (1993), 817–25.1993-09-01T00:00:00+0000A Spanish biochemist, Ochoa helped outline the mechanisms involved in the synthesis of DNA and RNA. This was helped by his discovery of an enzyme in bacteria that allowed him to synthesize ribonucleic acid or RNA.1993-11-01T00:00:00+0000This is put forward by John Dick and his colleagues who theorise about the existence of the leukaemia stem cell in acute and chronic myeloid leukaemia. 1994-01-01T00:00:00+0000Three groups of scientists separately report the successful generation of different strains of transgenic mice for the generation of human monoclonal antibodies. Two of the teams are based in biotechnology companies: GenPharm (led by Nils Lonsberg), Cell Gensys (led by Larry Green) , and the other involved a collaboration (led by Marian Bruggemann and Michael Neuberger) between scientists at the Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Braham Institute and the University of Cologne.1994-01-01T00:00:00+0000Waldmann takes up a position in the William Dunn School of Pathology, 1994-01-01T00:00:00+0000The move is prompted by Waldmann's Oxford University appointment.1994-01-01T00:00:00+0000Coles joins as a doctoral student.1994-01-01T00:00:00+0000Howard shared the 1975 Nobel Prize for Medicine for work on the interactions between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell. 1994-02-09T00:00:00+0000A Bendelac et al, Science, 263 (1994), 1774-78; A Bendelac et al, Science, 268 (1995), 863-5. 1994-03-25T00:00:00+0000Sperry was an American neuropsychologist and neurobiologst. He is best known for having shown that the two hemispheres of the brain function independently of one another and have completely different functions, a phenomenon he called the 'split brain'. This he determined based on experiments in 1950s and 1960s. In the first set of experiments he severed the corpus callosum, the large bundle of neurons that connects the two parts of the brain, in cats and monkeys. Later he studied humans who had had their corpus callosum severed as part of their treatment for epilepsy. He was jointly awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1981 for 'discoveries concerning the functional specialization of the cerebral hemispheres.'1994-04-17T00:00:00+0000A. Ramon-cueto, M. Nieto-Sampedro, Regeneration into the spinal cord of transected dorsal root axons is promoted by ensheathing glia transplants, Exp Neurol, 27/2 (1994), 232–44.1994-06-01T00:00:00+0000Y Cho, S Gorina, PD Jeffrey, NP Pavletich, 'Crystal structure of a p53 tumor suppressor-DNA complex: understanding tumorigenic mutations', Science, 265 (1994), 346–55.1994-07-01T00:00:00+0000Hodgkin won the 1964 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for her contributions to the development of protein crystallography. She used the technique to determine the structure of many important biochemicals such as penicillin, vitamin B12 and insulin. 1994-07-29T00:00:00+0000Synge shared the 1952 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for the invention of partition chromatography, a techique used to separate amino acids in the study of proteins, carbohydrates and DNA.1994-08-18T00:00:00+0000Pauling was an American chemist and biochemist who helped pioneer quantum chemistry and mechanics. He combined methods from x-ray crystallography, molecular model building and quantum chemistry. Pauling was the first to find the alpha helix structure of proteins. In 1954 he won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his 'research on the nature of the chemical bond and its application to the elucidation of the structure of complex structures.' He also co-authored the first paper to suggest sickle-cell anaemia was a genetic disease, which introduced the concept of 'molecular disease'. 1994-08-19T00:00:00+0000Lwoff was a microbiologist. He shared the 1965 Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis'. This was based on work he carried out in the early 1950s to understand lysogeny. This is the process by which some the genes of some viruses, bacteriophages (phage), get incorporated into the genetic material of a bacteria but remain latent until the formation of a new phage triggered by a particular event. He found that exposure to ultraviolet light was one factor that could spur on the development a new phage. Lwoff also discovered that vitamins help promote growth in microbes and can serve as co-enzymes. 1994-09-30T00:00:00+0000Jerne shared the 1984 Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'theories concerning the specificity in development and control of the immune system' and laying the foundation for the production of monoclonal antibodies.1994-10-07T00:00:00+0000Wyckoff pioneered x-ray crystallography of bacteria.1994-11-03T00:00:00+0000ReoPro (abciximab), developed by Centocor, approved for use during and after coronary artery procedures like angioplasty. A chimeric antibody (Abciximab) created by Barry Koller to study platelet behaviour, the antibody was found to be more effective than aspirin in prevent platelets from sticking together and causing thrombus (blood clot) formation within the coronary artery. Today the drug is the most commonly used treatment for angioplasty patients, making the procedure safer for use during heart attacks and as a preventative measure. 1994-12-01T00:00:00+0000Abciximab (ReoPro) approved by the FDA and European regulatory authorities to prevent blot clots during coronary artery procedures like angioplasty. The monoclonal antibody was originally developed by Barry Coller at State University of New York and commercially developed by Centocor. The drug showed for the first time that monoclonal antibodies could be used for the treatment of acute disease conditions. 1994-12-01T00:00:00+0000Rouet, P, Smih, F, Jasin, J, 'Introduction of double-strand breaks into genome of mouse cells by expression of a rare-cutting endonuclease', Molecular and Cellular Biology, 14/12 (1994): 8096-106.1994-12-01T00:00:00+0000German regulatory authorities approve Panorex as an adjuvant therapy, that is a drug given in addition to primary or main treatment, for postoperative colorectal cancer. The drug originated from resesearch undertaken by Hilary Koprowski and his colleagues at the Wistar Institute. 1995-01-01T00:00:00+0000German regulatory authorities approve edrecolomab (Panorex) as an adjuvant treatment for post-operative colorectal cancer. The monoclonal antibody, originally known as 17-1A, was developed at the Wistar Institute and commercially developed for market by Centocor. 1995-01-01T00:00:00+0000E. R. Kearney, T. L. Walunas, R. W. Karr, P. A. Morton, D. Y. Loh, J. A. Bluestone, M. K. Jenkins, 'Antigen-dependent clonal expansion of a trace population of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells in vivo is dependent on CD28 costimulation and inhibited by CTLA-4', Journal of Immunology, 155/3 (1995), 1032-36; M.F. Krummel, J.P. Allison, 'CD28 and CTLA-4 have opposing effects on the response of T cells to stimulation', J Exp Med, 182/2 (1995), 459-6. 1995-01-01T00:00:00+00001995-01-01T00:00:00+0000Butenandt was a German biochemist. In 1931 he managed to extract estrone and other primary female sex hormones from urine. Three years later he extracted progeterone and testosterone a year later. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1939 for his discovery of sex hormones. Initially Butenandt rejected the Prize in accordance with Nazi government policy, but accepted it in 1949. His involvement with the Nazi regime and science to aid its war efforts led to criticism after World War II. He served as the president of the Max Planck Society for the Advancement of Science between 1960 and 1972.1995-01-18T00:00:00+0000Together with Cesar Milstein, Kohler developed the first unlimited supply of long-lasting monoclonal antibodies. Their technique now underpins the development and application of many diagnostics and therapeutics. Kohler and Milstein devised the method as part of their search for a tool to investigate how the immune system can make so many different kinds antibodies, each able to bind to a highly specific receptor on foreign substances that invade the body. 1995-03-01T00:00:00+0000P.W. Laird, L. Jackson-Grusby, A. Fazeli, S. L. Dickinson, W. E. Jung, E. Li, R.A. Weinberg, R. Jaenisch, 'Suppression of intestinal neoplasia by DNA hypomethylation', Cell, 81 (1995),197-205, April 21, 1995,1995-04-21T00:00:00+0000Anfinsen was an American biochemist who spent his career studying the relationships between structure and function in proteins. He is best known for his studies of ribonuclease, a type of nuclease that catalyses the degradation of RNA into smaller components. In 1972 he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry for his work 'on ribonuclease, especially concerning the connection between the amino acid sequence and the biologically active conformation.'1995-05-14T00:00:00+0000A medical reseacher and virologist, Salk developed the first successful polio vaccine.1995-06-23T00:00:00+00001995-07-28T00:00:00+0000The belief that adult stem cells, especially the blood stem cell, can give rise to cells such as brain, liver and cardiac gives rise to notion that adult stem cells could be used like embryonic counterparts for regenerative therapies, helping in degenerative diseases of the brain and heart. This marks a paradigm shift as it goes against dogma from decades of research and clinical success with the blood stem cell. 1996-01-01T00:00:00+0000Mostafa Ronaghi and Pal Nyren at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm develop pyrosequencing which allows for shotgun sequencing without cloning in E coli or any host cell. The marchinery and reagents involved in the method was first commercialised by Pyrosequencing AB.1996-01-01T00:00:00+0000Research conducted by KA Smale et al at Queen's University (Canada), Y. Li et al at University College London, T Imaizumi et al at Yale Univbersity School of Medicine, Guntinas-Lichius et al at the University of Cologne, H H Nash et al the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, M J Ruitenberg et al at the Netherlands Institute for Brain Research.1996-01-01T00:00:00+0000Dolly the sheep was born as a result of the cloning of an adult cell. This was achieved by transferring the nucleus of an adult sheep's cell to the nucleus of an unfertilised egg cell. It took 277 attempts to achieve success. Dolly was the first mammal to be cloned.1996-01-07T00:00:00+0000The new restriction enzymes are called Zinc finger nucleases (originally called chimeric restriction enzymes). They are produced as part of an effort to generate restriction-modification enzymes with longer recognition sites without having to screen bacteria and microorganisms. Kim, Y G, Cha, J, Chandrasegaran, S, 'Hybrid restriction enzymes: Zinc finger fusions to Fok I cleavage domain', PNAS USA 93 (1996): 1156–60. 1996-02-01T00:00:00+0000DR Leach, MF Krummel, JP Allison, 'Enchancement of antitumor immunity by CTLA-4 blockade', Science, 271/5256 (1996), 1734-36. The discovery laid the foundation for the development immune checkpoint inhibitor drugs to unleash the immune system's destruction of cancer. 1996-03-22T00:00:00+0000An American geneticist, Snell shared the 1980 Nobel Prize in Medicine for disoveries relating to the genetic factors innvolved in the ability to transplant tissue from one organism. 1996-06-06T00:00:00+0000Mazia helped identify the cell structure responsible for mitosis, the process when a eukaryotic cell divides chromosomes into two identical daughter cells.1996-06-09T00:00:00+0000Dolly the sheep was created by cloning an adult cell. This was done by transferring the nucleus of an adult sheep's cell to the nucleus of an unfertilised egg cell. It took 277 attempts to achieve success.1996-07-05T00:00:00+0000Reichstein was a chemist who shared the 1950 Nobel Prize for Medicine for discoveries concerning the 'hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects'.1996-08-01T00:00:00+0000Ritxuan (rituiximab) is approved for the treatment of non-Hodgkin Lymphoma. The drug arose out of Ronald Levy's research for three decades to find a way of harnessing the power of the body's own immune system to fight cancer. 1997-01-01T00:00:00+0000Roy Calne, Peter Friend and Waldman's team launch a small trial with 31 kidney transplant patients to see if Campath-1H can help in reducing immunosuppressant drugs. 1997-01-01T00:00:00+0000Lord Todd won the 1957 Nobel Prize for Chemistry 'for work on nucleotides and nucleotide co-enzymes.'1997-01-10T00:00:00+0000Huggins shared the 1966 Nobel Prize for discoveries relating to hormonal treatment of prostrate cancer.1997-01-12T00:00:00+0000Sterne pioneered a vaccine against anthrax in 1935 which effectively wiped out the disease. He used Pasteur's methods to develop the vaccine while based at Onderstepoort Veterinary Research Institute, north of Pretoria, in South Africa. His method remains the mainstay for the production of anthrax vaccines for livestock today. In addition to the vaccine he developed bacterial culture methods for both anthrax and botulism and his work laid the foundation for a number of highly successful veterinary and animal vaccines. 1997-02-26T00:00:00+0000M Serrano et al, 'Oncogenic ras provokes premature cell senescence associated with accumulation of p53 and p16INK4a', Cell, 88 (1997), 593–602.1997-03-01T00:00:00+0000A geneticist by training, Sager enjoyed two careers. She first made her mark in the 1950s and 1950s when she discovered the transmission of genetic traits through chloroplast DNA. This was the first example of genetics not involving the cell nucleus. Later on she became a major pioneer in cancer genetics in the early 1970s and was one of the first to propose and investigate the function of tumour suppressor genes. 1997-03-29T00:00:00+0000Pirie was a virus physiologist and biochemist. He helped determine that the genetic component of viruses was RNA. Before this viruses were thought to be made up completely of proteins. During World War II he explored the possibility of extracting edible proteins from leaves, research that he carried on into the 1970s. His experiments were directed towards solving the food problem posed by the growing world population. He hoped to replace the inefficient method of feeding animals to secure protein for the diet.1997-03-29T00:00:00+0000LeukoSite is granted the license by BTG to develop Campath-1H for CLL and other disease indications.1997-04-01T00:00:00+0000Wald was an American biologist renowned for his research on how the eye passes images to the brain. He first made his mark in the early 1930s when he discovered that vitamin A was an important component in rhodopsin, a light-sensitive biological pigment found in the rods of the retina. Over the next 30 years he conducted a series of experiments which showed when exposed to light rhodopsin changes its form which triggers signals in a complicated network of optic nerve cells which eventually convert into visual impressions in the brain. In 1967 he was jointly awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'discoveries concerning the primary physiological and chemical visual processes in the eye.'1997-04-12T00:00:00+0000Eccles was an neurophysiologist whose discoveries relating to peripheral and central portions of the nerve cell membrane in the early 1950s won him the 1963 Nobel Prize for Medicine. He and colleagues also conducted experiments that proved chemical synaptic transmission and uncovered the role of acetylcholine as a neurotransmitter in the brain.1997-05-02T00:00:00+0000Porter was a Canadian biologist. He is renowned for having developed many of the techniques and experimental approaches that underpinned the founding of cellular biology as a new discipline in biomedical research. Critically he developed the first electron microscope techniques to get high resolution images of cells and tissues. In 1945 he published the first electron microgragh of a complete animal cell. His other major contributions to the field was his development a roller-flask for culturing cells and helping to invent an instrument for getting ultra-thin slices of tissue for microscopy. 1997-05-02T00:00:00+0000Hershey was an American bacteriologist and geneticist. He is best known for a series of experiments with bacteriophages, viruses that infect bacteria, that helped confirm that DNA rather than proteins carried genetic material. These he performed with Martha Chase in 1952. Hershey shared the 1969 Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses.' 1997-05-22T00:00:00+0000Analysis undertaken by Christine Wenneras and Agnes Wold revealed inherent discrimination in peer review process against women applications in biomedical field. They published their results as 'Nepotism and sexism in peer-review', Nature, 387 (1997) 341-3. 1997-05-22T00:00:00+0000Kendrew was an English biochemist and crystallogapher. He is best known for having elucidated the structure of myoglobin, a protein that stores oxygen in muscle cells, for which he shared the Nobel Prize in 1962. In 1963 he helped found the European Molecular Biology Laboratory and later was its director. For many years he was also the editor-in-chief of the Journal of Molecular Biology,1997-08-23T00:00:00+0000Daclizumab was approved by the FDA for the preventition of acute rejection of kidney transplants. The monoclonal antibody was developed by Protein Design Labs using a humanising method devised by Cary Queen and marketed together with F. Hoffmann-La Roche. 1997-12-01T00:00:00+0000This overturns the long-held belief that the brain is unable to generate new neurons.1998-01-01T00:00:00+0000Analysis of 29 MS patients given MS indicate Campath-1H might be more effective if given earlier in the course of the disease.1998-01-01T00:00:00+0000Introduction of RNA into cells is shown to silence genes in the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans. Term 'RNA interference' coined. A Fire, S Xu, M K Montgomery, S A Kostas, S E Driver, C C Mello, 'Potent and specific genetic interference by double-stranded RNA in Caenorhabditis elegans', Nature 391 (1998), 806–11.1998-02-01T00:00:00+0000Hitchings was an American physician who helped develop new methods to design drugs that took advantage of the biochemical differences between normal human cells and pathogens (disease-causing agents). The aim was to create a drug capable of killing or inhibiting the reproduction of pathogens without harming healthy cells. Numerous drugs were developed on the back of the method, including for leukaemia, malaria, and antiviral drugs for herpes infections and AIDS. He shared the 1988 Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'discoveries of important principles for drug treatment.'1998-02-27T00:00:00+0000Celera Corporation launches a parallel effort to sequence the human genome to the Human Genome Project. Celera's entry into the field pose policy concerns about open access to gene sequencing data and accelerates the sequencing process in the Human Genome Project. 1998-05-01T00:00:00+0000Cormack shared the 1979 Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'the development of computer assisted tomography' - the CT scan. The method makes use of computer-processed X-ray measurements taken at different angles for diagnosis. Since its introduction, in the 1970s, CT scans have become a common form of medical imaging to supplement X-rays and ultrasound.1998-05-07T00:00:00+0000Remicade (infliximab) is approved for the treatment of Crohn's disease. Soon after Remicade wins approval for other autoimmune and inflammatory conditions including rheumatoid arthritis and ulcerative colitis. The drug, a monoclonal antibody against TNF alpha, a powerful promoter of inflammation, was developed in 1989 by Jan Vilcek and Jumning Le and developed in collaboration with Centocor, Marc Feldmann and Maini1998-08-01T00:00:00+0000James Thomson, Jeffrey Jones, and co-workers reported isolating five human embryonic stem cell lines from human blastocysts (Science 282/5391 (1998), 1145-7).1998-10-06T00:00:00+0000Rodell shared the 1994 Nobel Prize in Medicine for the discovery of G-proteins and their role in signal transduction within the cell.1998-12-07T00:00:00+0000Hodgkin shared the 1963 Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'discoveries concerning the ionic mechanisms involved in excitation and inhibition in the peripheral and central portions of the nerve cell membrane.'1998-12-20T00:00:00+0000Identified by Jonas Frisen and colleagues1999-01-01T00:00:00+0000Part of research to understand viral resistance in plants. A J Hamilton, D C Baulcombe, 'A species of small antisense RNA in posttranscriptional gene silencing in plants', Sciene, 29, 286/5441 (1999), 950-2.1999-01-01T00:00:00+0000Elion was an American biochemist and pharmacologist renowned for developing new methods to design drugs that made took advantage of the biochemical differences between normal human cells and pathogens (disease-causing agents). The aim was to create a drug capable of killing or inhibiting the reproduction of pathogens without harming healthy cells. Elion helped develop a number of drugs for a variety of diseases, including leukaemia and malaria. One of her most notable achievements was the creation of the first immunosuppressive drug for organ transplant patients. In 1988 she was joined awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for 'discoveries of important principles for drug treatment.'1999-02-21T00:00:00+0000Fraenkel-Conrat was a German biochemist who discovered that RNA is pivotal to the genetic control of viral reproduction and that it is carried in the nucelic core of each virus. He made this finding in 1955 during experiments with the tobacco mosaic virus. By 1960 he had determined the complete sequence of the 159 amino acids in the virus. 1999-04-10T00:00:00+0000Meeting held under auspices of European Commission's research directorate, DGXII, organised by Nicole Dewandre. Calls for and calls for establishment of network to document best practice in European Union member states1999-07-01T00:00:00+0000M. Toyota, N. Ahuja, M. Ohe-Toyota, J.G. Herman, S.B. Baylin, J-P.J. Issa, 'CpG island methylator phenotype in colorectal cancer', PNAS, 96/15 (1999), 8681–86.1999-07-20T00:00:00+0000Jesse Gelsinger, an 18 year old, died after suffering a severe immune response to an adenoviral vector in a dose escalation trial testing gene therapy for ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency, an inherited metabolic disorder. His death led to a major reappraisal of gene therapy and stricter regulations for clinical trials investigating gene therapy.
Date Event People Places
1970First DNA fragments of Epstein Barr Virus cloned Griffin, LindahlImperial Cancer Research Fund Laboratories, University of Gothenberg
1 Apr 1578William Harvey was born in Folkestone, United KingdomHarveyFolkestone, United Kingdom
28 Jul 1635Robert Hooke was born Freshwater, Isle of WightHooke 
3 Jun 1657William Harvey diedHarvey 
1663First time the cell described as a basic unit of lifeHookeRoyal Society
1674Invention of the microscope by Antonie van LeeuwenhoekLeeuwenhoek 
1675First microscopic observations of protozoa and bacteria by van LeeuwenhoekLeeuwenhoek 
3 Mar 1703Robert Hooke diedHooke 
17 May 1749Edward Jenner was born in Berkeley, United KingdomJennerBerkeley, United Kingdom
December 1777Albrecht Von Haller diedvon Haller 
1799 - 1799First use of the word 'biology' Beddoes, Burdach, Treviranus, Lamarck 
5 Apr 1804Matthias J Schleiden was bornSchleiden University of Jena
12 Feb 1809Charles Darwin was born in Shrewsbury, United KingdomDarwinShrewsbury, United Kingdom
7 Dec 1810Theodor Schwann was bornSchwannUniversity of Liege
1815Discovery of bacteriophages, type of virus that attacks bacteria, by English bacteriologist William TwortTwortUniversity of London
8 Apr 1817Charles-Edouard Brown-Sequard was born in Port Louis, MauritiusBrown-SequardPort Louis, Mauritius
16 Feb 1822Francis Galton was born in Birmingham, United KingdomGaltonUniversity College London
20 Jul 1822Gregor Johann Mendel was born in Hyncice, Czech RepublicMendelHyncice, Czech Republic
27 Dec 1822Louis Pasteur was bornPasteurPasteur Institute
26 Jan 1823Edward Jenner diedJenner 
26 Dec 1825Felix Hoppe-Seyler was born in GermanyHoppe-SeylerUniversity of Tubingen
5 Apr 1827Joseph Lister was born in West Ham, London, UKListerGlasgow University, King's College London
18 Dec 1829Jean-Baptiste Lamarck diedLamarckFrench Academy of Sciences
25 Aug 1841Emil Theodor Kocher was born in Berne, SwitzerlandKocherBerne, Switzerland
1842First observation of chromosomes by Swiss botanist Karl von NageliNageli
21 Apr 1843Walther Flemming was born in Schwerin, GermanyFlemmingUniversity of Kiel
7 Jul 1843Camillo Golgi was born in Corteno, ItalyGolgiUniversity of Pavia
11 Dec 1843Robert Koch was born in Clausthal (now Clausthal-Zellerfeld), GermanyKochUniversity of Berlin
16 May 1845Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov was born in Kharkov (now Kharkiv), Russian Empire (now Ukraine)MechnikovPasteur Institute
18 Jun 1845Charles L Alphonse Laveran was born in Paris, FranceLaveranPasteur Institute
5 Mar 1846Edouard van Beneden was born in Leuven, Belgianvan Beneden University of Liege
22 Jun 1848William MacEwen was bornMacEwenUniversity of Glasgow
21 Apr 1849Oskar Hertwig was born in Friedberg, GermanyHertwigFriedberg, Germany
26 Aug 1850Charles Robert Richet was born in Paris, FranceRichetSorbonne University
1 May 1852Santiago Ramon y Cajal was born in Petilla de Arago, SpainRamon y CajalMadrid University
31 May 1852Richard Julius Petri was bornPetriImperial Health Office
9 Oct 1852Hermann Emil Fischer was born in Euskirchen, Prussia (now Germany)FischerUniversity of Berlin
13 Sep 1853Hans Christian Joachim Gram was born in Copenhagen, DenmarkGramUniversity of Copenhagen
16 Sep 1853Albrecht Kossel was born in Rostock, Mecklenburg (now Germany)KosselUniversity of Heidelberg
14 Mar 1854Paul Ehrlich was born in Strehlen (now Strzelin), Prussia (now Poland)EhrlichStrehlen, Prussia
15 Mar 1854Emil Adolf von Behring was born in Hansdorf, Prussia (now Poland)von BehringHansdorf, Prussia (now Poland)
3 Nov 1854Jokichi Takamine was born in Takaoka, Toyama Prefecture, JapanTakamineTakaoka, Toyama Prefecture, Japan
1855Escherichia coli bacterium first discoveredEscherich 
13 May 1857Ronald Ross was born in Almora, IndiaRossUniversity College Liverpool
27 Nov 1857Charles S Sherrington was born in London, United KingdomSherringtonLondon, United Kingdom
11 Aug 1858Christiaan Eijkman was born in Nijkerk, the NetherlandsEijkmanUtrecht University
1859Darwin publishes 'On the Origin of Species'Darwin 
7 Apr 1859Jacques Loeb was born in Mayen, Germany LoebRockefeller University
31 Jul 1859Theobald Smith was born in Albany, New York, USASmithAlbany, New York
2 May 1860William M Bayliss was born in Wednesbury, Staffordshire, UKBaylissUniversity College London
20 May 1860Eduard Buchner was born in Munich, GermanyBuchnerUniversity of Wurzburg
20 Jun 1861Frederick Gowland Hopkins was born in Eastbourne, United KingdomHopkinsCambridge University
7 Jul 1861Nettie Maria Stevens was born in Cavendish, Vermon, USAStevensCarnegie Institute, Bryn Mawr College
11 Aug 1861James Bryan Herrick was born in Oak Park, Illinois, USAHerrick Rush Medical College
2 Jul 1862William Henry Bragg was born in Wigton, United KingdomBraggLeeds University, University College London
1864 - 1864Nucleus shown to contain genetic substanceHertwig, von Kolliker, Strasburger, Weismann University of Munich, University of Wurzburg, University of Freiburg
9 Nov 1864Dmitry Iosifovich Ivanovsky was bornIvanovskyUniversity of St Petersburg
1865Laws of inheritance establishedMendelAbbey of St Thomas, Brno, Austro-Hungarian Empire
12 Oct 1865Arthur Harden was born in Manchester, United KingdomHardenManchester, United Kingdom
1866Theory that cell's nucleus contains genetic substanceHaeckelUniversity of Jena
21 Sep 1866Charles J H Nicolle was born in Rouen, FranceNicolle 
25 Sep 1866Thomas Hunt Morgan was born in Lexington KY, USAMorganCalifornia Institute of Technology
23 Apr 1867Johannes A G Fibiger was born in Silkeborg, DenmarkFibigerSilkeborg, Denmark
7 Nov 1867Marie Curie, nee Sklodowska, who won the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1911, was born in Warsaw, Russian Empire (now Poland)CurieWarsaw
14 Jun 1868Karl Landsteiner was born in Vienna, AustriaLandsteinerVienna, Austria
1869Discovery of DNAMiescher University of Tubingen
25 Feb 1869Phoebus Levene was bornLevene 
27 Jun 1869Hans Spemann born in Stuttgart, Württemberg (now Germany)Spemann 
5 Apr 1870Clarence E McClung was born in Clayton, California, USAMcClungUniversity of Pennsylvania
13 Jun 1870Jules Bordet was born in Soignies, BelgiumBordetPasteur Institute
19 Sep 1871Fritz R Schaudinn was bornSchaudinnCharite – Universitatsmedizin Berlin
1872Walther Flemming, German biologist, describes chromosomes and examines their behaviour during cell division. FlemmingUniversity of Kiel
25 Apr 1873Felix d'Herelle was born in Montreal, Canadad'HerellePasteur Institute
21 May 1873Hans Berger was born in Coburg, GermanyBergerCoburg, Germany
3 Jun 1873Otto Loewi was born in Frankfurt-on-the-Main, GermanyLoewiGraz University
28 Jun 1873Alexis Carrel was born in Sainte-Foy-lès-Lyon, FranceCarrelRockefeller University
5 Jan 1874Joseph Erlanger was born in San Francisco CA, USAErlangerWashington University in St Louis
9 Jun 1875Henry H Dale was born in London, United KingdomDaleLondon, United Kingdom
6 Sep 1876John J R Macleod was bornMacleodUniversity of Aberdeen
24 Nov 1876Hideyo Noguchi was bornNoguchiRockefeller Institute
28 Nov 1876Karl Ernst von Baer diedvon BaerSt Petersburg Academy of Sciences
1877 - 1877Nucleic acid shown to have protein and non-protein componentsKosselUniversity of Tubingen
21 Oct 1877 Oswald Theodore Avery was born in Halifax, CanadaAveryRockefeller University
17 Nov 1878Hans Zinsser was bornZinsserColumbia University
1879Chicken cholera vaccine developedPasteurPasteur Institute
5 Oct 1879Francis Peyton Rous was born in Baltimore MD, USARousRockefeller University
17 Mar 1881Walter R Hess was born in Frauenfeld, SwitzerlandHessUniversity of Zurich
23 Jun 1881Matthias J Schleiden diedSchleiden University of Jena
6 Aug 1881Alexander Fleming was bornFlemingLondon University
1882Concept of the stem cell is put forward for the first timeHaeckel, Dantchakoff, Pappenheim, Ehrlich, MaximowUniversity of Jena, Charite Hospital, Koch Institute, Petrograd University
19 Apr 1882Charles Darwin diedDarwin 
1883The term 'Eugenics' is coined by Francis Galton to denote the science of improving stock by judicious matingGalton 
6 Jan 1884Gregor Johann Mendel diedMendel 
11 Jan 1884Theodor Schwann diedSchwannUniversity of Liege
12 Apr 1884Otto F Meyerhof was born in Hanover, GermanyMeyerhofKiel University, University of Pennsylvania
30 Aug 1884Theodor H E Svedberg was born in Flerang, SwedenSvedbergUppsala University
1885 - 1885Nucleic acids structure determinedKosselInstitute of Physiology, University of Berlin, University of Marburg
1885First rabies vaccine testedPasteurPasteur Institute
8 Mar 1886Edward Calvin Kendall was born in South Norwalk CT, USAKendallMayo Clinic
13 Sep 1886Robert Robinson was born Rufford, near Chesterfield, United KingdomRobinsonOxford University
17 Oct 1886Ernest Goodpasture was born Clarksville, TN, USAGoodpastureHarvard University
4 Apr 1887William C Rose was born Greenville, South Carolina, USARoseUniversity of Illinois
10 Apr 1887Bernardo Alberto Houssay was born in Buenos Aires, ArgentinaHoussayUniversity of Buenos Aires
19 Nov 1887James B Sumner was born in Canton MA, USASumnerCornell University
1888Term 'chromosome' coined by Edouard van Beneden, denoting 'coloured bodies'Beneden 
29 Apr 1888Michael Heidelberger was born in New York City, USAHeidelbergerRockefeller Institute, Columbia University
5 Jul 1888Herbert Spencer Gasser was born in Platteville WI, USAGasserRockefeller Institute
22 Jul 1888Selman A Waksman was born in Priluka (now Pryluky), Russian Empire (now Ukraine)WaksmanRutgers University
1889Richard Altmann, German pathologist, renames nuclein as nucleic acidAltmannLeipzig University
1890 - 1890Debate begins over whether one stem cell provides supply of new cells for the entire blood system or if there is a different stem cell for each constituent cell lineage of the blood system Bloom, MaximowUniversity of Chicago, Petrograd University
31 Mar 1890William Lawrence Bragg was born in Adelaide, AustraliaBraggCavendish Laboratory
21 Dec 1890Hermann J Muller was born in New York, USAMullerIndiana University
5 Jul 1891John H Northrop born in Yonkers NY, USANorthropRockefeller Institute
14 Nov 1891Frederick Grant Banting was born in CanadaGrantUniversity of Toronto
28 Mar 1892Corneille J F Heymans born in Ghent, BelgiumHeymansGhent University
5 Dec 1892Carl Richard Moore was born in Missouri, USAMooreUniversity of Chicago
17 Dec 1892Edwin J Cohn was born in New York CityCohnNew York City
May 1893First successful treatment of cancer patient with immunotherapyColeyMemorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center
16 Sep 1893Albert Szent-Gyorgyi von Nagyrapolt was born in Budapest, Austria-Hungary (now Hungary)Szent-Gyorgyi Szeged University
2 Apr 1894Charles-Edouard Brown-Sequard diedBrown-Sequard 
1895Complement detected to be an accessory to antibodiesBordetPasteur Institute
1895Humans treated with antiserum prepared against human cancer. This established the principle of using serotherapy to fight cancerHericourt, RichetCollege de France
21 Feb 1895Carl P H Dam was born in Copenhagen, DenmarkDamCopenhagen, Denmark
10 Aug 1895Felix Hoppe-Seyler diedHoppe-SeylerUniversity of Tubingen
26 Aug 1895Johann Friedrich Miescher diedMiescher 
28 Sep 1895Louis Pasteur diedPasteurPasteur Institute
30 Oct 1895Gerhard Domagk was born in Lagow, GermanyDomagkMunster University
28 Feb 1896Philip Showalter Hench was born in Pittsburgh PA, USAHenchMayo Clinic
15 Aug 1896Gerty Theresa Cori, nee Radnitz, was born in Prague, Austria-Hungary (now Czech Republic)CoriWashington University in St Louis
5 Dec 1896Carl F Cori was born in Prague, Austria-Hungary (now Czech Republic)CoriWashington University in St Louis
1897Antibody formation theoryEhrlich 
10 Feb 1897John F Enders was born West Hartford, CT, USAEndersChildren's Hospital Boston
20 Jul 1897Tadeus Reichstein was born in Wloclawek, PolandReichsteinBasel University
9 Aug 1897Ralph W G Wyckoff was born in Geneva, NY, USAWyckoffRockefeller University
1898A nucelotide called tuberculinic acid found to bind to the protein tuberculin. It is now regarded as the precursor to the discovery of DNA methylationRuppelPhilipps University of Marburg
10 May 1898Rudolph Schoenheimer was born in Berlin, GermanySchoenheimerLeipzig University, Columbia University
24 Aug 1898Albert Claude was born in Longlier, BelgiumClaudeRockefeller Institute, Jules Bordet Institute, University of Brussels
1899First commercial vaccine developed for treatment of sarcomaColeyMemorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Parke Davis & Co
30 Jan 1899Max Theiler was born in Pretoria, South AfricaTheilerPretoria, South Africa
1899Charles H Best was born in West Pembroke, ME, USABestUniversity of Toronto
7 Apr 1899Louis F Fieser was born in Columbus, Ohio, USAFieserHarvard University
11 Apr 1899Percy Lavon Julian was born in Montgomery, Alabama, USAJulianHarvard University
12 Jun 1899Fritz A Lipmann born in Koenigsberg (now Kaliningrad), Germany (now Russia)Lipmann 
1900 - 1900Blood grouping observedLandsteinerUniversity of Vienna
3 Dec 1900Richard Kuhn was born in Vienna, Austria-HungaryKuhnUniversity of Heidelberg
1901Blood groupings diagnostic developedLandsteinerUniversity of Vienna
1901 - 1901First successful transplants of tumours in animals reported, providing a new experimental system for studying the role of the immune system in cancerLeob, JensenUniversity of Pennsylvania, Agriculture and Veterinary Institute
28 Feb 1901Linus C Pauling was born in Portland OR, USAPaulingCalifornia Institute of Technology
5 Apr 1901Hattie Elizabeth Alexander was born in New York City, USAAlexanderColumbia University
18 May 1901Vincent du Vigneaud was born in Chicago IL, USAdu VigneaudCornell University
22 Sep 1901Charles B Huggins was born Halifax, CanadaHugginsUniversity of Chicago
1902Chromosomes linked with inheritanceBoveri, GarrodZoological-Zootomical Institute, Columbia University
1902 - 1902Metabolic disease explained by genetic defectsGarrodOxford University
1902First attempt to vaccinate against cancer with a patient's own tumour tissuevon Leyden, Blumenthal 
8 May 1902Andre Lwoff was born in Ainay-le-Chateau, FranceLwoffPasteur Institute
16 Jun 1902Barbara McClintock was born in Hartford CT, USAMcClintockUniversity of Missouri
10 Aug 1902Arne W K Tiselius born in Stockholm, SwedenTiseliusUppsala University
1903The notion genetics is introducedJohannsenRoyal Veterinary University
27 Jan 1903John C Eccles was born in Melbourne, AustraliaEcclesAustralian National University
4 Mar 1903William Clouser Boyd was born in Dearborn, Missouri, USABoydBoston University
24 Mar 1903Adolf F J Butenandt was born in Bremerhaven, GermanyButenandtMax Planck Institute
9 Apr 1903Gregory Pincus was born in Woodbine, NJ, USAPincusHarvard University, Worcester Foundation for Experimental Biology
6 Jul 1903Axel H T Theorell was born in Linkoping, SwedenTheorellKarolinska Institutet
22 Oct 1903George Wells Beadle was born in Wahoo NE, USABeadleCalifornia Institute of Technology
19 Dec 1903George D Snell was born in Bradford MA, USASnellJackson Laboratory
3 Jun 1904Charles Richard Drew was born in Washington DC, USADrewWashington DC
16 Aug 1904Wendell M Stanley was born in Ridgeville IN, USAStanleyRockefeller University
7 Feb 1905Ulf von Euler was born in Stockholm, Swedenvon EulerKarolinska Institute
18 Apr 1905George H Hitchings was born in Hoquiam, WA, USAHitchingsWellcome Research Laboratories
1 Jun 1905Max Sterne was born in Trieste, AustriaSterneOnderstepoort Veterinary Research Institute
4 Aug 1905Walther Flemming diedFlemmingUniversity of Kiel
3 Sep 1905Frank Macfarlane Burnet was born in Traralgon, AustraliaBurnettWalter and Eliza Hall Institute
17 Sep 1905Merrill W Chase born in Providence, RI, USAChaseRockefeller University
24 Sep 1905Severo Ochoa was born in Luarca, SpainOchoaNew York University
19 Jun 1906Ernst B Chain was born in Berlin, GermanyChainOxford University
22 Jun 1906Fritz R Schaudinn diedSchaudinnCharite – Universitatsmedizin Berlin
4 Sep 1906Max Delbruck was born in Berlin, GermanyDelbruckCalifornia Institute of Technology
6 Sep 1906Luis F Leloir was born in Paris, FranceLeloirInstitute for Biochemical Research
18 Nov 1906George Wald was born in New York City, USAWaldHarvard University,
1907First successful blood transfusionOttenbergMount Sinai Hospital
23 Mar 1907Daniel Bovet was born in Neuchatel, SwitzerlandBovetIstituto Superiore di Sanita
1 Jul 1907Norman Wingate (Bill) Pirie was born in Eastbourne, UKPirie Rothamsted Experimental Station
2 Oct 1907Alexander R Todd was born in Glasgow, ScotlandToddUniversity of Manchester
11 Nov 1907Joseph G Hamilton was born in the USAHamiltonUSA
1908The term 'stem cell' is coinedMaximovPetrograd University
1908Paul Ehrlich reports that spontaneously developed tumours can be suppressed by the immune system EhrlichGoettingen University
4 Dec 1908Alfred D Hershey was born in Owosso, MI, USAHersheyCarnegie Institution of Washington
1909The term gene is first usedJohannsenUniversity of Copenhagen
1909Antibodies put forward as potential 'magic bullets' for medicineEhrlichRoyal Institute of Experimental Therapy
22 Apr 1909Rita Levi-Montalcini was born in Turin, ItalyLevi-MontalciniWashington University
14 Dec 1909Edward Lawrie Tatum was born in Boulder CO, USATatumRockefeller University
1910First description of the building blocks of DNALeveneRockefeller University
1910Chromosomes linked with hereditary traitsMorganColumbia University
1910Austrian physicians Ernest Freund and Gisa Kaminer observed that something in blood serum from cancer patients pervents the destruction of cancer cellsFreund, KaminerRudolf-Stiftung Hospital
1 Mar 1910Archer J P Martin was born in London, United KingdomMartinNational Institute for Medical Research
28 Apr 1910Edouard van Beneden diedvan Beneden University of Liege
29 Apr 1910Heinz Ludwig Fraenkel-Conrat was bornFraenkel-Conrat University of California Berkeley
10 May 1910Dorothy M Crowfoot Hodgkin was born in Cairo, EgyptHodgkinCairo, Egypt
19 Nov 1910Gladys Lounsbury Hobby diedHobby 
1911Research provided the first evidence that virus transmits cancer in chickensRousRockefeller Institute
17 Jan 1911Francis Galton diedGalton 
14 Feb 1911Willem J Kolff was born Leiden, NetherlandsKolff 
26 Mar 1911Bernard Katz was born in Leipzig, GermanyKatzUniversity College London
6 Apr 1911Feodor Lynen was born in Munich, GermanyLynenMax-Planck-Institute for Cellular Chemistry
25 Jun 1911William H Stein was born in New York NY, USASteinRockefeller University
23 Dec 1911Niels K Jerne was born in London, United KingdomJerneBasel Institute for Immunology
21 Jan 1912Konrad Bloch was born in Neisse (now Nysa), Germany (now Poland)BlochHarvard University
10 Feb 1912Joseph Lister diedListerGalsgow University, King's College London
4 May 1912Nettie Maria Stevens diedStevensBryn Mawr College, Carnegie Institute
30 May 1912Julius Axelrod was born in New York, NY, USAAxelrodNational Institutes of Health
11 Jun 1912Keith Roberts Porter was born in Yarmough, Nova Scotia, CanadaPorterHarvard University, University of Colorado
13 Aug 1912Salvador E Luria was born in Torino, ItalyLuriaMassachusetts Institute of Technology
19 Nov 1912George E Palade was born in Iasi, RomaniaPaladeRockefeller University
18 Dec 1912Daniel Mazia was born Scranton, PA, USAMaziaUniversity of California Berkeley
1913First mapping of a chromosomeSturtevantColumbia University
9 Jun 1913Patrick Steptoe was born in Oxford, United KingdomSteptoeOxford, United Kingdom
20 Aug 1913Roger W Sperry was born in Hartford CT, USASperryCalifornia Institute of Technology
4 Sep 1913Stanford Moore was born in Chicago IL, USAMooreRockefeller University
1914Experiments by James B Murphy demonstrate that lymphocytes help animals reject grafted tumoursMurphyRockefeller Intitute
5 Feb 1914Alan Lloyd Hodgkin was born in Banbury, United KingdomHodgkinCambridge University
22 Feb 1914Renato Dulbecco was born in Catanzaro, ItalyDulbeccoImperial Cancer Research Fund Laboratory
19 May 1914Max F Perutz was born in Vienna, AustriaPerutzLaboratory of Molecular Biology
28 Oct 1914Richard L M Synge was born in Liverpool, United KingdomSyngeRowett Research Institute
28 Oct 1914Jonas Salk was born in New York City, USASalkUniversity of Pittsburgh
14 Dec 1914Solomon Spiegelman was born in Brooklyn, NY, USASpiegelmanUniversity of Minnesota
1915 James B Murphy puts forward hypothesis that the nonspecific stimulation of lymphocytes could provide a cure for cancer based on experiments he and John J Morton carried out on miceMurphy, MortonRockefeller Institute
28 Feb 1915Peter Brian Medawar was born in Rio de Janeiro, BrazilMedawarUniversity College London
15 Jun 1915Thomas H Weller was born in Ann Arbor MI, USAWellerChildren's Medical Center Boston
20 Aug 1915Paul Ehrlich diedEhrlichGoettingen University
19 Sep 1915Elizabeth Stern Shankman born in Cobalt, Ontario, CanadaSternUniversity of California at Los Angeles
23 Sep 1915John C Sheehan was born in Battle Creek, MI, USASheehanMassachusetts Institute of Technology
19 Nov 1915Earl W Sutherland was born in Burlingame, KS, USASutherlandVanderbilt University
1916 - 1916Disappointing results reported from clinical trials treating breast cancer patients with low doses of X-ray radiation following tumour removal, discrediting the theory that stimulation of lymphocytes could help cure cancer. MurphyRockefeller Institute
10 Jan 1916Sune K Bergstrom was born in Stockholm, SwedenBergstromKarolinska Institute
26 Mar 1916Christian B Anfinsen was born in Monessen, Pennsylvania, USA AnfinsenNational Institutes of Health
4 Jun 1916Robert F Furchgott was born in Charleston SC, USAFurchgottState University of New York
8 Jun 1916Francis H C Crick was born in Northampton, United KingdomCrickLaboratory of Molecular Biology
15 Jul 1916Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov diedMechnikovPasteur Institute
25 Aug 1916Frederick Chapman Robbins was born in Auburn AL, USARobbinsWestern Reserve University
19 Oct 1916Jean Dausset was born in Toulouse, FranceDaussetUniversity of Paris
5 Dec 1916Hilary Koprowski was born in Warsaw, PolandKoprowskiWarsaw, Poland
15 Dec 1916Maurice H F Wilkins was born in Pongaroa, New ZealandWilkinsKing's College London
1917Antibodies shown to form against synthetic antigens (foreign substances)LandsteinerWilhelminenspital
24 Mar 1917John C Kendrew was born in Oxford, United KingdomKendrewLaboratory of Molecular Biology
31 Mar 1917Emil Adolf von Behring diedvon Behring 
10 Apr 1917Robert Burns Woodward was born in Boston MA, USAWoodwardHarvard University
15 Jun 1917John B Fenn was born in New York NY, USAFennVirginia Commonwealth University,
27 Jul 1917Emil Theodor Kocher diedKocher 
13 Aug 1917Eduard Buchner diedBuchnerUniversity of Wurzburg
23 Sep 1917Asima Chatterjee was born in Bengal, IndiaChatterjeeUniversity of Calcutta
2 Oct 1917Christian R de Duve was born in Thames Ditton, United Kingdomde DuveRockefeller University
8 Oct 1917Rodney R Porter was born in Newton-le-Willows, United KingdomPorterOxford University
22 Nov 1917Andrew F Huxley was born in Hampstead, United KingdomHuxleyCambridge University, University College London
23 Jan 1918Gertrude B Elion was born in New York NY, USAElionWellcome Research Laboratories
7 Feb 1918Ruth Sager was born in Brookline, Massachusetts, USASagerRockefeller University
3 Mar 1918Arthur Kornberg was born in Brooklyn NY, USAKornbergStanford University
20 May 1918Edward B Lewis was born in Wilkes-Barre, PA, USALewisCalifornia Institute of Technology
6 Jun 1918Hans Adolf Krebs was born in Hildesheim, GermanyKrebs Sheffield University
31 Jul 1918Paul D Boyer was born in Provo UT, USABoyerUniversity of California, Los Angeles
13 Aug 1918Frederick Sanger, twice Nobel Prize winner, bornSangerRendcomb, Gloucestershire, United Kingdom
8 Oct 1918Jens C Skou was born in Lemvig, DenmarkSkouAarhus University
1919First use of the term 'biotechnology'ErekyJozsef Technical University
1 Apr 1919Joseph E Murray was born in Milford MA, USAMurrayBrigham and Women's Hospital
15 Jul 1919Hermann Emil Fischer diedFischerUniversity of Berlin
13 Aug 1919Reinhold Benesch was born in PolandBeneschColumbia Univesity
28 Aug 1919Godfrey N Hounsfield was born in Newark, United KingdomHounsfieldCentral Research Laboratories
15 Mar 1920Edward Donnall Thomas was born in Mart, Texas, USAThomasFred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center
22 Mar 1920Katsuko Saruhashi was born in Tokyo, JapanSaruhashi 
6 Apr 1920Edmond H Fischer was born in Shanghai, ChinaFischerUniversity of Washington
7 Jun 1920Jacques Monod was born in Nancy, FranceMonodPasteur Institute
17 Jun 1920Francois Jacob was born in Nancy, FranceJacobPasteur Institute
25 Jul 1920Rosalind E Franklin was born in London, United KingdomFranklinKings College London
29 Oct 1920Baruj Benacerraf was born in Caracas, VenezuelaBenacerrafHarvard Medical School
3 Feb 1921Elizabeth Blackwell was born in Bristol, Gloucestershire, EnglandBlackwell 
9 Mar 1921Evelyn Witkin was born in New York City, USAWitkinNew York City
15 Jul 1921Robert Bruce Merrifield born in Fort Worth, Texas, USAMerrifieldRockefeller Institute
19 Jul 1921Rosalyn Yalow was born in New York NY, USAYalowVeterans Administration Hospital
20 Dec 1921Richard Julius Petri diedPetriImperial Health Office
9 Jan 1922Har Gobind Khorana was born in Raipur, IndiaKhoranaRaipur, India
1922Insulin was used to treat diabetes for the first time. BantingUniversity of Toronto
28 Jan 1922Robert W Holley was born in Urbana IL, USAHolleyCornell University
18 May 1922Charles L Alphonse Laveran diedLaveranPasteur Institute
21 May 1922Robert A Good was born in Crosby, Minnesota, USAGoodUniversity of Minnesota
22 Jul 1922Jokichi Takamine diedTakamine 
21 Oct 1922David Murray was born in Poole, Dorset, United KingdomMurrayPoole, Dorset, United Kingdom
25 Oct 1922Oskar Hertwig diedHertwig 
8 Nov 1922Christiaan Barnard was born in Beaufort West, South AfricaBarnardUniversity of Cape Town
17 Nov 1922Stanley Cohen was born in Brooklyn, NY, USACohenVanderbilt University
18 Dec 1922Esther Lederberg was born in Bronx, New York, USALederbergWisconsin University
25 Jan 1923Arvid Carlsson was born in Uppsala, SwedenCarlssonGoteborg University
1 Apr 1923Brigitte Askonas was born in Vienna, AustriaAskonasVienna
9 Sep 1923Daniel C Gajdusek was born in Yonkers NY, USAGajdusek National Institutes of Health
1924Austrian physicians Ernest Freund and Gisa Kaminer discover a substance in intestines of cancer patients that reduce ability of normal serum to dissolve cancer cells. Freund, KaminerRudolf-Stiftung Hospital
11 Jan 1924Roger Guillemin, 1977 Nobel Prize for Medicine, was born in Dijon, FranceGuilleminSalk Institute
11 Feb 1924Jacques Loeb diedLoebRockefeller University
23 Feb 1924Allan M Cormack was born in Johannesburg, South AfricaCormackTufts University
22 Mar 1924William MacEwen diedMacEwanUniversity of Glasgow
3 Jun 1924Torsten N Wiesel born in Uppsala, SwedenWiesel 
14 Jun 1924James W Black was born in Uddingston, ScotlandBlackKing's College London
27 Aug 1924William M Bayliss diedBaylissUniversity College London
25 Feb 1925Ruth Erica (Leroi) Benesch was born in Paris, FranceBeneschColumbia Univesity
11 Mar 1925Margaret Dayhoff was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USADayhoffPhiladelphia
16 Mar 1925Luis Ernesto Miramontes was born in Tepic, Nayarit, Mexico MiramontesSyntex
23 May 1925Joshua Lederberg was born in Montclair, NJ, USALederbergUniversity of Wisconsin
23 Jun 1925Oliver Smithies was born in Halifax, United KingdomSmithesUniversity of Washington, University of North Carolina
November 1925T.B. Johnson and R.D. Coghill reported detecting a minor amount of methylated cytosine derivative as byproduct of hyrdrolysis of tuberculinic acid with sulfuric acid but other scientists struggled to replicate their results. Johnson, CoghillYale University
1 Dec 1925Martin Rodbell was born in Baltimore MD, USARodbellNational Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
11 Dec 1925Paul Greengard was born in New York NY, USAGreengardRockefeller University
1926First pure antibody preparation madeFeltonHarvard University
21 Jan 1926Camillo Golgi diedGolgiUniversity of Pavia
30 Jun 1926Paul Berg was born in New York NY, USABergStanford University
16 Jul 1926Irwin Rose was born in Brooklyn NY, USARoseUniversity of California Irvine
11 Aug 1926Aaron Klug was born in Zelvas, LithuaniaKlugLaboratory of Molecular Biology
30 Nov 1926Andrew V Schally was born in Wilno (now Vilnius), Poland (now Lithuania)SchallyVeterans Administration Hospital
13 Jan 1927Sydney Brenner was born in Germiston, South AfricaBrennerLaboratory of Molecular Biology
29 Mar 1927John Robert Vane was born in Tardebigge, UKVaneUniversity of London
10 Apr 1927Marshall W Nirenberg was born in New York NY, USANirenbergNational Institutes of Health
5 Jul 1927Albrecht Kossel diedKosselUniversity of Heidelberg
8 Oct 1927Cesar Milstein was born in Bahia Blanca, ArgentinaMilsteinLaboratory of Molecular Biology
1928Bacteria shown capable of transformationGriffithPathological Laboratory of the Ministry of Health
30 Jan 1928Johannes Fibiger diedFiber 
6 Apr 1928James D Watson was born in Chicago, IL, USAWatsonLaboratory of Molecular Biology
21 May 1928Hideyo Noguchi diedNoguchiRockefeller Institute
15 Jul 1928Carl Richard Woese was born in Syracuse, New York, USAWoeseSyracuse, New York
14 Aug 1928Ray Wu was born in Beijing, ChinaWuBeijing
28 Sep 1928Penicillin, the first widely available antibiotic drug, was discovered by Alexander FlemingFlemingSt Mary's Hospital
30 Oct 1928Daniel Nathans was born in Wilmington DE, USANathan Johns Hopkins University
30 Oct 1928Daniel Nathans was born in Wilmington, Delaware, USANathansWilmington, Delaware
7 Nov 1928Norton David Zinder was born New York City, USAZinderRockefeller University
16 Dec 1928Bruce N Ames was bornAmesUniversity California Berkeley
1929First molecular marker, antigen, identified on a tumour, laying foundation for use of antibodies to diagnose and treat cancerWitebsky University of Heidelberg
April 1929Autopsies carried out on tuberculosis patients show them less likely to have contracted cancerPearlJohns Hopkins University
6 May 1929Paul C Lauterbur was born in Sidney, Ohio, USALauterburState University of New York, University of Illnois
3 Jun 1929Werner Arber was born in Granichen, SwitzerlandArberUniversity of Geneva
1 Jul 1929Gerald M Edelman was born in New York NY, USAEdelmanRockefeller University
19 Aug 1929Frank Ruddle was born in West New York, New JerseyRuddleYale University
7 Nov 1929Eric R Kandel was born in Vienna, AustriaKandelColumbia University
23 Jan 1930Beverly Griffin was born in Delhi, Louisiana, USAGriffinImperial College
5 Nov 1930Christiaan Eijkman diedEijkmanUtrecht University
30 Dec 1930Tu Youyou was born in Zhejiang, ChinaYouyouZhejiang
1931Invention of the electron microscopeRuska 
April 1931Jacques F.A.P. Miller was born in Nice, FranceMillerWalter and Eliza Hall Institute
23 Aug 1931Hamilton Smith was born in New York CitySmithNew York City
1932Sanger attends Bryanston School, Dorset, as boarderSanger 
1932Stanley Plotkin born in New York City, USAPlotkinWistar Institute
21 Mar 1932Walter Gilbert was born in Boston MA, USAGilbertHarvard University, Biogen
16 Sep 1932Ronald Ross diedRossUniversity College Liverpool
17 Jun 1933Jan Vilcek was born in Bratislava, SlovakiaVilcekBratislava, Slovakia
9 Oct 1933Peter Mansfield was born in London, United KingdomMansfieldLondon, United Kingdom
1934 - 1934Antigen-antibody binding hypothesis formulatedMarrackLondon University
21 May 1934Bengt I Samuelsson was born in Halmstad, SwedenSamuelsonKarolinska Institute
4 Jul 1934Marie Curie diedCurie 
17 Oct 1934Santiago Ramon y Cajal diedRamon y CajalMadrid University
10 Dec 1934Howard M Temin was born in Philadelphia PA, USATeminUniversity of Wisconsin
10 Dec 1934Theobald Smith diedSmith 
1935 - 1935Antibodies shown to be proteinsHeidelberger, Kendall, KabatColumbia University
16 Mar 1935John J R Macleod diedMacleodUniversity of Aberdeen
30 Jun 1935Stanley Norman Cohen was born in Perth Amboy, NJ, USACohenStanford University
9 Dec 1935Lafayette Benedict Mendel diedMendelYale University
1936 - 1936Sanger takes degree in Natural Sciences at Cambridge UniversitySangerCambridge University
22 Feb 1936John Michael Bishop born in York PA, USABishopUniversity California San Francisco
28 Feb 1936Charles Jules Henry Nicolle diedNicolle 
10 Jul 1936Herbert Boyer was born in Derry, Pennsylvania, USABoyerDerry, Pennsylvania
30 Nov 1936Ravinder Maini was born in Ludhiana, IndiaMainiLudhiana, India
23 Mar 1937Norman Klinman was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USAKlinmanWistar Institute, University of Pennsylvania
31 Dec 1937Avram Hershko was born in Karcag, HungaryHershkoKarcag, Hungary
7 Mar 1938David Baltimore was born in New York CityBaltimoreNew York City
4 Oct 1938Kurt Wuthrich was born Aarberg, SwitzerlandWuthrichSwiss Federal Institute of Technology
1939Antibodies start to be investigated using quantitative immunochemistrySvedberg, Tiselius, KabatUniversity of Uppsala
7 May 1939Sidney Altman was born in Montreal, CanadaAltmannLaboratory of Molecular Biology
6 Sep 1939Susumu Tonegawa was born in Nagoya, JapanTonegawaMassachusetts Institute of Technology
30 Oct 1939Leland H Hartwell was born in Los Angeles CA, USAHartwellFred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center
18 Dec 1939Harold E Varmus was born in Oceanside NY, USAVarmusUniversity of California San Francisco
1940Concept of antibody templates proposedPaulingCalifornia Institute of Technology
1940 - 1940Sanger studies for a doctorate at Cambridge UniversitySangerCambridge University
1940The first cogenic line of inbred mouse strains were developed, which helped determine the major histocompatibility complex, a set of genes that code for proteins found on the surfaces of cells which help the immune system recognise foreign substances. SnellJackson Laboratory
1940Inbred strains of mice bred at Jackson Memorial Laboratory showed that resistance to transplanted tumours were due to body's resistance to genetically different tissueBarrettJackson Memorial Laboratoroies
1940First electron microscope pictures of bacteriophages publishedRuska 
18 Apr 1940Joseph L Goldstein was born in Sumter, South Carolina, USAGoldsteinUniversity of Texas
17 Jun 1940Arthur Harden diedHarden 
23 Aug 1940Thomas A Steitz was born in Milwaukee WI, USASteitzYale University
6 Sep 1940Phoebus Levene diedLevene 
15 Oct 1940Peter C Doherty was born in Brisbane, AustraliaDoherty St Jude Children's Research Hospital
1941Genes shown to regulate biochemical events within cellsBeadle, TatumStanford University Medical School
1941Immunofluorescence technique introducedCoonsHarvard University
1 Jan 1941Martin J Evans was born in Stroud, United KingdomEvansCardiff University
1941Term 'genetic engineering' first coinedJost 
7 Jan 1941John E Walker was born in Halifax, United KingdomWalkerLaboratory of Molecular Biology
1941Frederick Grant Banting diedGrantUniversity of Toronto
15 Mar 1941First patient treated with penicillin diedFlorey, Chain, HealeyOxford University
13 Apr 1941Michael S Brown was born in New York, USABrownUniversity of Texas
1 Jun 1941Hans Berger diedBerger 
1 Jul 1941Alfred G Gilman was born in New Haven, Connecticut, USAGilmanNew Haven, Connecticut
11 Sep 1941Rudolph Schoenheimer diedSchoenheimerLeipzig University, Columbia University
6 Dec 1941Ronald Levy was born in Carmel, California, United StatesLevyCarmel, California
1942 - 1942Animal experiments launched to investigate the biological effects of acute and chronic exposure to different forms and intensities of ionising radiationJacobson, Zirkle, Bloom University of Chicago
1942 - 1942One part of the blood system, the spleen, offers some form of protection against radiation damageJacobsonUniversity of Chicago
1942'Epigenetics' coined as a term to describe how genes interact with the environment to produce the physical traits of an organism WaddngtonCambridge University
12 Mar 1942William Henry Bragg diedBraggLeeds University, University College London
27 Mar 1942John E Sulston born in Cambridge, United KingdomSulstonLaboratory of Molecular Biology
28 May 1942Stanley B Prusiner was born in Des Moines, Iowa, USAPrusinerUniversity College San Francisco
20 Oct 1942Christiane Nusslein-Volhard was born in Magdeburg, GermanyNusslein-VolhardMax-Planck-Institute for Developmental Biology
30 Nov 1942Ted Greene was born in Cleveland, Ohio, USAGreeneCleveland, Ohio
26 Jun 1943Karl Landsteiner diedLandsteiner 
6 Sep 1943Richard J Roberts was bornRoberts 
1944Sanger starts working on amino acid composition of insulinSangerCambridge University
6 Jan 1944Rolf M Zinkernagel was born in Basel, SwitzerlandZinkernagelUniversity of Zurich
1 Feb 1944DNA identified as a heritary agentAveryRockefeller University
5 Nov 1944Alexis Carrel diedCarrelRockefeller University
2 Dec 1944Marc Feldmann was born in FranceFeldmannFrance
17 Dec 1944Carlo Croce was born in Milan, ItalyCroceMilan, Italy
28 Dec 1944Kary Banks Mullis was born in Lenoir, North Carolina, USAMullisCetus Corporation
30 Nov 1944Ivor Royston was born in Retford, United KingdomRoystonRetford, United Kingdom
1945 - 1945Cesar Milstein studies for a chemistry degreeMilsteinUniversity of Buenos Aires
1945Research continues into the damaging effects of ionising radiation upon the blood system - the tissue most sensitive to radiation effectsJacobson, LorenzUniversity of Chicago, National Cancer Institute, MRC RRU
27 Feb 1945Herman Waldmann was born in United KingdomWaldmannUnited Kingdom
17 Jan 1946Clarence E McClung diedMcClungUniversity of Pennsylvania
27 Feb 1946Mary-Claire King was born in Illinois, USAKingIllinois
17 Mar 1946Georges Kohler was born in Munich, GermanyKohlerMunich, Germany
17 Apr 1946Georges Kohler was born in Munich, GermanyKohlerLaboratory of Molecular Biology
11 May 1946Robert Koffler Jarvik was born in Midland, Michigan, USAJarvikMidland, Michigan
2 Jul 1946Richard Axel was born in New York City, USAAxelNew York City
1947Medical Research Council Radiobiological Unit (MRC RU) establishedLoutit, Ford, BarnesMRC RRU
24 Apr 1947Roger D Kornberg was born in St. Louis, MO, USAKornbergStanford University
8 May 1947H Robert Horvitz was born in Chicago IL, USAHorvitzLaboratory of Molecular Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
16 May 1947Frederick Gowland Hopkins diedHopkinsCambridge University
8 Jun 1947Eric F Wieschaus was born in South Bend, Indiana, USAWieschausSouth Bend, Indiana
30 Jul 1947Francoise Barré-Sinoussi born in Paris, FranceBarre-SinoussiParis, France
29 Nov 1947Robert Swanson was born in Florida, USASwansonFlorida
8 Dec 1947Thomas R Cech was born in Chicago IL, USACechUniversity of Colorado
1948Antibody production found in plasma B cellsFagraeusKarolinska Institutet
March 1948Hotchkiss discovered the first naturally modifed DNA nucleotide, cytosine, in a chromatography of calf thymus DNAHotchkissRockefeller Institute
18 Jul 1948Hartmut Michel born in Ludwigsburg, West GermanyMichel 
1949DNA content of a cells linked to a cell's number of chromosomesVendrely, BoivinPasteur Institute, Strasbourg School of Medicine
1949 - 1949DNA four base ratio shown to be always consistentCargraffColumbia University
1949Immune tolerance concept developedBurnet, FennerWalter and Eliza Hall Institute
1949First experiments transplanting spleen from non-radiated mice into radiated miceJacobson, Marks, GastonUniversity of Chicago
25 Jan 1949Paul M Nurse was born in Norwich, United KingdomNurseImperial Cancer Research Fund
22 Feb 1949Felix d'Herelle diedd'HerellePasteur Institute
September 1949Sickle cell shown to be caused by genetic mutationPaulingCalifornia Institute of Technology
9 Jan 1950Alec Jeffreys was born in Oxford, United KingdomJeffreysUniversity of Leicester
21 Feb 1950Howard Birndorf was born in Detroit, Michigan, USABirndorfHybritech
23 Mar 1950Hubert Schoemaker was born in Deventer, The NetherlandsSchoemakerDeventer, The Netherlands
1 Apr 1950Charles Richard Drew diedDrew 
1951Myeloma cells found to resemble normal antibodiesKunkelRockefeller University
1951 - 1951Debate about whether the 'recovery factor' present in the spleen and marrow is a hormone or a cellJacobson, Lorenz, Loutit, CongdonUniversity of Chicago, National Cancer Institute, MRC RRU
1951Transfer of marrow into lethally irradiated mice shows that marrow, like spleen, is regenerativeLorenz, Congdon, UphoffNational Cancer Institute
31 Mar 1951Gregory Winter was born in EnglandWinterUnited Kingdom
May 19515-methcytosine isolated in nucleic acids for the first timeWyatt 
30 Sep 1951Barry J Marshall was born in Kalgoorlie, AustraliaMarshallUniversity of Western Australia
6 Oct 1951Otto F Meyerhof diedMeyerhofKiel University, University of Pennsylvania
November 1951Purified DNA and DNA in cells shown to have helical structureWilkinsKings College London
1952Bacteriophage experiments show DNA and not proteins to be genetic materialHershey, ChaseCarnegie Institution for Science
1952First observation of the modification of viruses by bacteriaLuria, HumanUniversity of Illinois
1952Stanley Plotkin graduated from New York UniversityPlotkinWistar Institute
1952First immortal human cell line developedGey, Lacks 
January 1952X-ray diffraction image, produced by Rosalind Franklin, shows DNA to have regularly repeating helical structureFranklinKings College London
1 Feb 1952Roger Y Tsien was born in New York, USATsienUniversity of California San Diego
4 Mar 1952Charles S Sherrington diedSherrington 
9 Nov 1952Jack Szostak was born in London, United KingdomSzotakHarvard University
9 Nov 1952Chaim Azriel Weizmann diedWeizmann 
1953Immune tolerance theory proved in experimentsMedawar, Billingham, BrentUniversity College London
1 Jan 1953Ingeborg Hochmair-Desoyer was born in Vienna, AustriaHochmair-DesoyerVienna, Austria
April 1953DNA double-helix structure announcedCrick, WatsonCavendish Laboratory
April 1953Franklin's x-ray image of DNA publishedFranklinKings College London
1 Oct 1953Edwin J Cohn diedCohn 
2 Nov 1953Michael Neuberger was born in London, United KingdomNeubergerLondon
1954 - 1954Cesar Milstein pursues his first doctorate in biochemistryMilstein, StoppaniUniversity of Buenos Aires
23 Feb 1954Salk polio vaccine trial begunSalkUniversity of Pittsburgh
7 Mar 1954James Bryan Herrick diedHerrick Rush Medical College
December 1954First successful human kidney transplantBrigham Hospital, Harvard University
1955 - 1955Clonal selection theoryJerne, Talmage, BurnetDanish National Serum Institute, Walter and Eliza Hall Institute
1955Sanger completes the full sequence of amino acids in insulinSangerCambridge University
2 Feb 1955Oswald Theodore Avery diedAveryRockefeller University
11 Mar 1955Alexander Fleming diedFlemingLondon University
12 Aug 1955James B Sumner diedSumnerCornell University
16 Oct 1955Carl Richard Moore diedMooreUniversity of Chicago
December 1955First discovery of the enzyme DNA polymeraseKornberg, Bessman, Simms, LehmanWashington University in St. Louis
1956DNA polymerase discovered to replicate DNAKornberg Washington University in St. Louis
1956Experiments with mice confirm radiation recovery factor is a distinctive cellLoutit, Ford, Barnes, HamertonMRC RRU
1956Mice with leukaemia treated successfully with lethal radiation followed by bone marrow transplantLoutit, Barnes MRC RRU
19 Feb 1956Roderick MacKinnon was born in Burlington MA, USAMackinnonRockefeller University
17 Mar 1956Irène Joliot-Curie diedCurie 
1957The Associacion Quimica Argentina awards Milstein a prize for the best doctoral thesis in chemistry that yearMilsteinUniversity of Buenos Aires
1957 - 1957Cesar Milstein publishes papers from his doctorate with his supervisor Andres StoppaniMilsteinUniversity of Buenos Aires
1957Victor Ingram breaks the genetic code behind sickle-cell anaemia using Sanger's sequencing techniqueIngram, SangerCambridge University
1957 - 1957Concept developed that the immune system naturally protects against cancerBurnet, Lewis 
1957Leukaemia virus found, reinforcing idea that viruses can cause cancerFriendMemorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center
1957Hilary Koprowski appointed fifth director of the Wistar InstituteKoprowskiWistar Institute
1957Stanley Plotkin assigned to work temporarily at Wistar Institute by CDC of US Public Health ServicePlotkinWistar Institute
1957First observation of messenger RNAAstrachan, VolkinOak Ridge National Laboratory
1957Conrad Waddington develops model of epigenetic landscape to show the process of cellular decision-making during biological developmentWaddngtonCambridge University
January 1957First report of bone marrow transplants performed in human (cancer) patientsThomas, Lochte, Lu, FerrebeeBassett Medical Center
18 Feb 1957Joseph G Hamilton diedHamiltonCrocker Laboratory
19 Sep 1957Francis Crick presented what is now known as the 'central dogma' in molecular biology which argues that the main function of genetic material is to control the synthesis of proteinsCrickCavendish Laboratory
October 1957First synthesis of DNA in a test tubeKornbergWashington University in St. Louis
1958DNA replication explainedMeselson, StahlCalifornia Institute of Technology
1958The cell is confirmed responsible for antibody productionLederberg, NossalUniversity of Wisconsin, Walter and Eliza Hall Institute
1958 - 1958Cesar Milstein takes up a British Council Scholarship at Cambridge UniversityMilstein, Dixon, WebbSir William Dunn School of Pathology
1958Sanger awarded his first Nobel Prize in ChemistrySangerCambridge University
16 Apr 1958Rosalind E Franklin diedFranklinKings College London
1959Infused allogeneic bone marrow in accidentally irradiated workers shown to give rise to mature blood cellsMatheHopital Saint Louis
1959Bone marrow transplants in two sets of identical twin girls fails to eradicate leukaemiaThomas, Ferrebee, Sahler Bassett Medical Center
1959Experiments in mice prove the existence of resident blood stem cells in marrowThomas Bassett Medical Center
27 Apr 1959Andrew Z Fire was born in Stanford CA, USAFire Carnegie Institute, Johns Hopkins, Stanford University
25 Jul 1959Mice injected with BCG vaccine shown to develop resistance to growth of implanted tumours. This was the first direct evidence of the immune system's ability to prevent cancer. Old, Clarke, BenacerrafMemorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center
3 Aug 1959Koichi Tanaka was born in Toyama City, JapanTanakaShimadzu Corporation
1960Cellular fusion technique formulatedBarski, Sorieul, CarnefertInstitut Gustave Roussy
1960Bone marrow transplants being undermined by immunological reactions (especially graft-versus-host-disease (GvHD))ThomasBassett Medical Center
1960National Biomedical Research Foundation establishedLedleyGeorgetown University
1960Sanger begins to devise ways to sequence nucleic acids, starting with RNASangerCambridge University
20 Sep 1960Ernest Goodpasture diedGoodpastureHarvard University
19 Oct 1960Craig C Mello was born in New Haven CT, USAMelloUniversity of Massachusetts
1961 - 1961Genetic code cracked for the first timeKhorana, HolleyUniversity of Wisconsin, Cornell University
1961Cesar Milstein is awarded a second doctorate in biochemistry at Cambridge UniversityMilsteinSir William Dunn School of Pathology
1961Cesar Milstein takes up a position at the Instituto Malbran, Buenos AiresMilsteinInstituto Malbran
1961Existence and properties of transplantable stem cells in mouse bone marrow established and the first methodology for counting them is devisedJames, Till, McCulloch, Siminovitch, Becker, Wu, FowleOntario Cancer Institute
1961Normal cell population discovered to only be able to divide a limited number of times before it stopsHayflickWistar Institute
31 Mar 1961Experiments reveal a type of RNA (messenger RNA) transports genetic information from the nucleus to the protein-making machinery in a cellBrenner, Crick, Jacob 
6 Apr 1961Jule Bordet diedBordetPasteur Institute
15 Apr 1961Carol W Greider was born in San Diego CA, USAGreiderJohns Hopkins University
22 Apr 1961Genes linked to X-chromosome inactivation in female mice embyosLyonCambridge University
May 1961Coding mechanism for DNA discoveredNirenberg, MatthaeiNational Institute for Health
16 Dec 1961First successful direct incorporation of functional DNA in human cellKrausUniversity of Tennessee
25 Dec 1961Otto Loewi diedLoewiGraz University
1962Antibodies discovered to have structure like a 'Y'Porter, EdelmanNational Institute for Medical Research, Rockefeller University
1962An Argentinian military coup throws Cesar Milstein's academic work into disarrayMilsteinInstituto Malbran
1962 - 1962Bone marrow transplants in humans abandoned by Thomas group due to graft-versus-host-diseaseThomas Bassett Medical Center
1962Nuclei from adult frog cells reprogrammed to full embryonic potential after transfer into frog eggsGurdon, AltmanCambridge University
1962Sanger moves to the newly created Laboratory of Molecular Biology in CambridgeSangerLaboratory of Molecular Biololgy
1962WI-38 cell line developed - important to development of vaccinesHayflick, MoorheadWistar Institute
23 Jan 1962Concept of restriction and modification enzymes bornArber, DussoixUniversity of Geneva
June 1962Green fluorescent protein discovered in jellyfish, providing tool for observing previously invisible cellular processesShimomura, Johnson SaigaPrinceton University
18 Oct 1962Watson, Crick and Wilkins won the Nobel Prize for Medicine for their work in determining the structure of DNAWatson, Crick, WilkinsLaboratory of Molecular Biology
1963Plaque test allows visualisation of antibodiesJerne, NordinUniversity of Pittsburgh
1963Cesar Milstein returns to Cambridge and begins researching the structure and diversity of antibodiesMilsteinLaboratory of Molecular Biology
1963 - 1963Development of first attentuated measles virus vaccineEnders, Katz 
1963Creation of first vaccine against mumpsHillemanMerck & Co
11 May 1963Herbert Spencer Gasser diedGasserRockefeller Institute
1964Cesar Milstein publishes his first paper on antibodiesMilsteinLaboratory of Molecular Biology
24 Apr 1964Gerhard Domagk diedDomagkMunster University
1964Immune lymphocytes first proposed as possible tool for adoptive cellular therapyDelome, Alexander Chester Beatty Research Institute, Institute of Cancer Research
1965First successful allogeneic marrow transplant reported in patient with leukaemiaMatheInstitute of Cancer and Immunotherapeutics
1965Paterson Institute for Cancer Research established as a major centre for blood stem cell researchLajtha, Schofield, Lord, Dexter, PatersonPaterson Institute for Cancer Research, Christie Cancer Hosptial
1965Development of a technique for the in vitro cultivation of bone marrow cellsMetcalf, Bradley, Sachs, PluznikQueen Elizabeth II Hospital, Weizmann Institute
1965Transfer RNA is the first nucleic acid molecule to be sequencedHolleyCornell University
1965Werner Arber predicts restriction enzymes could be used as a labortory tool to cleave DNAArberUniversity of Geneva
1965First comprehensive protein sequence and structure computer data published as Atlas of Protein Sequence and StructureDayhoff, Eeek, LedleyNational Biomedical Research Foundation, Georgetown University
1965Ledley publishes Uses of Computers in Biology and MedicineLedleyNational Biomedical Research Foundation
1965Sanger and colleagues publish two-dimension partition sequencing methodSanger, Brownlee, BarrellLaboratory of Molecular Biology
30 Mar 1965Philip Showalter Hench diedHenchMayo Clinic
5 Dec 1965Joseph Erlanger diedErlangerWashington University in St Louis
July 1966Cesar Milstein and Sydney Brenner publish theory attributing antibody diversity to somatic mutationBrenner, MilsteinLaboratory of Molecular Biology
December 1966Scientists detect antibodies to the Epstein-Barr virus in patients with nasopharyngeal cancer which suggest the cancer is caused by a virus. Old, Boyse, OettgenMemorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center
10 Dec 1966First evidence published suggesting a virus could provide delivery tool for transferring functional genesRogersOak Ridge National Laboratory
1967First automatic protein sequencer developedEdman, BeggSt Vincent's School of Medical Research
15 Apr 1967Hermann J Muller diedMullerIndiana University
22 Aug 1967Gregory Pincus diedPincusHarvard University, Worcester Foundation for Experimental Biology
1968The first partial sequence of a viral DNA is reportedWu, KaiserCornell University, Stanford University Medical School
1968First successful bone marrow transplant from a siblingGoodMemorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center
1968Paul Berg started experiments to generate recombinant DNA moleculesBergStanford University
21 Feb 1968Howard Walter Florey diedFloreyOxford University
24 Jun 1968Hattie Elizabeth Alexander diedAlexanderColumbia University
18 Jul 1968Corneille J F Heymans diedHeymansGhent University
23 Jul 1968Henry H Dale diedDale 
19 Oct 1968American scientists demonstrate that adding foreign genes to cultured cells from patients with Lesch-Nethan syndrome can correct genetic defects that cause the neurological diseaseFriedmann, SeegmillerNational Institutes of Health
1969Basel Institute of Immunology foundedJerneBasel Institute of Immunology
1969First antibodies with known specificity grownSinokovicsMD Anderson Cancer Center
1969Splenic fragment technique devised for growing antibodiesKlinmanWistar Institute
1969Concept of the tumour stem cell is bornFialkow, Pierce, Hamburger, Salmon, Nowell, Damjanov, SolterUniversity of Washington in Seattle
1969First principles for PCR publishedKhorana, KleppeUniversity of Wisconsin-Madison
1969New species of bacterium is isolated from hot spring in Yellowstone National Park by Thomas BrockBrockCase Western Reserve University
1969New idea for generating recombinant DNA conceivedLobhanStanford University
1969 - 1969First license approved in US and Europe for vaccine against rubella (German measles)PlotkinWistar Institute
February 1969Team led by Karl and Ingegerd Hellstrom observe serum from mice with chemically induced tumours can block reaction of lymphocytesHellstrom, Evans, Heppner, Pierce, Yang Fred Hutchinson Cancer Center
July 1969Discovery of methylase, an enzyme, found to add protective methyl groups to DNAArber, LinnUniversity of Geneva
1970 - 1970Means developed for cloning B cells that produce single antibodies with known specificityAskonas, Williamson, WrightNational Institute for Medical Research
1970Fluorescence activated cell sorter createdHerzenbergStanford University
1970First complete gene synthesised KhoranaUniversity of Wisconsin
1970 - 1970Three West German very young sisters fail to respond to first ever administered gene therapy Rogers, TerheggenOak Ridge National Laboratory, Cologne municipal hospital
1970US Women’s Equality Action League filed complaints of discrimination against over 200 academic institutions nationwide Sandler 
July 1970Cesar Milstein launches experiments to determine whether somatic mutation underlies antibody diversityCotton, Milstein, SecherLaboratory of Molecular Biology
July 1970First restriction enzyme isolated and characterisedSmith, WilcoxJohns Hopkins University
1971Sera-Lab foundedMurray 
1971Cetus Corporation, the first biotechnology was foundedCape, Farley, GlaserCetus
1971Process called repair replication for synthesising short DNA duplexes and single-stranded DNA by polymerases is publishedKhorana, KleppeMIT
1971First plasmid bacterial cloning vector constructedBerg, Mertz, JacksonStanford University
May 1971Complete sequence of bacteriophage lambda DNA reportedWu, TaylorCornell University
June 1971First time potential biohazards of recombinant DNA raisedMertz, Berg, PollackStanford University
June 1971Hellstom team suggest that antibodies bound to tumour cells mask their detection by the immune system Sjogren, Hellstrom, BansalFred Hutchinson Cancer Center
15 Jun 1971Wendell M Stanley diedStanleyRockefeller University
1 Jul 1971William Lawrence Bragg diedBraggCavendish Laboratory
21 Sep 1971Bernardo Alberto Houssay diedHoussayUniversity of Buenos Aires
29 Oct 1971Arne W K Tiselius diedTiseliusUppsala University
December 1971First experiments published demonstrating the use of restriction enzymes to cut DNADanna, NathansJohns Hopkins University
1972Beverly Griffin appointed head of nuclear acids research at Imperial Cancer Research FundGriffinImperial Cancer Research Fund Laboratories
16 Feb 1972Francis Peyton Rous diedRousRockefeller University
3 Mar 1972First time gene therapy proposed as treatment for genetic disordersFriedmann, RoblinSalk Institute
4 May 1972Edward Calvin Kendall diedKendallMayo Clinic
23 Jun 1972President Richard Nixon signs into federal law the Title IX Act, putting an end quotas against appointing women to university positions, including scienceSandler 
11 Aug 1972Max Theiler diedTheiler 
September 1972 - Sep 1972First time possible biohazards of recombinant DNA technology publicly discussedZinder 
October 1972First paper published on generating recombinant DNABerg, Jackson, SymonsStanford University
November 1972First easy-to-use technique published for constructing recombinant DNA. Berg, MertzStanford University Medical School
1 Nov 1972Nature editorial voiced concern about generating recombinant DNABerg, Jackson, SymonsStanford University
1973Recombinant DNA produced in bacteriaCohen, BoyerStanford University Medical School, University of California San Francisco
1973Antibody network theoryJerneBasel Institute of Immunology
1973Cesar Milstein meets Georges Kohler at the Basel Institute of ImmunologyKohler, MilsteinBasel Institute of Immunology
1973The sequencing of 24 basepairs is reportedGilbert, MaxamHarvard University
1973Herman Waldmannn joins the Department of Pathology, Cambridge University.WaldmannCambridge University
1973First successful bone marrow transplant from unrelated donorGood, O'ReillyMemorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center
July 1973Cesar Milstein and Dick Cotton report the successful fusion of two different myeloma cell lines, one from a mouse and the other from a ratCotton, MilsteinLaboratory of Molecular Biology
12 Aug 1973Walter R Hess diedHessUniversity of Zurich
16 Aug 1973Selman A Waksman diedWaksmanRutgers University
1974First publication on inserting foreign DNA into miceJaenisch, MintzSalk Institute, Fox Chase Institute for Cancer Research
8 Feb 1974Immune surveillance theory that immune system provides protection against cancer discredited by research showing that 'Nude' mice lacking immune system function no more likely to develop tumours than normal miceStutmanMemorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center
9 Mar 1974Earl W Sutherland diedSutherlandVanderbilt University
June 1974Georges Kohler joins Cesar Milstein's research team to investigate somatic mutation and antibody diversityKohler, MilsteinLaboratory of Molecular Biology
July 1974First concerns about potential biohazards of recombinant DNA publishedBerg, Baltimore, Boyer, Cohen 
1975Temporary moratorium on genetic engineeringBerg 
January 1975Unlimited long-surviving monoclonal antibodies createdMilstein, KohlerLaboratory of Molecular Biology
1975Short-lasting antibodies against influenza virus devisedGerhardWistar Institute
1975 - 1975First monoclonal antibody created to target a neurotransmitter peptideMilstein, CuelloLaboratory of Molecular Biology, MRC Neurochemical Pharmacology Unit, Oxford University
1975A liquid media is developed for growing bone marrow cells, including the blood stem cellDexterPaterson Institute for Cancer Research
1975Sanger and Coulson publish their plus minus method for DNA sequencingSanger, CoulsonLaboratory of Molecular Biology
1975DNA methylation suggested as mechanism behind X-chomosome silencing in embryosRiggs, Sager, KitchenCity of Hope National Medical Center, Harvard University
1975DNA methylation proposed as important mechanism for the control of gene expression in higher organismsHoilliday, PughNational Institute for Medical Research
February 1975Natural killer cell identified in mice and shown to be important part of immune systemKiessling, Klein, Pross, WigzellKarolinska Institute
15 Apr 1975Human natural killer cell isolatedJondal, ProssKarolinska Institute
19 Apr 1975Percy Lavon Julian diedJulianHarvard University
24 Apr 1975Discovery of unique molecular marker, idiotype, on blood cancer cells, opening new avenue for cancer diagnosis and therapyStevensonTenovus Research Laboratory
25 Apr 1975Unique 'idiotype' marker discovered on the surface of proteins in cancer cells, providing target for treating cancer with antibodiesStevensonSouthampton University
August 1975First step taken to patent Kohler and Milstein's monoclonal antibodiesMilsteinLaboratory of Molecular Biology
7 Aug 1975Cesar Milstein and Georges Kohler published their paper outlining a technique for producing limitless monoclonal antibodiesKohler, MilsteinLaboratory of Molecular Biology
September 1975Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) was discovered. It was the first immune molecule shown to kill cancer cellsCarswell, Old, Kassel, Green, Fiore, WilliamsonMemorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center
5 Nov 1975Edward Lawrie Tatum diedTatumRockefeller University
January 1976Experiment in guinea-pigs with anti-idiotype antibodies shown to slow down leukaemiaStevensonSouthampton University
April 1976Genentech foundedSwanson, BoyerGenentech Inc
17 Apr 1976Carl P H Dam diedDam 
31 May 1976Jacques Monod diedMonodPasteur Institute
June 1976First human disease gene, beta-globin, clonedManiatis, GekKee, Efstratiadis, Kafatos 
September 1976Cesar Milstein supplies myeloma cells to Hilary Koprowski at the Wistar Institute for producing monoclonal antibodiesKoprowski, MilsteinLaboratory of Molecular Biology, Wistar Institute
10 Sep 1976Discovery of first T cell growth factor, later named Interleukin-2 (IL-2)Morgan, Ruscetti, GalloLitton Bioethics Research Laboratories, National Cancer Institute
October 1976British government declines to patent monoclonal antibodiesMilsteinLaboratory of Molecular Biology
20 Nov 1976Trofim Denisovich Lysenko diedLysenko Lenin All-Union Academy of Agricultural Sciences
1976Technique published for introducing DNA into cultured cellsWigler, Silverstein, Lee, Pellicer, Cheng, AxelColumbia University
1977Monoclonal antibodies developed for automatic fluorescence-activated cell sorter Milstein, Herzenberg, OiLaboratory of Molecular Biology, Stanford University Medical School, University of Toronto
1977Bone marrow transplants is clinically provenDonnallFred Hutchinson, Seattle, New York
1977Complete sequence of bacteriophage phi X174 DNA determinedSangerLaboratory of Molecular Biology
1977First computer programme written to help with the compilation and analysis of DNA sequence dataMcCallumLaboratory of Molecular Biology
February 1977Two different DNA sequencing methods published that allow for the rapid sequencing of long stretches of DNASanger, Maxam, GilbertHarvard University, Laboratory of Molecular Biology
February 1977Partnership begun for first commercial distribution of cells for producing monoclonal antibodiesMilstein, Murray 
February 1977Scientists find a way to generate T cells in thymic tissue in test tubes, paving the way study mechanisms underlying the regulation of T cell developmentRobinson, OwenUniversity of Newcastle upon Tyne
25 Mar 1977Discovery of Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF). This plays an important role in the immune system and the process of inflammation. Burghess, Camakaris, MetcalfWalter and Eliza Hall Institute
1977Monoclonals produced against histocompatibility antigensMilstein, Galfre, HowardLaboratory of Molecular Biology, Brabraham Institute
1 Apr 1977Development of first anti-idiotype antibodies. These are shown to activate immune defense cells to attack tumour cells in guinea-pigsStevenson, ElliottTenovus Research Laboratory
June 1977First US patent application filed for monoclonal antibodiesCroce, Koprowski, MilsteinWistar Institute
July 1977T cell growth factor, later named Interleukin-2 (IL-2), discovered in mice, providing a means to grow and expand normal lypmphocytes in test tubesRuscetti, Morgan, GalloNational Cancer Institute
25 Jul 1977Louis F Fieser diedFieserHarvard University
1977Monoclonal antibodies made to unknown cell surface antigensMilstein, Galfre, WilliamsLaboratory of Molecular Biology, Sir William Dunn School of Pathology
1978Hybritech foundedRoyston, Birndoff, GreeneSan Diego
1978First monoclonal antibodies generated to human T-cellsMilstein, McMichaelLaboratory of Molecular Biology, Oxford University
1978First monoclonal antibody generated for blood typingMilsteinLaboratory of Molecular Biology, Oxford University
1978Transplantable stem cells discovered in human cord bloodEvansCambridge University
1978 - 1978Waldmann takes a sabbatical with Cesar Milstein.WaldmannLaboratory of Molecular Biology
February 1978First commercialisation of monoclonal antibodies as laboratory reagentsMilstein, MurrayLaboratory of Molecular Biology, Sera-Lab
1978Charles H Best diedBestUniversity of Toronto
April 1978Experiments show the possiblity of transforming the genome of yeastHinnen, Hicks, FinkCornell University
October 1978Nobel Prize for discovery and understanding of restriction enzymesArber, Nathans, SmithJohns Hopkins University, University of Geneva
1978T cell-mediated immunity shown to aid tumour regressionBerendt, North, KirsteinTrudeau Institute
11 Dec 1978Vincent du Vigneaud dieddu VigneaudCornell University
1979Waldmann is joined in his work by Stephen Cobbold, Geoff Hale, Alan Munro, Don Metcalfe, Suzanne Watt and Hoang Trang.Waldmann, Cobbold, Hale, Metcalfe. Watt, TrangCambridge University
1979The first tumour suppressor gene was discovered, known as p53Crawford, Lane, Deleo, Old, Levine 
1979Beta-thalassemia gene successfully inserted into bone marrow of irradiated miceClineUniversity of California Los Angeles
May 1979Centocor foundedKoprowski, Schoemaker, WallWistar Institute
8 Jul 1979Robert Burns Woodward diedWoodwardHarvard University
6 Aug 1979Feodor Lynen diedLynenMax-Planck-Institute for Cellular Chemistry
12 Aug 1979Ernst B Chain diedChainOxford University
October 1979First US patent for monoclonal antibodies grantedKoprowski, MilsteinWistar Institute
1980First patent awarded for gene cloningCohen, BoyerStanford University Medical School
January 1980First monoclonal antibody created to purify a human therapeutic protein.Burke, Milstein, SecherLaboratory of Molecular Biology, Warwick University
1980 - 1980Existence of the blood stem cell contestedDexter, Lord, Weissmann, Morrison
1980Cesar Milstein proposed the use of recombinant DNA to improve monoclonal antibodiesMilsteinLaboratory of Molecular Biology
1980First monoclonal antibodies developed against T-cells which can also activate human complement.Waldmann, Cobbold, Hale, Metcalfe. Watt, TrangCambridge University
1980Gene therapy unsuccessfully tried out in two patients with beta-thalaessemia sparks controversyClineUniversity of California Los Angeles
1980Sanger awarded his second Nobel Prize in ChemistrySanger, GilbertHarvard University, Laboratory of Molecular Biology
1980Waldmann gains MRC funding.WaldmannCambridge University
1980US licensed first rabies vaccine for human useKoprowski, Plotkin, WiktorWistar Institute
1980Polyoma virus DNA sequencedGriffin, Soeda, Arrand, WalshImperial Cancer Research Fund Laboratories
2 Feb 1980William H Stein diedSteinRockefeller University
1980British government commissioned report publically criticises non-patenting of technique for producing monoclonal antibodiesMilstein 
August 1980US National Advisory Council on Women's Educational Programs called on higher education institutions to prohibit sexual harassment and put in place avenues for making complaints and implementing sanctionsSandler 
18 Aug 1980Elizabeth Stern Shankman diedShankmanUniversity of California at Los Angeles
September 1980First transgenic mice made with recombinant DNA announced Barbosa, Gordon, Plotkin, Ruddle, ScangosYale University
1980Largest nucleic acid sequence database in the world made available free over telephone networkDayhoffNational Biomedical Research Foundation, Georgetown University
November 1980Technique published using fine glass micropipettes to inject DNA directly into the nuclei of cultured mammalian cells. High efficiency of the method enables investigators to generate transgenic mice containing random insertions of exogenous DNA. CapecchiUniversity of Utah
December 1980Clinical tials begin with a monoclonal antibody for the treatment of gastrointestinal cancerKoprowskiWistar Institute
1981First monoclonal antibodies generated for use in radioimmunoassaysCuello, MilsteinLaboratory of Molecular Biology, Oxford University
1981First embryonic stem cells identified in mice EvansCambridge University
1981First patient successfully treated with anti-idiotype monoclonal antibodyLevyStanford University Medical School
January 1981First cloning of mice claimedIllmensee, HoppeUniversity of Geneva, Jackson laboratory
9 Mar 1981Max Delbruck diedDelbruckCalifornia Institute of Technology
July 1981First evidence provided to show that DNA methylation involved in silencing X-chromosomeCompere, PalmitterHoward Hughes Medical Institute
9 Jul 1981Mouse embryonic stem cells first isolated and cultured in the laboratoryEvans, Kaufman, MartinCambridge University, UCSF
10 Jul 1981Complete library of overlapping DNA fragments of Epstein Barr Virus clonedGriffin, Arrand, Walsh, Bjorck, RymoImperial Cancer Research Fund Laboratories, University of Gothenberg
October 1981Double-stranded DNA break technique developed for genetically modifying yeast Orr-Weaver, Szostak, RothsteinHarvard University, New Jersey Medical School
5 Nov 1981First report of successful nuclear integration and germ-line transmission of foreign DNA into laboratory miceConstantini, LacyOxford University, Yale University
22 Nov 1981Hans Adolf Krebs diedKrebs Sheffield University
1982First international workshop on human differentiation antigens establishes international code for classifying and coding monoclonal antibodiesBoumsell, BernardSaint-Louis Hospital
1982Monoclonal antibodies generated for routine use in ABO blood typingLennox, Milstein, Sacks, VoakLaboratory of Molecular Biology, Addenbrookes Hospital
1982Leukaemia emerges as a key means for understanding of the role of the stem cell in cancerDick, LapidotOntario Cancer Institute
1982The first patient is treated with Campath-1M.Waldmann, Swirsky, HayhoeCambridge University
1982Campath-1M is given to a patient with aplastic anaemia undergoing a bone marrow transplantWaldmann, Hows, Gordon SmithHammersmith Hospital
22 Apr 1982First experiment launched to test feasibility of gene targeting in the human genomeSmithiesUniversity of Wisconsin
June 1982Steven Rosenberg and colleagues first describe lymphokine-activated killer cellsGrimm, Mazumder, Zhang, RosenbergNational Cancer Institute
15 Aug 1982Axel H T Theorell diedTheorellKarolinska Institutet,
November 1982James Allison and collegues use monoclonal antibody to provide first biochemical description of tumour specific antigen of murine T-lymphomaAllison, McIntyre, BlochUniversity of Texas System Cancer Center
December 1982Giant mice made with the injection of rat growth hormoneBrinster, PalmiterUniversity of Pennsylvania, University of Washington Seattle
1 Dec 1982First molecular markers, antigens, identified in melanoma tumours. These markers are now targeted by cancer drugsHoughton, Eisinger, Albino, Cairncross, OldMemorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center
1983First bispecific monoclonal antibody producedCuello, MilsteinLaboratory of Molecular Biology, Oxford University
1983Course started in the molecular embyology of miceCostantini, Hogan, Lacy Cold Spring Harbour Laboratory, NIMR, Sloan Kettering Cancer Research Center, Columbia University
1983 - 1983Campath-1M is used in 11 leukaemia patients undergoing BMTs.Waldmann, SlavinHaddasah Hospital
1983 - 1983Efforts turn to generating IG Campath monoclonal antibodies.Waldmann, Hale, CobboldCambridge University
1983Sanger retiresSangerLaboratory of Molecular Biology
1983Murine p53 gene clonedLevine, OrenWeizmann Institute, State University New York
January 1983Official naming of p53Crawford, Pim, Gurney, Goodfellow, Taylor-PapdimitriouImperial Cancer Research Fund
6 Jan 1983Widespread loss of DNA methylation found on cytosine-guanine (CpG) islands in tumour samplesFeinberg, VogelsteinJohns Hopkins University
20 Jan 1983Solomon Spiegelman diedSpiegelmanUniversity of Minnesota
5 Feb 1983Margaret Dayhoff died in Silver Spring, Maryland, USADayhoffSilver Spring, Maryland
10 Feb 1983Discovery of mouse strain with severe combined immune deficiency, providing valuable research model for investigating diseases like cancer and HIVBosma, CusterFox Chase Cancer Center
9 Mar 1983Ulf von Euler diedvon EulerKarolinska Institute
24 Mar 1983First cloning of Interleukin 2 (Il-2)Taniguchi, Matsui, Fujita, Takaoka, Kashmina, Yoshimoto, HamuroJapanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Ajinomoto Co Inc
1983Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) starts to be developed as a technique to amplify DNAMullisCetus Corporation
May 1983Creation of first retroviral vector suitable for gene therapyMann, Mulligan, BaltimoreMassachusetts Institute of Technology, Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research
22 May 1983Albert Claude died ClaudeRockefeller Institute, Jules Bordet Institute, University of Brussels
June 1983Harald Zur Hausen identifies the human papillomavirus as the causative agent of cervical cancerzur HausenUniversity of Freiberg
October 1983Publication of experiments indicating Campath-1 (alemtuzumab) monoclonal antibody activates complement and eliminate T-cellsWaldmann, Cobbold, Hale, Metcalfe. Watt, TrangCambridge University
November 1983A team of researchers including Philippa Marrack, John Kappler and James P Allison identified the first T cell antigen receptorKappler, Kubo, Haskins, Hannum, Marrack, Pigeon, McIntyre, Allison, TrowbridgeUniversity of Colorado, University of Texas System Cancer Center, National Jewish Hospital and Research Cener, Salk Institute
16 Dec 1983New method published for measuring antigen-specific T cell responses enabling clinical trial immune monitoringCzerkinsky, Nilsson, Nygren, Ouchterlony, TarkowskiUniversity of Goteborg
1984A molecular marker, CD34, is identified as specific for a subset of marrow cells containing the blood stem cellCivinJohns Hopkins
1984Antisense RNA shown to inhibit gene activityIzzant, Weintraub, Rubenstein, NicolasFred Hutchinson Cencer Research Center, University of California San Francisco
1984Experiment published demonstrating possibility of inserting a corrective DNA in the right place in genome of mammalian cellsSmithies, Koralewski, Song, KucherlapatiUniversity of Wisconsin
1984Experiments show that injections with T-cell growth factor interleukin-2 can shrink tumours in humansRosenbergNational Cancer Institute
1984p53 inactivated in tumour cells for first timeWolf, RotterWeizmann Institute
1984Human p53 gene clonedMatlashewski, Lamb, Pim, Peacock, Crawford, BenchimoImperial Cancer Research Fund Laboratories, Ontario Cancer Institute, University of Toronto
3 Feb 1984First human baby born after UCLA research team transfer embryo from one woman to anotherBusterUniversity California Los Angeles
June 1984Results from PCR experiments start being reportedMullisCetus Corporation
June 1984First clinical experiments demonstrate the possibility of training T cells to attack tumoursKnuth, Danowski, Oettgen, OldMemorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center
10 Sep 1984First genetic fingerprint revealedJeffreysUniversity of Leicester
1984First chimeric monoclonal antibodies developed, laying foundation for safer and more effective monoclonal antibody therapeuticsNeuberger, Rabbitts, Morrison, Oi, Herzenberg, Boulianne, Schulman, HozumiLaboratory of Molecular Biology, Stanford Univerity Medical School
1985Antibody genes identifiedTonegawaBasel Institute of Immunology
1985Phage display method is developed for selecting peptides, proteins or antibodies from a wide number of variants.SmithUniversity of Missouri
January 1985Idea put forward for the creation of transgenic mice to produce human antibodiesAlt, Blackwell, YancopoulosColumbia University
1985Campath-1G is tested in the first patient.Waldmann, Hayhoe, DyerCambridge University
1985Campath-1G is explored on a small scale for the management of organ transplants by Roy Calne, a British transplant surgeon based at Addenbrooke's hospitalWaldmann, CalneCambridge University
1985First transgenic mice created with with genes coding for both the heavy and light chain domains in an antibody.Kohler, RusconiMax-Planck Institute
1985Discovery of the first zinc finger nuclease, a site-specific endonuclease (enzyme) designed to bind and cleave DNA at specific positionsMiller, McLachlan, KlugLaboratory of Molecular Biology
1985T cell surface proteins CD4 and CD8 cloned Maddon, Littman, Godfrey, Maddon Chess, AxelColumbia University
January 1985DNA methylation found to occur on specific DNA segments called CpG islandsBird, Taggart, Fromer, Miller, MacleodEdinburgh University, Kanematsu Laboratories, Columbia University
March 1985Mullis and Cetus Corporation filed patent for the PCR techniqueMullisCetus Corporation
7 Mar 1985DNA fingerprinting principle laid out JeffreysUniversity of Leicester
17 May 19851st legal case resolved using DNA fingerprintingJeffreysUniversity of Leicester
31 Aug 1985Frank Macfarlane Burnet diedBurnettWalter and Eliza Hall Institute
7 Sep 1985Rodney R Porter diedPorterOxford University
8 Sep 1985John F Enders diedEndersChildren's Hospital Boston
19 Sep 1985Technique published for the accurate insertion of a corrective DNA in the human genomeSmithies, Gregg, Boggs, Koralewski, KucherlapatiUniversity of Wisconsin
25 Sep 1985William Cumming Rose diedRoseUniversity of Illinois
December 1985Experiments with plasmids indicate double-strand break technique efficient for gene editing in mammalian cellsJasin, de Villiers, Weber, SchaffnerUniversity of Zurich
December 1985IL-2 based immunotherapy shown to reduce tumours in patients with melanoma and renal cell cancerRosenbergNational Cancer Institute
December 1985New transgenic mouse model developed to study cancer, opening up the possibility of studying oncogene cooperation and the efficacy of novel anti-cell signal drugs for lymphoma therapyAdams, Harris, Pinkert, Corcoran, Alexander, Cory, Palmiter, BrinsterWalter and Eliza Hall Institute, University of Pennsylvania, Howard Hughes Medical Institute
20 Dec 1985The Polymerase Chain Reaction technique was publishedMullisCetus Corporation
1986First machine developed for automating DNA sequencingHood, Smith, HunkapillerCalifornia Institute of Technology, Applied Biosystems
1986Discovery of RNA interference (RNAi)Jorgensen, NapoliAdvanced Genetic Sciences
14 Feb 1986Gene targeting technique used to correct defective gene in the chromosome of a mammalian cellThomas, Folger, CapecchiUniversity of Utah
30 Apr 1986Plans for sequencing human genome first laid outGilbert, Watson, Berg 
May 1986First humanised monoclonal antibody createdDear, Foote, Jones, Neuberger, WinterLaboratory of Molecular Biology
June 1986First monoclonal antibody drug approvedChang, Kung, Gringas, Schlossman, Goldstein  
24 Jul 1986Fritz A Lipmann diedLipmann 
19 Sep 1986Adoptive transfer of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes shown in mice to be 50 to 100 times more effective in therapeutic potency than lymphokine-activated killer cellsRosenberg, Spiess, LafrieniereNational Cancer Institute
22 Oct 1986Albert Szent-Gyorgyi von Nagyrapolt diedSzent-Gyorgyi Szeged University
December 1986Anti-tumour responses observed in 3 out of 10 patients given high-doses of Interleukin-2 (IL-2) Rosenberg, Lotze, Chang, Seipp, Simpson, VettoNational Cancer Institute
30 Dec 1986Reinhold Benesch diedBeneschColumbia Univesity
1987First clinical trials of foetal neural cell grafting in patients with Parkinson’s diseaseBjorklund, Lindvall Lund University
1987 - 1987Scientists lay the foundation for the cloning of human tumour antigens recognised by cytotoxic T lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell that kills cancer cellsDe Plaen, BoonLudwig Institute for Cancer Research
January 1987Jean-Francoise Brunet and colleagues discovered the cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4)Brunet, Denizot, Luciani, Roux-Dosseto, Suzan, Matte, Golstein 
15 Mar 1987First stable human anti-tumour cytotoxic T cell clones isolated and maintained in cultureHerin, Lemoine, Weynants, Vessiere, Van Pel, Knuth, Devos, BoonLudwig Institute
April 1987CD8 coreceptor proven to be actively involved in antigen recognition by killer T cellsDembic, Haas, Zamoyska, Parnes, Steinmetz, von BoehmerBasel Institute of Immunology
9 Apr 1987Successful results reported for trial using the cytokine IL-2 and lymphokine-activated killer cells to treat cancerRosenbergNational Cancer Institute
27 May 1987John H Northrop diedNorthropRockefeller Institute
June 1987The patent for PCR with Taq ploymerase is filedMullis 
July 1987Identification of the cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4)Brunet, Denizot, Luciani, Roux-Dosseto, Suzan, Mattei, GolsteinINSERM-CNRS
2 Oct 1987Peter Medawar diedMedawarUniversity College London
6 Nov 1987Publication of gene targeting technique for targetting mutations in any geneThomas, CapecchiUniversity of Utah
November 1987First evidence provided for the interaction between the surface molecule CD4 and major histocompatibility class IIDoyle, StromingerHarvard University
December 1987Discovery of CRISPR mechanismAmemura, Ishino, Makino, Nakata, Shinagawa, Takase, WachiOsaka University
2 Dec 1987Luis F Leloir diedLeloirInstitute for Biochemical Research
1988First reported clinical use of umbilical cord bloodBroxmeyerIndiana University
1988Campath-1H is created - the first clinically useful humanised monoclonal antibody.Winter, Waldmann, Reichmann, ClarkCambridge University, Laboratory of Molecular Biology
1988Patent application filed for a method to create transgenic mice for the production of human antibodiesBruggeman, Caskey, Neuberger, Surani, Teale, Waldmann, WilliamsLaboratory of Molecular Biology, Babraham Institute, Cambridge University
1988Campath-1H is tested in the first humanWaldmann, Hale, Dyer, HayhoeCambridge University
1988Beverly Griffin appointed first woman professor at Royal Postgraduate Medical School, Hammersmith HospitalGriffinImperial College
21 Mar 1988Patrick Steptoe diedSteptoe 
April 1988Development of first rapid search computer programme to identify genes in a new sequencePearson, Lipman 
12 Apr 1988OncoMouse patent grantedLeder, StewartHarvard University
May 1988 - May 1988Cytotoxic T lymphocytes shown to recognise distinct surface markers on human melanomaWolfel, Knuth, Degiovanni, Van den Eynde, Hainaut, BoonLudwig Institute for Cancer Research
July 1988Biochemical initiators of T Cell activitation, CD4 and CD8-p56, discoveredRudd, Trevillyan, Dasupta, Wong, SchlossmanDana-Faber Cancer Institute, Harvard University, Tech University
1 Jul 1988The first hematopoietic stem cells were isolated in miceSpangrude, Heimfeld, WeissmanStanford University
20 Oct 1988Cloning of first mammalian enzyme (DNA methyltransferase, DNMT) that catalyses transfer of methyl group to DNA Bestor, Laudano, Mattaliano, IngramMassachusetts Institute of Technology
November 1988Patent application filed for the the use of PCR to create a library of antibody fragmentsGussow, Jones, Olandi, WinterLaboratory of Molecular Biology, Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori
November 1988Martin Lockwood, a clinician at Addenbrooke's Hospital, begins testing Campath-1H in patients with vasculitis.Lockwood, Hale, WaldmannCambridge University
November 1988Gene targeting technique shown to be efficient in modifying DNA in mammalian cells which can be adapted for other systems. This is the first time genome modification appears possible. Jasin, BergStanford University
November 1988Oncogene disrupted in mice using gene targeting technologyMansour, Thomas, CapecchiUniversity of Utah
December 1988Scientists report cloning the gene for the human cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen (CTLA-4)Dariavach, Mattei, Golstein, LefrancINSERM-CNRS
22 Dec 19889 out of 15 melanoma patients successfully treated with autologous tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes cultured with the cytokine IL-2RosenbergNational Cancer Institute
1989Cambridge Antibody Technology (CAT) foundedWinter, ChiswellLaboratory of Molecular Biology, CAT
1989p53 demonstrated to be a tumour suppressor geneBaker, Fearon, Nigro, Hamilton, Preisinger, Jessup, vanTuinen, Ledbetter, Barker, Nakamura, White, Vogelstein, Eliyahu, Michalovitz, Pinhasi-Kimhi, Oren, Finlay, Hinds, Levine Johns Hopkins University, Weizmann Institute, Princeton University
1989Mutations in p53 found in germline of cancer-prone familiesMalkin, Srivastava, Zou, Pirollo, Blattner, ChangMassachusetts General Hospital, Uniformed Services University
February 1989Scientists demonstrate the importance of CD28, a cell surface molecule found on T-cells, for the activation and survival of T cellsThompson, Lindsten, Ledbetter, Kunkel, Young, Emerson, Leiden, JuneHoward Hughes Medical Institute
May 1989First human test demonstrated safety of retroviral vector for gene therapy and potential of laboratory produced tumor killing cells for cancer immunotherapyAnderson, RosenbergNational Institutes of Health
9 Jul 1989George Wells Beadle diedBeadleCalifornia Institute of Technology
September 1989Giorgio Trinchieri and colleagues identified interleukin-12 (IL-12), a cytokine that helps regulate the body’s resistance to infections and cancerKobayashi, Fitz, Ryan, Hewick, Clark, Chan, Loudon, Sherman, Perussia, TrinchieriWistar Institute
September 1989DNA methylation suggested to inactivate tumour suppressor genesGreger, Passarge, Hopping, Messmer, HorsthemkeInstitute of Human Genetics
December 1989First use of genetically engineered T cells to redirect T cells to recognise and attack tumour cellsGross, Waks, EshharWeizmann Institute
December 1989Concept of enhancing T cells using chimeric antigen receptors published for first timeGross, Waks, EshharWeizmann Institute
7 Dec 1989Mutations in p53 gene found to play role in development of many common cancersVogelstein, NigroJohns Hopkins University
1990Phage display monoclonal antibodies createdWinterLaboratory of Molecular Biology, CAT
1990Discovery of the nesting gene, the most commonly used marker for neural stem cellsLendahlKarolinska Institutet
1990US FDA approved BCG, a bacterial vaccine against tuberculosis, to treat early stage bladder cancer. It was the first FDA approved immunotherapyHerr, OettgenMemorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center
January 1990Gene therapy concept proven in first human trialsKasid, Morecki, Aebersold, Cornetta, Culver, Freeman, Director, Lotze, Blaese, AndersonNational Cancer Institute
May 1990Discovery of lymphocyte activation gene 3 (LAG3)Triebel, Jitsukawa, Baixeras, Roman-Roman, Genevee, Viegas-Pequinot, Hecend Institut Gustave-Roussy
August 1990p53 found to arrest cell cyleMichalovitz, Halevy, Oren, Mercer, Shields, Amin, Sauve, Appella, Romano, UllrichWeizmann Institute, Temple University
30 Aug 1990Treatment with gene modified tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes shown to be promising immunotherapy for patients with advance melanomaRosenberg, Aebersold, Cornetta, Kasid, Morgan, Moen, Karson, Lotze, Yang, Topalian, Merino, Culver, Miller, Blaese, AndersonNational Cancer Institute
1 Sep 1990The Therapeutic Antibody Centre (TAC) opens in the Regional Transfusion Centre at Addenbrooke's Hospital.Waldmann, HaleCambridge University
September 1990Four year old Ashanti DeSilva becomes first patient successfully treated with gene therapy for severe combined immunodeficiency caused by defective ADA geneAnderson, Blease, DeSilvaNational Institutes of Health
21 Dec 1990BRCA1 gene linked with inherited predisposition to cancerKingUniversity of California Berkley
1991First display and selection of human antibodies phageBarbas, LernerScripps Research Institute
1991Campath-1H begins to be tested in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA)Isaacs, Hazleman, Hale, WaldmannCambridge University
1991Herman Waldmann and Alastair Compston begin a collaboration to test Campath-1H for treating multiple sclerosis (MS).Waldmann, Hale, CompstonCambridge University
1991The first MS patient is given Campath-1HWaldmann, hale, CompstonCambridge University
1991 - 1991p53 found to be a transcription factorBargonetti, Friedman, Kern, Vogelstein, Prives, el-Deiry, Pietenpol, KinzleColumbia University, Johns Hopkins University, University of Texas Southwestern
1991p53 found to induce apoptosis, self destruction of a cellYonish-Rouach, Resnitzky, Lotem, Sachs, Kimchi, OrenWeizmann Institute
6 Feb 1991Salvador E Luria diedLuriaMassachusetts Institute of Technology
March 1991Monoclonal antibody drug approved in Europe for the treatment of septic shockKaplan, TangStanford University Medical School, Centocor
25 Jun 1991Michael Heidelberger died in New York City, USAHeidelbergerRockefeller Institute, Columbia University
1992First public bank set up for umbilical cord blood bank in New YorkRubinsteinNew York Blood Center
1992Stem cells used as vectors to deliver the genes needed to correct the genetic disorder SCIDBordignonVita-Salute San Raffaele University
1992Gene targeting technology in combination with embryonic stem cells shown to be powerful tool for creating specific genetic mutations in mice so as to study gene function and create animal models of human genetic diseaseBradley, Ramirez-Solis, Zheng, Hasty, DavisBaylor College of Medicine
1992MDM2, an oncogene product, found to negatively regulate p53Momand, Zambetti, Olson, George, LevinePrinceton University
1992Mice genetically modified to be deficient in p53 shown to be prone to cancerDonehower, Harvey, Slagle, McArthur, Montgomery, Butel, BradleyBaylor College
1992p53 shown to maintain genome stabilityLivingstone, White, Sprouse, Livanos, Jacks, Tlsty, Yin, Tainsky, Bischoff, Strong, WahlUniversity of North Carolina, MD Anderson Cancer Centre
February 1992Monoclonal antibodies market crashed following FDA's call for more information for Centocor's drug, CentoxinSchoemaker, Koprowski, MilsteinCentocor, Wistar
21 Mar 1992John C Sheehan diedSheehanMassachusetts Institute of Technology
18 Apr 1992Daniel Bovet diedBovetIstituto Superiore di Sanita
12 Jun 1992First transgenic mouse model created for studying link between DNA methylation and diseaseLi, Bestor, JaenischWhitehead Institute for Biomedical Research
2 Sep 1992Barbara McClintock diedMcClintockUniversity of Missouri
1 Oct 1992First experimental evidence showing links between diet and DNA methylation and its relationship with cancerZapisek, Cronin, Lyn-Cook, PoirierFDA, National Center for Toxicological Research
November 1992PD-1 (programmed cell death protein 1) discovered by team led by Tasuku HonjoHonjoKyoto University
1993The rights to Campath are assigned to the British Technology Group (BTG).WaldmannCambridge University
15 Jan 1993Chimeric receptor genes added to T lymphocytes shown to enhance power of adoptive cellular therapy against tumoursEshhar, Waks, Gross, SchindlerWeizmann Institute
11 Feb 1993Robert W Holley diedHolleyCornell University
15 Apr 1993Immune molecule, granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor or GM-CSF, discovered to strengthen immunity against tumours Dranoff, Jaffee, Lazenby, Golumbek, Levitsky, Brose, Jackson, Hamada, Pardoll, MulliganMassachusetts Institute of Technology
September 1993p21 shown to be a p53 target geneel-Deiry, Tokino, Velculescu, Levy, Parsons, Trent, Lin, Mercer, Kinzler, Vogelstein Johns Hopkins University, National Center for Human Genome Research, Thomas Jefferson University
1 Nov 1993Severo Ochoa diedOchoaNew York University
1994Cancer stem cell theory advancedDickOntario Cancer Institute
1994First transgenic mice strains reported for producing human monoclonal antibodiesBruggemann, Green, Lonsberg, NeubergerCell Genesys, GenPharm, Laboratory of Molecular Biology
1 Jan 1994Waldmann moves to Oxford University.WaldmannOxford University
1994The TAC relocates to Oxford.Hale, WaldmannOxford University
1994Alasdair Coles joins Compston's teamColesCambridge University
9 Feb 1994Howard M Temin diedTeminUniversity of Wisconsin
1994 - 1994Identification and characterisation of the natural killer T cell, a lymphocyte able to bind and kill certain tumour and virus-infected cellsBendelacUniversity of Chicago
17 Apr 1994Roger W Sperry diedSperryCalifornia Institute of Technology
1994Experiments in adult rats indicate olifactory ensheathing cells could regenerate injured dorsal root axons in spinal cordRamon-Cueto, Nieto-SampedroInstituto Cajal
July 1994DNA structure of p53-DNA elucidatedCho, Gorina, Jeffrey, PavletichMemorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center
29 Jul 1994Dorothy M Crowfoot Hodgkin diedHodgkinOxford University
18 Aug 1994Richard Laurence Millington Synge diedSyngeRowett Research Institute
19 Aug 1994Linus C Pauling diedPaulingCalifornia Institute of Technology
30 Sep 1994Andre Michel Lwoff diedLwoffPasteur Institute
7 Oct 1994Niels Kaj Jerne diedJerneBasel Institute for Immunology
3 Nov 1994Ralph W G Wyckoff diedWyckoffRockefeller University
December 1994Second monoclonal antibody drug approvedCollerStony Brook University, Centocor
1994First chimeric monoclonal antibody therapeutic approved for marketCollerCentocor, State University of New York
December 1994Breaks made in a double-strand of DNA in a mouse chromosome for the first time using a rare-cutting endonuclease, I-Scel. The method lays the foundation for a new technique for targeted genome modification using double-stranded breaks instead of plasmids.Rouet, Smih, JasinSloan-Kettering Institute, Cornell University
1995First monoclonal antibody drug for cancer approved in EuropeKoprowski 
1995First monoclonal antibody therapeutic for cancer approved for marketKoprowskiWistar Institute, Centocor
1 Jan 1995Two teams, one led by James Alison and the other by Jeffrey Bluestone, independently show CTLA-4 can inhibit the activity of T cellsAllison, Bluestone, Leach, KrummelUniversity of California Berkeley, University of California San Francisco
1995Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard, Eric Wieschaus and Edward B Lewis jointly awarded Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for illuminating the genetic control of embryonic developmentNusslein-Volhard, Wieschaus, Lewis 
18 Jan 1995Adolf F J Butenandt diedButenandtMax Planck Institute
1 Mar 1995Georges Kohler diedKohlerLaboratory of Molecular Biology
21 Apr 1995First evidence published to demonstrate reduced DNA methylation contributes to formation of tumoursLaird, Jackson-Grusby, Fazeli, Dickinson, Jung, Li, Weinberg, JaenischMassachusetts Institute of Technology, Massachusetts General Hospital
14 May 1995Christian B Anfinsen died AnfinsenNational Institutes of Health
23 Jun 1995Jonas Salk diedSalkUniversity of Pittsburgh
July 1995Craig Venter's team at The Institute of Genomics Research (TIGR) published the first complete sequence of the 1.8 Mbp genome of a free-living organism (the bacterium Haemophilus influenzae)VenterThe Institute for Genomic Research
1996First reports that blood stem cell might be able to give rise to cells other than those of the blood systemBlau, Lagasse, Lemischka, Morrison, Thiese, Krause, Gussoni, Bjornson 
1996Pyrosequencing is introduced for DNA sequencingRonaghi, NyrenRoyal Institute of Technology
1996 - 1996Experiments with rats conducted by different research teams around the world confirm olifactory ensheathing cells help repair spinal cordSmale, Li, Imaizumi, Guntinas-Lichius, Nash, RuitenbergQueen's University, University College London, Yale University, University of Cologne, University of the Health Sciences, Netherlands Institute for Brain Research
January 1996Dolly the sheep was cloned by Professor Ian Wilmut's team at the Roslin Institute in EdinburghWilmutRoslin Institute
February 1996Scientists genetically engineer the first restriction-modification enzymes with tailor-made sequence specifities capable of editing a genome. Kim, Cha, ChandrasegaranJohns Hopkins University
22 Mar 1996Mice experiments published demonstrating that blocking the CTLA-4 molecule on immune cells can cure cancerLeach, Krummel, AllisonUniversity California Berkeley
6 Jun 1996George D Snell diedSnellJackson Laboratory
9 Jun 1996Daniel Mazia diedMaziaUniversity of California Berkeley
5 Jul 1996Dolly the sheep, the first cloned mammal, was bornWilmutRoslin Institute
1 Aug 1996Tadeus Reichstein diedReichsteinBasel University
1997FDA approved the first monoclonal antibody cancer drug for the American marketLevy, RastetterStanford University Medical School, Idec Pharmaceuticals
1997Small scale tests launched with Campath-1H for organ transplant patients.Waldmann, Calne, FriendCambridge University
10 Jan 1997Alexander R Todd diedToddUniversity of Manchester
12 Jan 1997Charles Brenton Huggins diedHugginsUniversity of Chicago
26 Feb 1997Max Sterne diedSterneOnderstepoort Veterinary Research Institute
March 1997p53 shown to be linked to senescence, biological agingSerrano , Lin, McCurrach, Beach, Lowe Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
29 Mar 1997Ruth Sager diedSagerRockefeller University
29 Mar 1997Death of Norman Wingate (Bill) PiriePirieRothamsted Experimental Station
April 1997Christopher Mirabelli, Chief Executive Officer of LeukoSite, agrees to take over the commercial development of Campath-1H.MirabelliLeukoSite
12 Apr 1997George Wald diedWaldHarvard University,
2 May 1997John C Eccles diedEcclesAustralian National University
2 May 1997Keith Roberts Porter diedPorterHarvard University, University of Colorado
22 May 1997Alfred D Hershey diedHersheyCarnegie Institution of Washington
22 May 1997Wake-up call for many life sciences funding agencies of inherent discrimination against women applicants as result of analysis of Swedish Medical Research Council's grant selection scheme Wenneras, Wold, 
23 Aug 1997John C Kendrew diedKendrewLaboratory of Molecular Biology
December 1997First humanised monoclonal antibody approved for marketQueenProtein Design Labs, Roche
1998Human brain demonstrated to contain cells with stem-like propertiesEriksson, GageSahlgrenska University Hospital, Salk Institute
1998Analysis of 29 MS patients given MS indicate Campath-1H might be more effective if given earlier in the course of the disease.Compston, Coles, Waldmann, HaleCambridge University
February 1998Double stranded RNA demonstrated to be potent mechanism for silencing genesFire, Mello, Xu, Montgomery, Kostas, Driver, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Johns Hopkins University, University of Massachusetts Cancer Center
27 Feb 1998George H Hitchings diedHitchingsWellcome Research Laboratories
May 1998Commercial Human Genome Project launchedVenterCelera Genomics
7 May 1998Allan M Cormack diedCormackTufts University
August 1998FDA and European regulatory authorities approved the first monoclonal antibody drug for an autoimmune diseaseVilcek, Le, Feldmann, MainiNew York University, Centocor, Kennedy Institute of Rheumatology
October 1998First human embryonic stem cell line derived Thomson, Itskovitz-Eldor, Shapiro, Waknitz, Swiergiel, Marshall, JonesUniversity of Wisconsin-Madison
7 Dec 1998Martin Rodbell diedRodbellNational Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
20 Dec 1998Alan Lloyd Hodgkin diedHodgkinCambridge University
1999Adult neural stem cells identified as capable of forming new neural stem cellsFrisenKarolinska Institutet
1999Discovery of small interfering RNA (siRNA), very small stretches of double-stranded RNA, interfere with genesBaulcombe, Hamilton John Innes Centre
21 Feb 1999Gertrude B Elion diedElionWellcome Research Laboratories
10 Apr 1999Heinz Ludwig Fraenkel-Conrat diedFraenkel-Conrat University of California Berkeley
July 1999Meeting of 70 European organisations in Brussels issues joint statement describing the under-representation of women in science as 'a serious obstacle for the development of the sciences and for European society' Dewandre 
20 Jul 1999DNA methylation of CpG islands shown to be linked to colorectal cancerToyota, Ahuja, Ohe-Toyota, Herman, Baylin, IssaJohns Hopkins University