Transplantation

Transplantation: timeline of key events

Carrel was awarded the 1912 Nobel Prize for Medicine in recognition of 'his work on vascular structure and the transplantation of blood vessels and organs'.1873-06-28T00:00:00+0000Kolff invented the first kidney dialysis machine in 1943 as a young physician working at the University of Groningen Hospital in the Netherlands. He pioneered the machine after watching a young man die slowly from kidney failure. The machine saves the lives of hundreds of thousands of patients with chronic kidney disease each year.1911-02-14T00:00:00+0000Medawar was a zoologist and biologist whose studies of graft rejection demonstrated the principle of acquired immunological tolerance, the state by which substances originally considered foreign become regarded as self by the immune system. This finding laid the foundation for tissue and organ transplantation. In 1960 Medawar was awarded the Nobel Prize for the work he did in the area. 1915-02-28T00:00:00+0000Murray shared the 1990 Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'discoveries concerning organ and cell transplantation in the treatment of human disease.' He performed the first successful kidney transplant between identical twins. 1919-04-01T00:00:00+0000Good performed the first successful bone marrow transplant to treat a disease other than cancer. He also determined the role of the thymus and tonsils in the immune system.1922-05-21T00:00:00+0000Barnard was a South African cardiac surgeon who performed the first successful human to human heart transplant.1922-11-08T00:00:00+0000Carrel, awarded 1912 Nobel Prize for Medicine in recognition of 'his work on vascular structure and the transplantation of blood vessels and organs'.1944-11-05T00:00:00+0000Each sick child was terminally ill and chemotherapy was of no further use. Lethal levels of radiation were used to try to eradicate the leukaemia, followed by the infusion of genetically identical marrow (from the healthy twin).1959-01-01T00:00:00+0000The proceedure was performed by physician-scientist Robert Good to treat boy born with severe combined immunodeficiency. 1968-01-01T00:00:00+0000The transplant was carried out by Richard O'Reilly and Robert Good. This lays the foundation for the routine use of bone marrow transplants for treating some blood cancers. Such transplants are classed as immunotherapy because immune cells from the donor kill cancer cells in the recipient. 1973-01-01T00:00:00+0000Medawar was a zoologist and biologist whose work on skin grafts demonstrated the principle of acquired immunological tolerance, the state by which substances originally considered foreign become regarded as self by the immune system. His work helped improve the success of tissue and organ transplants. In 1960 Medawar was awarded the Nobel Prize for the work he did in the area. 1987-10-02T00:00:00+0000Barnard was a South African cardiac surgeon who performed the first successful human to human heart transplant.2001-09-02T00:00:00+0000Good performed the first successful bone marrow transplant to treat a disease other than cancer. He also determined the role of the thymus and tonsils in the immune system.2003-06-13T00:00:00+0000Kolff was a Dutch-American physician who invented the first kidney dialysis machine.2009-02-11T00:00:00+0000Murray shared the 1990 Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'discoveries concerning organ and cell transplantation in the treatment of human disease.' He performed the first successful kidney transplant between identical twins. 2012-11-26T00:00:00+0000
Date Event People Places
28 Jun 1873Alexis Carrel was born in Sainte-Foy-lès-Lyon, FranceCarrelRockefeller University
14 Feb 1911Willem J Kolff was born Leiden, NetherlandsKolff 
28 Feb 1915Peter Brian Medawar was born in Rio de Janeiro, BrazilMedawarUniversity College London
1 Apr 1919Joseph E Murray was born in Milford MA, USAMurrayBrigham and Women's Hospital
21 May 1922Robert A Good was born in Crosby, Minnesota, USAGood University of Minnesota
8 Nov 1922Christiaan Barnard was born in Beaufort West, South AfricaBarnardUniversity of Cape Town
5 Nov 1944Alexis Carrel diedCarrelRockefeller University
1959Bone marrow transplants in two sets of identical twin girls fails to eradicate leukaemiaThomas, Ferrebee, Sahler Bassett Medical Center
1968First successful bone marrow transplant from a siblingGoodMemorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center
1973First successful bone marrow transplant from unrelated donorGood, O'ReillyMemorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center
2 Oct 1987Peter Medawar diedMedawarUniversity College London
2 Sep 2001Christiaan Barnard diedBarnardUniversity of Cape Town
13 Jun 2003Robert A Good diedGood University of Minnesota
11 Feb 2009Willem J Kolff diedKolff 
26 Nov 2012Joseph E Murray diedMurrayBrigham and Women's Hospital

28 Jun 1873

Alexis Carrel was born in Sainte-Foy-lès-Lyon, France

14 Feb 1911

Willem J Kolff was born Leiden, Netherlands

28 Feb 1915

Peter Brian Medawar was born in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

1 Apr 1919

Joseph E Murray was born in Milford MA, USA

21 May 1922

Robert A Good was born in Crosby, Minnesota, USA

8 Nov 1922

Christiaan Barnard was born in Beaufort West, South Africa

5 Nov 1944

Alexis Carrel died

1959

Bone marrow transplants in two sets of identical twin girls fails to eradicate leukaemia

1968

First successful bone marrow transplant from a sibling

1973

First successful bone marrow transplant from unrelated donor

2 Oct 1987

Peter Medawar died

2 Sep 2001

Christiaan Barnard died

13 Jun 2003

Robert A Good died

11 Feb 2009

Willem J Kolff died

26 Nov 2012

Joseph E Murray died