Cloning

Cloning: timeline of key events

The cloning, achieved by Beverly Griffin with Tomas Lindahl, was announced to a meeting at Cold Spring Harbor2018-05-28T05:16:14+0000Ruddle helped pioneer human gene mapping and established many of the techniques and a framework for setting up the Human Genome Project. He is also known for having generated, with Jon W. Gordon and George Scango the first successful transgenic mouse. His work heralded the development of genetically modified animals as research models to investigate the function of genes and genetic cause of disease. He also co-discovered, with William McGinnis, the first human homeobox genes, important regulators of gene development. 1929-08-19T00:00:00+0000Baltimore shared the 1975 Nobel Prize for his work on the interaction between tumor viruses and the genetic material of the cell. He also spearheaded efforts for the scientific governance of recombinant DNA and genome editing technologies. 1938-03-07T00:00:00+00001981-01-01T00:00:00+0000The work opened up the possibility of sequencing the virus. It was published in J R Arrand, L. Rymo, J E Walsh, E Bjorck, T Lindahl and B E Griffin, ‘Molecular cloning of the complete Epstein-Barr virus genome as a set of overlapping restriction endonuclease fragments’, Nucleic Acids Research, 9/13 (1981), 2999-2014.1981-07-10T00:00:00+0000 Illmensee’s 1981 announcement of cloning mice is believed to be fraudulent1984-01-01T00:00:00+0000The suggestion involves the insertion of gene segments from a human antibody into the DNA of early mouse embryos. It is put forward by scientists at Columbia University, this idea is published in FW. Alt, TK. Blackwell, GD. Yancopoulos, 'Immunoglobulin genes in transgenic mice', Trends Genetics, 1 (1985), 231–6.1985-01-01T00:00:00+0000This patent is filed on the basis of work reported in M Brüggeman, HM Caskey, C Teale, H Waldmann, Williams, Surani, and MS Neuberger, A repertoire of monoclonal antibodies with human heavy chains from transgenic mice, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 86 (Sept 1989), 6709-13. 1988-01-01T00:00:00+0000Three groups of scientists separately report the successful generation of different strains of transgenic mice for the generation of human monoclonal antibodies. Two of the teams are based in biotechnology companies: GenPharm (led by Nils Lonsberg), Cell Gensys (led by Larry Green) , and the other involved a collaboration (led by Marian Bruggemann and Michael Neuberger) between scientists at the Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Braham Institute and the University of Cologne.1994-01-01T00:00:00+0000Dolly the sheep was born as a result of the cloning of an adult cell. This was achieved by transferring the nucleus of an adult sheep's cell to the nucleus of an unfertilised egg cell. It took 277 attempts to achieve success. Dolly was the first mammal to be cloned.1996-01-07T00:00:00+0000Dolly the sheep was created by cloning an adult cell. This was done by transferring the nucleus of an adult sheep's cell to the nucleus of an unfertilised egg cell. It took 277 attempts to achieve success.1996-07-05T00:00:00+0000Advanced Cell Technology, a private lab, created a six-cell embryo by removing DNA from a human egg and injecting it with the DNA of a skin cell. The aim was to produce genetically matched replacement cells for patients with a wide range of diseases.2001-10-01T00:00:00+0000Guidelines included a ban on public funding of research that could lead to cloning, as well as a ban on creating embryos simply for research purposes. It also banned payments to obtain embryos for research.2002-03-04T00:00:00+0000Dolly the sheep was created by cloning an adult cell. This was done by transferring the nucleus of an adult sheep's cell to the nucleus of an unfertilised egg cell. It took 277 attempts to achieve success.2003-02-14T00:00:00+0000Advanced Cell Technology, a private lab, created a six-cell embryo by removing DNA from a human egg and injecting it with the DNA of a skin cell. The aim was to produce genetically matched replacement cells for patients with a wide range of diseases.2006-08-23T00:00:00+0000Ruddle helped pioneer human gene mapping and established many of the techniques and a framework for setting up the Human Genome Project. He is also known for having generated, with Jon W. Gordon and George Scango the first successful transgenic mouse. His work heralded the development of genetically modified animals as research models to investigate the function of genes and genetic cause of disease. He also co-discovered, with William McGinnis, the first human homeobox genes, important regulators of gene development. 2013-03-10T00:00:00+0000Z. Liu et al, 'Cloning of macaque monkeys by somatic cell nuclear transfer', Cell (2018), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2018.01.020 2018-01-24T00:00:00+0000
Date Event People Places
1970First DNA fragments of Epstein Barr Virus cloned Griffin, LindahlImperial Cancer Research Fund Laboratories, University of Gothenberg
19 Aug 1929Frank Ruddle was born in West New York, New JerseyRuddleYale University
7 Mar 1938David Baltimore was born in New York CityBaltimoreNew York City
January 1981First cloning of mice claimedIllmensee, HoppeUniversity of Geneva, Jackson laboratory
10 Jul 1981Complete library of overlapping DNA fragments of Epstein Barr Virus clonedGriffin, Arrand, Walsh, Bjorck, RymoImperial Cancer Research Fund Laboratories, University of Gothenberg
1984First mouse clone claim challengedUniversity of Geneva
January 1985Idea put forward for the creation of transgenic mice to produce human antibodiesAlt, Blackwell, YancopoulosColumbia University
1988Patent application filed for a method to create transgenic mice for the production of human antibodiesBruggeman, Caskey, Neuberger, Surani, Teale, Waldmann, WilliamsLaboratory of Molecular Biology, Babraham Institute, Cambridge University
1994First transgenic mice strains reported for producing human monoclonal antibodiesBruggemann, Green, Lonsberg, NeubergerCell Genesys, GenPharm, Laboratory of Molecular Biology
January 1996Dolly the sheep was cloned by Professor Ian Wilmut's team at the Roslin Institute in EdinburghWilmutRoslin Institute
5 Jul 1996Dolly the sheep, the first cloned mammal, was bornWilmutRoslin Institute
October 2001Human embryo cloned to make stem cellsAdvanced Cell Technology
4 Mar 2002Canadian Institutes of Health Research unveiled guidelines for stem cell research 
14 Feb 2003Dolly the sheep, the first cloned mammal diedWilmutRoslin Institute
August 2006Human embryo cloned to make stem cellsAdvanced Cell Technology
10 Mar 2013Frank Ruddle died in New Haven, ConnecticutRuddleYale University
24 Jan 2018Chinese scientists cloned the first monkeys by somatic cell nuclear transferLiu, Cai, Wang, Nie, Zhang, Xu, Xiatong, Zhang, Lu, Poo, SunChinese Academy of Sciences

2018

First DNA fragments of Epstein Barr Virus cloned

19 Aug 1929

Frank Ruddle was born in West New York, New Jersey

7 Mar 1938

David Baltimore was born in New York City

Jan 1981

First cloning of mice claimed

10 Jul 1981

Complete library of overlapping DNA fragments of Epstein Barr Virus cloned

1984

First mouse clone claim challenged

Jan 1985

Idea put forward for the creation of transgenic mice to produce human antibodies

1988

Patent application filed for a method to create transgenic mice for the production of human antibodies

1994

First transgenic mice strains reported for producing human monoclonal antibodies

Jan 1996

Dolly the sheep was cloned by Professor Ian Wilmut's team at the Roslin Institute in Edinburgh

5 Jul 1996

Dolly the sheep, the first cloned mammal, was born

Oct 2001

Human embryo cloned to make stem cells

4 Mar 2002

Canadian Institutes of Health Research unveiled guidelines for stem cell research

14 Feb 2003

Dolly the sheep, the first cloned mammal died

Aug 2006

Human embryo cloned to make stem cells

10 Mar 2013

Frank Ruddle died in New Haven, Connecticut

24 Jan 2018

Chinese scientists cloned the first monkeys by somatic cell nuclear transfer