Timeline of key events in biotechnology

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The cloning, achieved by Beverly Griffin with Tomas Lindahl, was announced to a meeting at Cold Spring Harbor2018-06-18T07:29:27+0000Harvey was the first physician to describe in detail the pump action of the heart and the circulation of blood. He published this work in 1628. His findings sparked controversy at the time because they challenged Galen's teachings that blood passed between ventricles through invisible pores and the traditional view that blood circulation involved two separate systems. 1578-04-01T00:00:00+0000Hooke was a natural philosopher. In 1665 he coined the word 'cell' to describe a basic unit of life in his book, Microphia, describing his observations with microscopes and telescopes and biological experiments. He noted that plant cells resembled the cells of a honeycomb. 1635-07-28T00:00:00+0000Harvey was an English physician. He was the first physician to describe in detail the pump action of the heart and the circulation of blood. He published this work in 1628. His findings sparked controversy at the time because they challenged Galen's teachings that blood passed between ventricles through invisible pores and the traditional view that blood circulation involved two separate systems. 1657-06-03T00:00:00+0000The English physicist Robert Hooke provided the first description of cells to the Royal Society.1663-01-01T00:00:00+0000van Leeuwenhoek developed the microscope to study the quality of thread in fabrics sold in his draper's shop.1674-01-01T00:00:00+00001675-01-01T00:00:00+0000Hooke was a natural philosopher. In 1665 he coined the word 'cell' to describe a basic unit of life in his book, Microphia, describing his observations with microscopes and telescopes and biological experiments. He noted that plant cells resembled the cells of a honeycomb. 1703-03-03T00:00:00+0000Jenner was an English physician who helped pioneer the smallpox vaccine based on his hypothesis that the pus in blisters milkmaids received from cowpox protected them from smallpox. To test out his theory in 1796 he inoculated the 8 year old son of his gardener with pus taken from the cowpox blisters of a local milkmaid. While the boy suffered a fever he showed no sign of infection with smallpox. Jenner then injected the child with smallpox material, a common method of immunisation at the time, known as variolation. Again he showed no sign of infection. Following this, Jenner tested the same technique in 23 further people. Based on his success, in 1840 the British government outlawed variolation and provided Jenner's method for free to prevent smallpox. Jenner's work laid the foundation for immunisation as a method for preventing disease and for contemporary discoveries in immunology. 1749-05-17T00:00:00+0000Capsar's parents were Richard Wistar and Sarah Wyatt. He was the grandson of Caspar Wistar, a German immigrant, Quaker and glassmaker.1761-09-13T00:00:00+0000Swiss physician, von Haller discovered the autonomous nature of the heart and the mechanism of respiration1777-12-12T00:00:00+0000Caspar had developed an interest in medicine after attending to the wounded in the aftermath of the battle of Germantown. 1783-01-01T00:00:00+0000While in Scotland, Caspar was elected president of the Royal Medical Society of Edinburgh for two years due to his 'investigation of natural history'. Caspar dedicated his doctoral thesis to Benjamin Franklin and to William Cullen, a famous Scottish physician. 1786-01-01T00:00:00+0000He also succeeded Benjamin Rush as professor of chemistry at the College of Philadelphia.1787-01-01T00:00:00+00001793-01-01T00:00:00+0000Coined from the Greek word 'bios', meaning life' and suffix 'logy' meaning 'science of'. The term was introduced independently by Thomas Beddoes in 1799, Karl Friedrich Burdacgh in 1800, and Gottfried Reinhold Treviranus and Jean-Baptiste Lamarck in 1802.1799-01-01T00:00:00+0000Schleiden was a botanist. Based on his study of plant structures under the microscope he helped develop the theory that cells are the basic structure in all organisms and the basic unit of reproduction. He also connected the cell nucleus with cell division and suggested that all embryonic plant cells arose from one cell. 1804-04-05T00:00:00+00001808-01-01T00:00:00+0000Darwin was an English naturalist best known for developing the theory that all species of life have descended over time from common ancestry. His book On the Origin of Species, published in 1859, outlined his evidence for his theory of evolution. While initially rejected, his explanation of natural selection as the basic mechanism for evolution achieved broad consensus by 1930s and was accepted as a unifying theory for the diversity of life.1809-02-12T00:00:00+0000Schwann was a German physiologist who defined the cell as the basic unit of animal tissue structure. This laid the foundation for the study of cell biology.1810-12-07T00:00:00+0000
Date Event People Places Sciences
2018First DNA fragments of Epstein Barr Virus cloned Griffin, LindahlImperial Cancer Research Fund Laboratories, University of GothenbergRecombinant DNA, Virology, Cloning
1 Apr 1578William Harvey was born in Folkestone, United KingdomHarveyFolkestone, United KingdomCardiovascular
28 Jul 1635Robert Hooke was born Freshwater, Isle of WightHooke Cell
3 Jun 1657William Harvey diedHarvey Cardiovascular
1663First time the cell described as a basic unit of lifeHookeRoyal SocietyCell
1674Invention of the microscope by Antonie van LeeuwenhoekLeeuwenhoek  
1675First microscopic observations of protozoa and bacteria by van LeeuwenhoekLeeuwenhoek 
3 Mar 1703Robert Hooke diedHooke Cell
17 May 1749Edward Jenner was born in Berkeley, United KingdomJennerBerkeley, United KingdomImmunology, Vaccine
13 Sep 1761Caspar Wistar was born in Philadelphia Wistar Institute 
Dec 1777Albrecht Von Haller diedvon Haller  
1783Caspar Wistar received his Batchelor of Medicine from the University of Pennsylvania Wistar Institute 
1786Caspar Wistar received his Doctor of Medicine degree from the University of Edinburgh Wistar Institute 
1787Caspar Wistar appointed physician to the Philadelphia Dispensary, elected to the College of Physicians of Philadelphia and to the American Philosophical Society Wistar Institute 
1793Caspar Wistar became staff member of the Pennsylvania Hospital and elected curator of the American Philosophical Society Wistar Institute 
1799 - 1802First use of the word 'biology' Beddoes, Burdach, Treviranus, Lamarck  
5 Apr 1804Matthias J Schleiden was bornSchleiden University of JenaCell, Genetics
1808Caspar Wistar appointed sole professor of anatomy, midwifery and surgery at the University of Pennsylvania Wistar Institute 
12 Feb 1809Charles Darwin was born in Shrewsbury, United KingdomDarwinShrewsbury, United KingdomEvolution
7 Dec 1810Theodor Schwann was bornSchwannUniversity of LiegeCell

2018

First DNA fragments of Epstein Barr Virus cloned

1 Apr 1578

William Harvey was born in Folkestone, United Kingdom

28 Jul 1635

Robert Hooke was born Freshwater, Isle of Wight

3 Jun 1657

William Harvey died

1663

First time the cell described as a basic unit of life

1674

Invention of the microscope by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek

1675

First microscopic observations of protozoa and bacteria by van Leeuwenhoek

3 Mar 1703

Robert Hooke died

17 May 1749

Edward Jenner was born in Berkeley, United Kingdom

13 Sep 1761

Caspar Wistar was born in Philadelphia

Dec 1777

Albrecht Von Haller died

1783

Caspar Wistar received his Batchelor of Medicine from the University of Pennsylvania

1786

Caspar Wistar received his Doctor of Medicine degree from the University of Edinburgh

1787

Caspar Wistar appointed physician to the Philadelphia Dispensary, elected to the College of Physicians of Philadelphia and to the American Philosophical Society

1793

Caspar Wistar became staff member of the Pennsylvania Hospital and elected curator of the American Philosophical Society

1799 - 1802

First use of the word 'biology'

5 Apr 1804

Matthias J Schleiden was born

1808

Caspar Wistar appointed sole professor of anatomy, midwifery and surgery at the University of Pennsylvania

12 Feb 1809

Charles Darwin was born in Shrewsbury, United Kingdom

7 Dec 1810

Theodor Schwann was born