Timeline of key events in biotechnology

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Darwin was an English naturalist best known for developing the theory that all species of life have descended over time from common ancestry1882-04-19T00:00:00+0000Galton publishes the term in his book 'Inquiries into Human Faculty and Its Development'. 1883-01-01T00:00:00+0000Mendel helped establish the laws of inheritance by studying traits between differerent pea plant generations. His work laid the basis for the study of classical genetics.1884-01-06T00:00:00+0000Schwann was a German physiologist who defined the cell as the basic unit of animal tissue structure. This laid the foundation for the study of cell biology.1884-01-11T00:00:00+0000Meyerhof was awarded the 1923 Nobel Prize in Medicine for his discovery of the 'fixed relationship between the consumption of oxygen and the metabolism of lactic acid in the muscle.'1884-04-12T00:00:00+0000A Swedish chemist, Svedberg invented the ultracentrifuge which he used to research colloids and proteins.1884-08-30T00:00:00+0000Albrecht Kossel isolates and describes five organic compounds present in nucleic acids as being adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine, and uracil. 1885-01-01T00:00:00+0000Louis Pasteur successfully tested his rabies vaccine on a nine year old boy who had been bitten by a rabid dog.1885-07-06T00:00:00+0000Kendall shared the 1950 Nobel Prize for Medicine for work on hormones of the adrenal gland. 1886-03-08T00:00:00+0000Robinson's work on the nature and structure of organic compounds laid the foundation for the synthesis of pencillin and anti-malarial drugs. 1886-09-13T00:00:00+0000Goodpasture developed a method of culturing viruses in chicken embryos and fertilized chicken eggs. Before this viruses were grown in living tissues which could be contaminated by bacteria. Goodpasture's method laid the foundation for the development of vaccines for smallpox, yellow fever, typhus and chicken pox.1886-10-17T00:00:00+0000Rose discovered the amino acid threonine and its role in nutrition. He also established that ten amino acids were vital to human health: histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan and valine1887-04-04T00:00:00+0000Houssay was a physiologist who won the Nobel Prize in 1947 for discovering how the pituitary gland regulates glucose or blood sugar levels.1887-04-10T00:00:00+0000Sumner was a chemist who showed that enzymes are proteins and can be crystalised.1887-11-19T00:00:00+00001888-01-01T00:00:00+0000Together with Forrest Kendall and Elvin Kabat, Heidelberg was instrumental in determining antibodies to be proteins. 1888-04-29T00:00:00+0000Gasser shared the 1944 Nobel Prize for Medicine for discovering different fibers in nerves that conduct electrochemical pulses at different rates. This laid the foundation for the theory that one type of fiber conducts pain signals and others conduct motor control signals. 1888-07-05T00:00:00+0000Waksman was a Ukrainian born American biochemist and microbiologist. He was the first to coin the term 'antibiotic' and was responsible for the development of many different antibiotics, including streptomycin, used to treat tuberculosis.1888-07-22T00:00:00+0000Richard Altmann, German pathologist, renames nuclein as nucleic acid.1889-01-01T00:00:00+0000Bragg shared the 1915 Nobel Prize in Physics with his father, William Henry Bragg, for the development of x-ray crystallography.1890-03-31T00:00:00+0000
Date Event People Places Sciences
19 Apr 1882Charles Darwin diedDarwin Evolution
1883The term 'Eugenics' is coined by Francis Galton to denote the science of improving stock by judicious matingGalton Genetics
6 Jan 1884Gregor Johann Mendel diedMendel Genetics
11 Jan 1884Theodor Schwann diedSchwannUniversity of LiegeCell
12 Apr 1884Otto F Meyerhof was born in Hanover, GermanyMeyerhofKiel UniversityMetabolism
30 Aug 1884Theodor H E Svedberg was born in Flerang, SwedenSvedbergUppsala UniversityBiochemistry
1885 - 1901Nucleic acids structure determinedKosselInstitute of Physiology, University of Berlin, University of MarburgDNA
1885First rabies vaccine testedPasteurPasteur InstituteBacteriology, Vaccine
8 Mar 1886Edward Calvin Kendall was born in South Norwalk CT, USAKendallMayo ClinicBiochemistry, Endocrinology
13 Sep 1886Robert Robinson was born Rufford, near Chesterfield, United KingdomRobinsonOxford UniversityAntibacterial agents
17 Oct 1886Ernest Goodpasture was born Clarksville, TN, USAGoodpastureHarvard UniversityVirology, Vaccine
4 Apr 1887William Cumming Rose was born Greenville, South Carolina, USARoseUniversity of IllinoisNutrition, Biochemistry
10 Apr 1887Bernardo Alberto Houssay was born in n Buenos Aires, ArgentinaHoussay University of Buenos AiresMetabolism
19 Nov 1887James B Sumner was born in Canton MA, USASumnerCornell UniversityBiochemistry
1888Term 'chromosome' coined by Edouard van Beneden, denoting 'coloured bodies'Beneden  
29 Apr 1888Michael Heidelberger was born in New York City, USAHeidelbergerNew York City 
5 Jul 1888Herbert Spencer Gasser was born in Platteville WI, USAGasserRockefeller Institute 
22 Jul 1888Selman A Waksman was born in Priluka (now Pryluky), Russian Empire (now Ukraine)WaksmanRutgers UniversityAntibacterial agents
1889Richard Altmann, German pathologist, renames nuclein as nucleic acidAltmannLeipzig UniversityGenetics, DNA
31 Mar 1890William Lawrence Bragg was born in Adelaide, Australia Adelaide, AustraliaX ray crystallography

19 Apr 1882

Charles Darwin died

1883

The term 'Eugenics' is coined by Francis Galton to denote the science of improving stock by judicious mating

6 Jan 1884

Gregor Johann Mendel died

11 Jan 1884

Theodor Schwann died

12 Apr 1884

Otto F Meyerhof was born in Hanover, Germany

30 Aug 1884

Theodor H E Svedberg was born in Flerang, Sweden

1885 - 1901

Nucleic acids structure determined

1885

First rabies vaccine tested

8 Mar 1886

Edward Calvin Kendall was born in South Norwalk CT, USA

13 Sep 1886

Robert Robinson was born Rufford, near Chesterfield, United Kingdom

17 Oct 1886

Ernest Goodpasture was born Clarksville, TN, USA

4 Apr 1887

William Cumming Rose was born Greenville, South Carolina, USA

10 Apr 1887

Bernardo Alberto Houssay was born in n Buenos Aires, Argentina

19 Nov 1887

James B Sumner was born in Canton MA, USA

1888

Term 'chromosome' coined by Edouard van Beneden, denoting 'coloured bodies'

29 Apr 1888

Michael Heidelberger was born in New York City, USA

5 Jul 1888

Herbert Spencer Gasser was born in Platteville WI, USA

22 Jul 1888

Selman A Waksman was born in Priluka (now Pryluky), Russian Empire (now Ukraine)

1889

Richard Altmann, German pathologist, renames nuclein as nucleic acid

31 Mar 1890

William Lawrence Bragg was born in Adelaide, Australia