Timeline of key events in biotechnology

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Sharon Peacock and Julian Parkhill together with other researchers from the University of Cambridge and the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute used whole genome sequencing to trace the spread of an outbreak of meticillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Rosie Hospital's special care baby unit. Prospective sequencing then led them to screen staff and identify the potential source of infection. The researchers reported that the cost of DNA sequencing for the infection was half of the 10,000 pounds spent by the hospital to combat the outbreak of MRSA.2012-06-01T00:00:00+0000European Medicines Agency approves alipogene tiparvovec (Glybera) developed by Amsterdam Molecular Therapeutics and marketed by UniQure2012-07-01T00:00:00+0000M Jinek, K Chylinski, I Fonfara, M Hauer, J A Doudna, E Charpentier, 'A programmable dual-RNA-guided DNA endonuclease in adaptive bacterial immunity', Science, 337/6096 (2012): 816-21.2012-08-17T00:00:00+00002012-09-28T00:00:00+0000Thomas shared the 1990 Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'discoveries concerning organ and cell transplantation in the treatment of human disease.'2012-10-20T00:00:00+0000Murray shared the 1990 Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'discoveries concerning organ and cell transplantation in the treatment of human disease.' He performed the first successful kidney transplant between identical twins. 2012-11-26T00:00:00+0000Undertaken at the University of California's Rady Children's Hospital in San Diego, the study involves the sequencing of all the genes of individuals in 118 families with a neurodevelopment problem. 2012-12-01T00:00:00+0000Submitted by Feng Zhang at MIT. Covers method for using CRISPR-Cas9 for genome editing in eukaryotic cells. 2012-12-12T00:00:00+0000Levi-Montalcini shared the 1986 Nobel Prize for Medicine for discovering nerve growth factors.2012-12-30T00:00:00+0000Woese was a microbiologist who discovered the first archaea, single cell organisms with no nucleus or other organelles.2012-12-30T00:00:00+00002013-01-01T00:00:00+00002013-01-01T00:00:00+0000Askonas co-developed one of the first systems for the cloning of antibody-forming B cells in vivo, some of the earliest monoclonal antibodies. She was also one of the first scientists to isolate and clone virus specific T lymphocytes, laying the foundation for defining different influenza sub-sets and improving vaccines. 2013-01-09T00:00:00+00002013-02-01T00:00:00+0000Study conducted with 41 patients with advanced cancer. Led by Josep Tabernero, Institute of Oncology Department, Vall d'Hebron University together with Alnylam and other cancer research centres.2013-02-11T00:00:00+00002013-03-01T00:00:00+0000Ruddle helped pioneer human gene mapping and established many of the techniques and a framework for setting up the Human Genome Project. He is also known for having generated, with Jon W. Gordon and George Scango the first successful transgenic mouse. His work heralded the development of genetically modified animals as research models to investigate the function of genes and genetic cause of disease. He also co-discovered, with William McGinnis, the first human homeobox genes, important regulators of gene development. 2013-03-10T00:00:00+00002013-04-01T00:00:00+0000Jacob shared the 1965 Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis.' 2013-04-19T00:00:00+0000de Duve shaed 1974 Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'discoveries concerning the structural and functional organisation of the cell.'2013-05-04T00:00:00+0000
Date Event People Places Sciences
Jun 2012DNA sequencing helps identify the source of an MRSA outbreak in a neornatal intensive care unitPeacock, ParkhillCambridge University, Wellcome Trust Sanger InstituteDNA Sequencing
Jul 2012First gene therapy approved for treatment of patients with familial lipoprotein lipase deficiency Amsterdam Molecular TherapeuticsGene therapy
Aug 2012A group of scientists based at Howard Hughes Medical Institute published a radically new gene editing method that harnessed the CRISPR-Cas9 system Jinek, Chylinski, Fonfara, Hauer, Doudna, CharpentierUniversity of California BerkeleyCRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
2012European approval of decatabine (Dacogen) for treatment of acute myeloid leukaemia  Epigenetics, Oncology
20 Oct 2012E Donnall Thomas diedThomasFred Hutchinson Cancer Research CenterTransplantaion, Immunology
26 Nov 2012Joseph E Murray diedMurrayBrigham and Women's HospitalTransplantation, Immunology
Dec 2012DNA sequencing utilised for identifying neurological disease conditions different from those given in the original diagnosis University of California San DiegoDNA Sequencing
Dec 2012Fast track application for CRISPR-Cas 9 technology submitted to US patent office. ZhangBroad Institute, Massachusetts Institute of TechnologyCRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
30 Dec 2012Rita Levi-Montalcini diedLevi-MontalciniInstitute of Cell Biology of the CNRCell, Biochemistry
30 Dec 2012Carl Richard Woese diedWoese Microbiology
Jan 2013CRISPR-Cas is used in human genome editing  CRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
Jan 2013CRISPR-Cas is used to edit the genome of a zebrafish  CRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
9 Jan 2013Brigitte Askonas died in London, United KingdomAskonasLondon, United Kingdom 
Feb 2013CRISPR-Cas is used to programme repression and activation of gene transcription   CRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
Feb 2013RNAi treatment shown to be effective cancer treatment in phase I clinical trialsTaberneroVall d'Hebron University RNA interference
Mar 2013CRISPR-Cas is used in genome editing of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a yeast species used in wine making, baking and brewing  CRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
10 Mar 2013Frank Ruddle died in New Haven, ConnecticutRuddle  
Apr 2013Scientists show that CRISPR-Cas mediated gene regulation contributes to the regulation of endogenous bacterial genesWeiss CRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
19 Apr 2013Francois Jacob diedJacobPasteur InstituteGenetics
4 May 2013Christian Rene de Duve diedde DuveRockefeller UniversityCell

Jun 2012

DNA sequencing helps identify the source of an MRSA outbreak in a neornatal intensive care unit

Jul 2012

First gene therapy approved for treatment of patients with familial lipoprotein lipase deficiency

Aug 2012

A group of scientists based at Howard Hughes Medical Institute published a radically new gene editing method that harnessed the CRISPR-Cas9 system

2012

European approval of decatabine (Dacogen) for treatment of acute myeloid leukaemia

20 Oct 2012

E Donnall Thomas died

26 Nov 2012

Joseph E Murray died

Dec 2012

DNA sequencing utilised for identifying neurological disease conditions different from those given in the original diagnosis

Dec 2012

Fast track application for CRISPR-Cas 9 technology submitted to US patent office.

30 Dec 2012

Rita Levi-Montalcini died

30 Dec 2012

Carl Richard Woese died

Jan 2013

CRISPR-Cas is used in human genome editing

Jan 2013

CRISPR-Cas is used to edit the genome of a zebrafish

9 Jan 2013

Brigitte Askonas died in London, United Kingdom

Feb 2013

CRISPR-Cas is used to programme repression and activation of gene transcription

Feb 2013

RNAi treatment shown to be effective cancer treatment in phase I clinical trials

Mar 2013

CRISPR-Cas is used in genome editing of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a yeast species used in wine making, baking and brewing

10 Mar 2013

Frank Ruddle died in New Haven, Connecticut

Apr 2013

Scientists show that CRISPR-Cas mediated gene regulation contributes to the regulation of endogenous bacterial genes

19 Apr 2013

Francois Jacob died

4 May 2013

Christian Rene de Duve died