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Timeline of key events

Timeline of key events in biotechnology

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Date Event People Places Sciences
Oct 2014Stem cells taken from nose demonstrated to repair spinal cord injury Raisman, TabakowUniversity College London, Wroclaw Medical UniversityStem cells
22 Dec 2014First immune checkpoint inhibitor drug targeting PD-1 (nivolumab, Opdivo®) approved in US AlisonMedarex, Bristol-Myers Squibb, University of California BerkleyImmune checkpoint inhibitors, Immunotherapy, Oncology, Monoclonal antibodies
01 Jan 2015US FDA cleared Investigative Drug Application for clinical trial of gene therapy for haemophila B. The therapy was the first in vivo genome editing application to enter the clinicEwing, ZaiaSangamo Biosciences, City of Hope National Medical CenterGene therapy, Gene editing, Zinc fingers
Mar 2015Scientists suggest the use of CRISPR/Cas9 in conjunction with stem cells to provide human organs from transgenic pigsFeng, Dai, Mou, Cooper, Shi, Cai Shenzhen University, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Guangxi UniversityCRISPR, Gene editing
26 Mar 2015US scientists call for a voluntary worldwide moratorium on the use of genome editing tools to modify human reproductive cellsLamphier, Urnov CRISPR, Gene editing
Apr 2015Chinese regulatory authorities approved Chidamide, a histone deactylase inhibitor, for peripheral T cell lymphoma  Epigenetics, Oncology
Apr 2015National Institutes of Health declares it will not fund any use of genome editing technologies in human embryos  CRISPR, Gene editing
22 Apr 2015UK Nuffield Council on Bioethics launched a new working group to look into institutional, national and international policies and provisions relevant to genome editing  CRISPR, Gene editing
May 2015Chinese scientists, led by Junjiu Huang, publish first experiments modifying the genome of human embryos with CRISPR-Cas9 technique, prompting bioethical debate over use of the technology Huang, Liang, Xu, ZhangSun Yat-sen UniversityCRISPR, Gene editing
03 Jun 2015Irwin Rose diedRoseUniversity of California IrvineBiochemistry, Cell
05 Jun 2015Two immunotherapy drugs reported to stop cancer cells avoiding destruction by immune system   Immunotherapy, Oncology, Monoclonal antibodies
Jul 2015Phase 1 clinical trial launched with RNAi treatment for Huntingdon's disease  RNA interference
27 Aug 2015Experiments with mice showed that azacytidine treatment enhanced the responsiveness of tumors to anti–CTLA-4 therapy  Cancer immunotherapy, Epigenetics, Immune checkpoint inhibitors, Oncology
Sep 2015UK Medical Research Council and other leading UK research councils declared support for using CRISPR-Cas9 and other genome editing techniques in preclinical research  CRISPR, Gene editing
11 Sep 2015Hinxton Group issues a statement indicating that most of the ethical and moral questions raised about genome editing so have have been debated before.   CRISPR, Gene editing
15 Sep 2015UK Nuffield Council on Bioethics held its first workshop to identify and define ethical questions relating to developments in genome editing research  CRISPR, Gene editing
18 Sep 2015UK scientists seek license to genetically modify human embryos to study the role played by genes in the first few days of human fertilisationNaikanCrick InstituteCRISPR, Gene editing
23 Sep 2015Beijing Genomics Institute announced the sale of the first micropigs created with the help of the TALENs gene-editing technique at Shenzhen International Biotech Leaders Summit Beijing Genomics InstituteGene editing, TALENS, Transgenic animals
25 Sep 2015New protein, Cpf1, found which could simplify genome editing. Zhang, Zetsche, Gootenberg, Abudayyeh, SlaymakerBroad Institute, Massachusetts Institute of TechnologyCRISPR, Gene editing
29 Sep 2015First UK patient recieved experimental stem cell treatment for age-related macular degeneration University College London, National Institute for Health ResearchStem cells

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