Timeline of key events in biotechnology

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European Medicines Agency approves alipogene tiparvovec (Glybera) developed by Amsterdam Molecular Therapeutics and marketed by UniQure2012-07-01T00:00:00+0000M Jinek, K Chylinski, I Fonfara, M Hauer, J A Doudna, E Charpentier, 'A programmable dual-RNA-guided DNA endonuclease in adaptive bacterial immunity', Science, 337/6096 (2012): 816-21.2012-08-17T00:00:00+00002012-09-28T00:00:00+0000Thomas was a physician who was a major pioneer of cell and organ transplantation. He is best known for his development of bone marrow transplants, which became a life-saving treatment for blood cancers. Donnall developed the technique on the back of research carried out in the Manhattan Project which showed that 'factors' released by spleen cells stimulated the recovery of irradiated bone marrow. In 1990 he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine on the basis of this research.2012-10-20T00:00:00+0000Murray was an American plastic surgeon. He performed the first successful kidney transplant between identical twins in 1954. The operation last five and half hours and involved the transplantation of a healthy kidney from Robert Herrick into his twin brother, Richard, who was dying of chronic nephritis. Four years later Murray performed the first successful transplant from a non-identical donor and in 1962 the first cadaveric renal transplant. In 1990 Murray shared the Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'discoveries concerning organ and cell transplantation in the treatment of human disease.' 2012-11-26T00:00:00+0000Undertaken at the University of California's Rady Children's Hospital in San Diego, the study involves the sequencing of all the genes of individuals in 118 families with a neurodevelopment problem. 2012-12-01T00:00:00+0000Submitted by Feng Zhang at MIT. Covers method for using CRISPR-Cas9 for genome editing in eukaryotic cells. 2012-12-12T00:00:00+0000Levi-Montalcini is best known for sharing the Nobel Prize in 1986 for helping to discover and isolate the nerve growth factor which helps regulate the growth, maintenance, proliferation and survival of certian neurons. Banned by Mussolini from working in academia because she was Jewish, Levi-Montalcini conducted much of her early work in a makeshift laboratory in her bedroom. She later became the director of the Research Center of Neurobiology and the Laboratory of Cellular Biology in Washington University and founded the European Brain Research Institute. 2012-12-30T00:00:00+0000Woese was a microbiologist who discovered the first archaea, single cell organisms with no nucleus or other organelles.2012-12-30T00:00:00+00002013-01-01T00:00:00+00002013-01-01T00:00:00+0000Askonas co-developed one of the first systems for the cloning of antibody-forming B cells in vivo, some of the earliest monoclonal antibodies. She was also one of the first scientists to isolate and clone virus specific T lymphocytes, laying the foundation for defining different influenza sub-sets and improving vaccines. 2013-01-09T00:00:00+0000D. Bikard, L A Marrafini, 'Control of gene expression by CRISPR-Cas systems', F1000Prime Rep, 5 (2013) 47. 2013-02-01T00:00:00+0000Study conducted with 41 patients with advanced cancer. Led by Josep Tabernero, Institute of Oncology Department, Vall d'Hebron University together with Alnylam and other cancer research centres.2013-02-11T00:00:00+00002013-03-01T00:00:00+0000Ruddle helped pioneer human gene mapping and established many of the techniques and a framework for setting up the Human Genome Project. He is also known for having generated, with Jon W. Gordon and George Scango the first successful transgenic mouse. His work heralded the development of genetically modified animals as research models to investigate the function of genes and genetic cause of disease. He also co-discovered, with William McGinnis, the first human homeobox genes, important regulators of gene development. 2013-03-10T00:00:00+0000T R Sampson, D S Weiss, 'CRISPR-Cas systems: new players in gene regulation and bacterial physiology', Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology, 4 (2014), 1-8.2013-04-01T00:00:00+0000de Duve was a cytologist and biochemist. The son of Belgian refugees who fled to England during World War I, de Duve is associated with the discovery of peroxisome and lysosome in the 1950s and 1960s. They are two specialised subunits found within the cell and are vital to the function of the cell. His work paved the way to unravelling the biology of several genetic diseases. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1974 on the back of his 'discoveries concerning the structural and functional organisation of the cell.'2013-05-04T00:00:00+0000Osborn, M J, Starker, C G, McElroy, A N, 'TALEN-based gene correction for epidermyolysis bullosa', Molecular Therapy, 21/6 (2013), 1151-9.2013-06-01T00:00:00+00002013-08-01T00:00:00+0000
Date Event People Places Sciences
Jul 2012First gene therapy approved for treatment of patients with familial lipoprotein lipase deficiency Amsterdam Molecular TherapeuticsGene therapy
Aug 2012A group of scientists based at Howard Hughes Medical Institute published a radically new gene editing method that harnessed the CRISPR-Cas9 system Jinek, Chylinski, Fonfara, Hauer, Doudna, CharpentierUniversity of California BerkeleyCRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
2012European approval of decatabine (Dacogen) for treatment of acute myeloid leukaemia  Epigenetics, Oncology
20 Oct 2012E Donnall Thomas diedThomasFred Hutchinson Cancer Research CenterTransplantaion, Immunology
26 Nov 2012Joseph E Murray diedMurrayBrigham and Women's HospitalTransplantation, Immunology
Dec 2012DNA sequencing utilised for identifying neurological disease conditions different from those given in the original diagnosis University of California San DiegoDNA Sequencing
Dec 2012Fast track application for CRISPR-Cas 9 technology submitted to US patent office. ZhangBroad Institute, Massachusetts Institute of TechnologyCRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
30 Dec 2012Rita Levi-Montalcini diedLevi-MontalciniInstitute of Cell Biology of the CNRCell, Biochemistry, Neuroscience
30 Dec 2012Carl Richard Woese diedWoese Microbiology
Jan 2013CRISPR-Cas is used in human genome editing  CRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
Jan 2013CRISPR-Cas is used to edit the genome of a zebrafish  CRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
9 Jan 2013Brigitte Askonas died in London, United KingdomAskonasLondon, United Kingdom 
Feb 2013CRISPR-Cas shown to programme repression and activation of gene transcription Bikard, MurrafiniRockefeller UniversityCRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
Feb 2013RNAi treatment shown to be effective cancer treatment in phase I clinical trialsTaberneroVall d'Hebron University RNA interference
Mar 2013CRISPR-Cas is used in genome editing of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a yeast species used in wine making, baking and brewing  CRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
10 Mar 2013Frank Ruddle died in New Haven, ConnecticutRuddleYale UniversityGenetics, Transgenic animals, Cloning
1 Apr 2013CRISPR-Cas mediated gene regulation shown to help regulation of endogenous bacterial genesSampson, WeissEmory UniversityCRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
4 May 2013Christian Rene de Duve diedde DuveRockefeller University, Leuven UniversityCell
1 Jun 2013Basic studies conducted with TALENs to see if can correct mutant genes associated with Epidermolysis Bullosa, a rare inherited skin disorderOsborn, Starker, Colby, McElroyUniversity of Minnesota, National Centre for Tumor Diseases Heidelberg, German Cancer Research Centre, Harvard UniversityGene Therapy, Gene editing, TALENs
Aug 2013CRISPR-Cas used to engineer a rat's genome  CRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing

Jul 2012

First gene therapy approved for treatment of patients with familial lipoprotein lipase deficiency

Aug 2012

A group of scientists based at Howard Hughes Medical Institute published a radically new gene editing method that harnessed the CRISPR-Cas9 system

2012

European approval of decatabine (Dacogen) for treatment of acute myeloid leukaemia

20 Oct 2012

E Donnall Thomas died

26 Nov 2012

Joseph E Murray died

Dec 2012

DNA sequencing utilised for identifying neurological disease conditions different from those given in the original diagnosis

Dec 2012

Fast track application for CRISPR-Cas 9 technology submitted to US patent office.

30 Dec 2012

Rita Levi-Montalcini died

30 Dec 2012

Carl Richard Woese died

Jan 2013

CRISPR-Cas is used in human genome editing

Jan 2013

CRISPR-Cas is used to edit the genome of a zebrafish

9 Jan 2013

Brigitte Askonas died in London, United Kingdom

Feb 2013

CRISPR-Cas shown to programme repression and activation of gene transcription

Feb 2013

RNAi treatment shown to be effective cancer treatment in phase I clinical trials

Mar 2013

CRISPR-Cas is used in genome editing of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a yeast species used in wine making, baking and brewing

10 Mar 2013

Frank Ruddle died in New Haven, Connecticut

1 Apr 2013

CRISPR-Cas mediated gene regulation shown to help regulation of endogenous bacterial genes

4 May 2013

Christian Rene de Duve died

1 Jun 2013

Basic studies conducted with TALENs to see if can correct mutant genes associated with Epidermolysis Bullosa, a rare inherited skin disorder

Aug 2013

CRISPR-Cas used to engineer a rat's genome