Timeline of key events in biotechnology

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Osborn, M J, Starker, C G, McElroy, A N, 'TALEN-based gene correction for epidermyolysis bullosa', Molecular Therapy, 21/6 (2013), 1151-9.2013-06-01T00:00:00+00002013-08-01T00:00:00+00002013-08-01T00:00:00+0000Achieved by double-nicking with CRISP-Cas nickase mutant2013-08-01T00:00:00+0000Granted by European regulatory authorities.2013-09-17T00:00:00+00002013-10-01T00:00:00+0000Drug, developed by Alynylam, aimed at lowering cholesterol. Tested in 32 patients. 2013-10-03T00:00:00+0000A pioneer of antibody engineering, Neuberger developed some of the first techniques for the generation of chimeric and humanised antibodies. He also helped create the first transgenic mice for the production of human monoclonal antibodies. His work paved the way for the generation of safer and more effective monoclonal antibody drugs. 2013-10-26T00:00:00+0000A pioneer in the development of the oral polio and modern rabies vaccines, Koprowski was the first scientist, together with colleagues, to be granted a patent for monoclonal antibodies. 2013-11-13T00:00:00+00002013-11-19T00:00:00+0000Sanofi pays US$700 million for 12 percent stake in Alynlam. Signals renewed interest in RNAi therapeutics.2014-01-01T00:00:00+0000Treatment involved inserting a gene into the eye to revive light-detecting cells. Research led by Robert MacLaren based in the Nuffield Laboratory of Opthalmology.2014-01-01T00:00:00+0000The study used induced pluripotent stem cells in six patient with advanced AMD. 2014-01-01T00:00:00+0000Roche agreed to pay US$148 million in upfront and milestone payments. Deal signals renewed optimism in RNAi therapeutics.2014-01-10T00:00:00+0000Twelve patients with HIV treated between 2009 and 2014 report benefits from genetically engineered virus with a rare mutatiuon known to protect against HIV (CCR5 deficiency).2014-03-01T00:00:00+0000Patent awarded to Feng Zhang of the Broad Institute and MIT.2014-03-01T00:00:00+0000Tebas, T, Stein, D, Tang, W W, Frank, I, 'Gene editing of CCR5 in autologous CD4 T cells of persons infected with HIV', New England Journal of Medicine, 370/10 (2014): 901-10.2014-03-06T00:00:00+0000Scientists at the University of Nottingham develop a new stem cell micro-environment which allows for the self-renewal of cells and their evolution into cardiomyocyte (heart) cells. Published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1319685111.2014-03-31T00:00:00+0000The decision was based on lingering problems associated with delivering RNAi therapeutics. It marked a major set back for the development of RNAi therapeutics. 2014-04-14T00:00:00+0000Edelman shared the 1972 Nobel Prize for Medicine for discoveries concerning the chemical structure of antibodies. 2014-05-17T00:00:00+0000
Date Event People Places Sciences
1 Jun 2013Basic studies conducted with TALENs to see if can correct mutant genes associated with Epidermolysis Bullosa, a rare inherited skin disorderOsborn, Starker, Colby, McElroyUniversity of Minnesota, National Centre for Tumor Diseases Heidelberg, German Cancer Research Centre, Harvard UniversityGene Therapy, Gene editing, TALENs
Aug 2013CRISPR-Cas used to engineer a rat's genome  CRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
Aug 2013CRISPR-Cas used to engineer plant genomes including rice, wheat, Arabidopsis, tobacco and Sorghum  CRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
Aug 2013Improvements made to the specificity of CRISPR-Cas system  CRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
Sep 2013Campath-1H gains marketing approval for the treatment of MS.Waldmann, Compston, ColesCambridge UniversityCampath
Oct 2013Fiven children with ADA-SCID successfully treated with gene therapy  Gene therapy
Oct 2013Phase I clinical trial indicates RNAi drug is safe and well-tolerated  RNA interference
26 Oct 2013Michael Neuberger died in CambridgeNeuberger  
13 Nov 2013Hilary Koprowski died in Wynewood, Philadelphia, USAKoprowski  
19 Nov 2013Sanger, the inventor of DNA sequencing, died at the age of 95SangerCambridgeDNA Sequencing
Jan 2014Sanofi invests in Alynlam  RNA interference
Jan 2014Eyesight reported to improve in six patients suffering from choroideremia after receiving gene therapyMacLarenOxford UniversityGene therapy
2014Japanese scientists completed successful skin-to-eye stem cell transplant in a 70 year old patient with age-related macular degeneration, a blinding disease.  Stem cells
Jan 2014Roche entered RNAi therapeutics alliance with Santaris  RNA interference
Mar 2014Promising results announced from trial conducted with HIV patients  Gene therapy, Recombinant DNA
Mar 2014First patent awarded for CRISPR-Cas9 technology to be used for a wide range of applicationsZhangBroad Institute, Massachusetts Institute of TechnologyCRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
6 Mar 2014Phase I trial using Zinc finger nuclease modified CD4 cells to treat 12 HIV patients shows the approch is safe.Tebas, Stein, Tang, FrankUniversity of PennsylvaniaGene therapy, Gene editing, Zinc fingers
Mar 2014Breakthrough for manufacturing stem cells University of NottinghamStem cells
Apr 2014Novartis shut down RNAi research programme  RNA interference
17 May 2014Gerald M Edelman diedEdelmanRockefeller UniversityAntibodies

1 Jun 2013

Basic studies conducted with TALENs to see if can correct mutant genes associated with Epidermolysis Bullosa, a rare inherited skin disorder

Aug 2013

CRISPR-Cas used to engineer a rat's genome

Aug 2013

CRISPR-Cas used to engineer plant genomes including rice, wheat, Arabidopsis, tobacco and Sorghum

Aug 2013

Improvements made to the specificity of CRISPR-Cas system

Sep 2013

Campath-1H gains marketing approval for the treatment of MS.

Oct 2013

Fiven children with ADA-SCID successfully treated with gene therapy

Oct 2013

Phase I clinical trial indicates RNAi drug is safe and well-tolerated

26 Oct 2013

Michael Neuberger died in Cambridge

13 Nov 2013

Hilary Koprowski died in Wynewood, Philadelphia, USA

19 Nov 2013

Sanger, the inventor of DNA sequencing, died at the age of 95

Jan 2014

Sanofi invests in Alynlam

Jan 2014

Eyesight reported to improve in six patients suffering from choroideremia after receiving gene therapy

2014

Japanese scientists completed successful skin-to-eye stem cell transplant in a 70 year old patient with age-related macular degeneration, a blinding disease.

Jan 2014

Roche entered RNAi therapeutics alliance with Santaris

Mar 2014

Promising results announced from trial conducted with HIV patients

Mar 2014

First patent awarded for CRISPR-Cas9 technology to be used for a wide range of applications

6 Mar 2014

Phase I trial using Zinc finger nuclease modified CD4 cells to treat 12 HIV patients shows the approch is safe.

Mar 2014

Breakthrough for manufacturing stem cells

Apr 2014

Novartis shut down RNAi research programme

17 May 2014

Gerald M Edelman died