Timeline of key events in biotechnology

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2015-04-01T00:00:00+0000More than 82 per cent of the patients went into remission. 2015-04-01T00:00:00+00002015-04-15T00:00:00+00002015-04-22T00:00:00+0000P Liang , Y Xu , X Zhang et al, 'CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing in human tripronuclear zygotes', Protein and Cell, 6/5 (2015): 363-72. 2015-05-01T00:00:00+0000Rose shared the 2004 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for contributing to understandings about how cells break down proteins. 2015-06-03T00:00:00+0000Results presented to American Society for Clinical Conference from trials involving monoclonal antibody drugs for lung and skin cancer. The drugs block a protein known as PD-1, which functions as an immune checkpoint, being responsible for preventing the activation of T-cells.2015-06-05T00:00:00+0000Launched by Isis Pharmaceuticals in partnership with Roche, the trial aims to study the first therapy designed to silence the Huntingdon's disease gene and reduce the production of a protein responsible for the disease. 2015-07-21T00:00:00+0000K.B. Chiappinelli, P.L. Strissel, A. Desrichard, et al, 'Inhibiting DNA methylation causes an interferon response in cancer via dsRNA including endogenous retroviruses', Cell, 162 (2015), 974-86.2015-08-27T00:00:00+00002015-09-02T00:00:00+0000The group is made up of academic scientists, funders and regulators with an interest in embryo and stem cell research. It calls for the establishment of a roadmap for the management of the use of CRISPR in any human reproductive applications.2015-09-11T00:00:00+0000The group is made up of academic scientists, funders and regulators with an interest in embryo and stem cell research. It calls for the establishment of a roadmap for the management of the use of CRISPR in any human reproductive applications.2015-09-11T00:00:00+00002015-09-15T00:00:00+0000Team of scientists led by Kathy Niakan based at Francis Crick Institute in London applied for sought permission from UK Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority to use gene editing techniques like CRISPR-Cas on embryos less than 2 weeks old. Research designed to understand why some women lose their babies before term. 2015-09-18T00:00:00+0000The pigs, a small breed known as Bama, have had some genes disabled. They are being used for studying stem cells, gut microbiota, and Laron syndome, a type of dwarfism caused by a mutation in the human GHR gene. 2015-09-23T00:00:00+0000B Zetsche, J Gootenberg, O Abudayyeh, I Slaymaker, et al, 'Cpf1 Is a Single RNA-Guided Endonuclease of a Class 2 CRISPR-Cas System', Cell (2015): 1-13.2015-09-25T00:00:00+0000The operation was carried out at Moorfield Eye Hospital, London. It involved transplanting eye cells, called retinal pigment epithelieum, which were derived from stem cells. The surgery was performed by Lyndon Da Cruz as part of the London Project to Cure Blindness, a collaboration between Moorfields, the UCL Institute of Optahalmology and the National Institute for Health Research. 2015-09-29T00:00:00+0000Work presented by geneticist George Church of Harvard Medical School to US National Academy of Sciences.2015-10-05T00:00:00+00002015-10-05T00:00:00+0000Satoshi Omura, Japanese microbiologist, and William C Campbell, Irish American biologist, awarded Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for discovery of avermectin2015-10-05T00:00:00+0000
Date Event People Places Sciences
Apr 2015Chinese regulatory authorities approved Chidamide, a histone deactylase inhibitor, for peripheral T cell lymphoma  Epigenetics, Oncology
Apr 2015 - Aug 2016Adoptive cell therapy (CAR-T therapy) trial conducted with 63 leukaemia patients in 11 countriesJuneNovartisCancer immunotherapy, Onoclogy, Adoptive cell therapy
Apr 2015National Institutes of Health declares it will not fund any use of genome editing technologies in human embryos  CRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
22 Apr 2015UK Nuffield Council on Bioethics launched a new working group to look into institutional, national and international policies and provisions relevant to genome editing  CRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
May 2015Chinese scientists, led by Junjiu Huang, publish first experiments modifying the genome of human embryos with CRISPR-Cas9 technique, prompting bioethical debate over use of the technology Huang, Liang, Xu, ZhangSun Yat-sen UniversityCRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
3 Jun 2015Irwin Rose diedRoseUniversity of California IrvineBiochemistry, Cell
5 Jun 2015Two immunotherapy drugs reported to stop cancer cells avoiding destruction by immune system   Cancer immunotherapy, Oncology, Monoclonal antibodies
Jul 2015Phase 1 clinical trial launched with RNAi treatment for Huntingdon's disease  RNA interference
27 Aug 2015Experiments with mice showed that azacytidine treatment enhanced the responsiveness of tumors to anti–CTLA-4 therapy  Cancer immunotherapy, Epigenetics, Immune checkpoint inhibitors, Oncology
Sep 2015UK Medical Research Council and other leading UK research councils declared support for using CRISPR-Cas9 and other genome editing techniques in preclinical research  CRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
11 Sep 2015Hinxton Group issues a statement indicating that most of the ethical and moral questions raised about CRISPR and gene editing have been debated before  CRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
11 Sep 2015Hinxton Group issues a statement indicating that most of the ethical and moral questions raised about CRISPR and gene editing have been debated before  CRISPR-Cas9
15 Sep 2015UK Nuffield Council on Bioethics held its first workshop to identify and define ethical questions relating to developments in genome editing research  CRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
18 Sep 2015UK scientists sought license to genetically modify human embryos to study the role played by genes in the first few days of human fertilisationNaikanCrick InstituteCRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
23 Sep 2015Beijing Genomics Institute announced the sale of the first micropigs created with the help of the TALENs gene-editing technique at Shenzhen International Biotech Leaders Summit Beijing Genomics InstituteGene editing, TALENS, Transgenic animals
25 Sep 2015New protein, Cpf1, found which could simplify genome editing. Zhang, Zetsche, Gootenberg, Abudayyeh, SlaymakerBroad Institute, Massachusetts Institute of TechnologyCRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
29 Sep 2015First UK patient recieved experimental stem cell treatment for age-related macular degeneration University College London, National Institute for Health ResearchStem cells
5 Oct 2015US Scientists report use of CRISPR to modify 60 genes in pig embryos in first step to create pig organs suitable for use in humansChurchHarvard UniversityCRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing, Transgenic animals
5 Oct 2015Tu Youyou awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for the discovery of artemisinin, a treatment for malariaYouyou  
5 Oct 2015Satoshi Omura, Japanese microbiologist, and William C Campbell, Irish American biologist, awarded Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for discovery of avermectinOmura, Campbell  

Apr 2015

Chinese regulatory authorities approved Chidamide, a histone deactylase inhibitor, for peripheral T cell lymphoma

Apr 2015 - Aug 2016

Adoptive cell therapy (CAR-T therapy) trial conducted with 63 leukaemia patients in 11 countries

Apr 2015

National Institutes of Health declares it will not fund any use of genome editing technologies in human embryos

22 Apr 2015

UK Nuffield Council on Bioethics launched a new working group to look into institutional, national and international policies and provisions relevant to genome editing

May 2015

Chinese scientists, led by Junjiu Huang, publish first experiments modifying the genome of human embryos with CRISPR-Cas9 technique, prompting bioethical debate over use of the technology

3 Jun 2015

Irwin Rose died

5 Jun 2015

Two immunotherapy drugs reported to stop cancer cells avoiding destruction by immune system

5 Jun 2015

Phase 1 clinical trial launched with RNAi treatment for Huntingdon's disease

27 Aug 2015

Experiments with mice showed that azacytidine treatment enhanced the responsiveness of tumors to anti–CTLA-4 therapy

Sep 2015

UK Medical Research Council and other leading UK research councils declared support for using CRISPR-Cas9 and other genome editing techniques in preclinical research

11 Sep 2015

Hinxton Group issues a statement indicating that most of the ethical and moral questions raised about CRISPR and gene editing have been debated before

11 Sep 2015

Hinxton Group issues a statement indicating that most of the ethical and moral questions raised about CRISPR and gene editing have been debated before

15 Sep 2015

UK Nuffield Council on Bioethics held its first workshop to identify and define ethical questions relating to developments in genome editing research

18 Sep 2015

UK scientists sought license to genetically modify human embryos to study the role played by genes in the first few days of human fertilisation

23 Sep 2015

Beijing Genomics Institute announced the sale of the first micropigs created with the help of the TALENs gene-editing technique at Shenzhen International Biotech Leaders Summit

25 Sep 2015

New protein, Cpf1, found which could simplify genome editing.

29 Sep 2015

First UK patient recieved experimental stem cell treatment for age-related macular degeneration

5 Oct 2015

US Scientists report use of CRISPR to modify 60 genes in pig embryos in first step to create pig organs suitable for use in humans

5 Oct 2015

Tu Youyou awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for the discovery of artemisinin, a treatment for malaria

5 Oct 2015

Satoshi Omura, Japanese microbiologist, and William C Campbell, Irish American biologist, awarded Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for discovery of avermectin