Timeline of key events in biotechnology

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The drug was developed by Genetech/Roche2016-05-01T00:00:00+0000The procedure, undertaken in clinical trials led by Gary Steinberg at Stanford University School of Medicine, involved the injection of modified human, adult stem cells from bone marrow directly into the brains of 18 chronic stroke patients. 2016-06-02T00:00:00+0000Griffin was a major pioneer in the DNA sequencing field and research into the Epstein-Barr virus2016-06-13T00:00:00+0000Work led by Carl June at University of Pennsylvannia to treat patients with multiple myeloma, melanoma and sarcoma.2016-06-21T00:00:00+0000Vaccine developed by David Weiner together with collaborators at Inovio Pharmaceuticals, Inc., GeneOne Life Science, Inc., National Microbiology Laboratory at the Public Health Agency of Canada, and the University of Pennsylvania.2016-06-23T00:00:00+0000Stem cells injected into 11 patients undergoing bypass surgery shown to reduce the size of scarred tissue by 40 per cent. K Anatasiadis, et al, Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research, 9/3 (June 2016), 202-13.2016-07-24T00:00:00+0000Research carried out by a team led by Dimitry I Gabriolvich. 2016-08-05T00:00:00+0000J. Sevigny et al, 'The antibody aducanumab reduces A-beta plaques in Alzheimer’s disease', 'Nature', 37 (2016), 50-56.2016-09-01T00:00:00+00002016-10-03T00:00:00+0000It was the first time tyhe FDA approved an immune checkpoint inhibitor for the treatment of lung cancer. The drug was developed by Merck & Co.2016-10-24T00:00:00+0000LD Landegger et al, 'A synthetic AAV vector enables safe and efficient gene transfer to the mammalian inner ear', Nature Biotechnology, 6 Feb 2017, doi:10.1038/nbt.37812017-02-06T00:00:00+0000Mansfield won the 2003 Nobel Prize for Medicine for pioneering magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), body scanning technology.2017-02-09T00:00:00+0000PA Muraro, M Pasquini, HL Atkins, et al, 'Long-term Outcomes After Autologous Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Multiple Sclerosis', JAMA Neurolology, 20 Feb 2018, doi:10.1001/jamaneurol.2016.58672017-02-20T00:00:00+0000NAS and NAM, Human Genome Editing: Science, Ethics and Governance, February 20172017-02-24T00:00:00+0000Patient treated with lentiviral vector-mediated addition of a gene into autologous hematopoietic stem cells. JA Ribell, S Hacien-Bey-Abina, E. OPayen, A. Magnani, et al, 'Gene therapy in a patient with sickle cell disease', NEJM, 376 (2017), 848-55.2017-03-02T00:00:00+0000S. Ellys Harrison, B. Sozen, N. Christodoulou, C. Kyprianou, M. Zernicka-Goetz, 'Assembly of embryonic and extra-embryonic stem cells to mimic embryogenesis in vitro', Science, DOI: 10.1126/science.aal1810 2017-03-03T00:00:00+0000M. Mandai et al, 'Autologous Induced Stem-Cell–Derived Retinal Cells for Macular Degeneration', NEJM, 376 (2017), 1038-46.2017-03-16T00:00:00+0000The women went blind as a result of the treatment. A.E. Kuriyan et al, 'Vision Loss after Intravitreal Injection of Autologous “Stem Cells” for AMD', NEJM, 376 (2017), 1047-53. 2017-03-16T00:00:00+0000Evidence collected from randomised, doublice-blind, placebo controled study of 27,000 patients in 49 countries between Feb 2013 and June 2015. MS Sabatine, et al, 'Evolocumab and Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Cardiovascular Disease', NEJM, 2017, DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1615664.2017-03-17T00:00:00+0000Developed by EMD Serono avelumab is a PD-L1 blocking monoclonal antibody. It was the first FDA approved product to treat metastatic Merckel cell carcinoma.2017-03-23T00:00:00+0000
Date Event People Places Sciences
1 May 2016FDA approved atezolizumab (Tecentriq®), an immune checkpoint inhibitor targeted at PD1, for the treatment of urothelial carcinoma, the most common form of bladder cancer Genentech, RocheImmune checkpoint inhibitor, Immuotherapy, Oncology, Monoclonal antibodies
2 Jun 2016Stem cells reported to provide substantial recovery in patients disabled by stroke Stanford UniversityStem cells
13 Jun 2016Beverly Griffin diedGriffinImperial College 
21 Jun 2016US NIH Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee approved first study in 15 patients using CRISPR/Cas 9 to genetically modify immune cells to attack cancerJuneUniversity of PennsylvaniaCRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing, Gene Cancer immunotherapy
23 Jun 2016FDA approved first clinical trial for zika virus vaccineWeinerWistar Institute, University of Pennsylvania, Inovio Pharmaceuticals, GeneOne Life Science, Public Health Agency of CanadaVaccines, Virology
24 Jul 2016Small-scale case study showed power of stem cells to repair damaged scar tissue caused by heart attacksAnastasiadis, Antonitsis, Westaby, Reginald, Sultan, Doumas, Efthimiadis, EvansAHEPA University Hospital, Oxford University, Cardiff UniversityStem cells
Aug 2016Marker identified for myeloid-derived suppressor cells, a type of cell associated with tumour resistance to certain cancer treatments Wistar InstituteImmunology, Cancer immunotherapy, Oncology
1 Sep 2016Monoclonal antibody drug for Alzheimer's Disease shown to be promising in phase II clinical trialsSevigny, Chiao, Bussiere, WeinrebBiogen, Neuimmune, Butler Hospital, University of ZurchMonoclonal antibodies, Neuroscience
3 Oct 2016Nobel Prize in Physiology or medicine was awarded to Yoshinori Ohsumi for discovering how the body's cells destroy and recyle cellular components, a process known as autophagyOhsumi Tokyo Institute of Technology'Cell
24 Oct 2016FDA approved pembrolizumab (Keytruda®) for the treatment of patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) whose tumors express PD-L1 as determined by an FDA-approved test. MerckImmune checkpoint inhibitors, Cancer immunotherapy, Oncology, Monoclonal antibodies
6 Feb 2017Gene therapy shown to restore hearing in deaf miceLandegger, Pan, Askew, Wassmer, Gluck, Galvin, Taylor, Forge, Sankovic, Holt, VandenbergheEaton Peabody Laboratories, Harvard Medical School, Medical University of Vienna, UCL, Boston's Children's Hospital, Harvard Stem Cell Institute, University of North Carolina, Grousbeck Gene Therapy CenterGene therapy
9 Feb 2017Peter Mansfield diedMansfield  
20 Feb 2017Data published from 25 centres in 13 countries for 281 patients indicated autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation can halt the progression of MS disabilityMuraro, Pasquini, AtkinsImperial CollegeStem cells
Feb 2017US National Academies of Science and Medicine issue report saying possible to proceed with CRISPR in germ-line experiments but urge caution  CRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
2 Mar 2017Gene therapy reported to successfully reverse sickle cell disease in first patientRibell, Hacien-Bey-Abina, Payen, Magnani, LeboulchUniversity of ParisGene therapy, Stem cells
3 Mar 2017Cambridge scientists report the development of an aritificial mouse embryo using stem cells University of CambridgeStem cells, Reproduction
16 Mar 2017Study published showing a personalised treatment using a patient's own stem cells effective for treating macular degeneration, a common blinding diseaseMandaiRIKEN Center for Developmental BiologyStem cells
16 Mar 2017Follow-up of three women given stem cell treatment in 2015 to treat macular degeneration raises concerns KuriyanFlaum Eye InstituteStem cells
17 Mar 2017Monoclonal antibody shown to effectively cut cholesterol levels, thereby preventing heart attacks and strokes SabatineMonoclonal antibodies, Cardiovascular
23 Mar 2017US FDA granted accelerated approval to avelumab for the treatment of patients 12 years and older with metastatic Merkel cell carcinomaEMD SeronoImmune checkpoint inhibitors, Cancer immunotherapy, Oncology, Monoclonal antibodies

1 May 2016

FDA approved atezolizumab (Tecentriq®), an immune checkpoint inhibitor targeted at PD1, for the treatment of urothelial carcinoma, the most common form of bladder cancer

2 Jun 2016

Stem cells reported to provide substantial recovery in patients disabled by stroke

13 Jun 2016

Beverly Griffin died

21 Jun 2016

US NIH Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee approved first study in 15 patients using CRISPR/Cas 9 to genetically modify immune cells to attack cancer

23 Jun 2016

FDA approved first clinical trial for zika virus vaccine

24 Jul 2016

Small-scale case study showed power of stem cells to repair damaged scar tissue caused by heart attacks

Aug 2016

Marker identified for myeloid-derived suppressor cells, a type of cell associated with tumour resistance to certain cancer treatments

1 Sep 2016

Monoclonal antibody drug for Alzheimer's Disease shown to be promising in phase II clinical trials

3 Oct 2016

Nobel Prize in Physiology or medicine was awarded to Yoshinori Ohsumi for discovering how the body's cells destroy and recyle cellular components, a process known as autophagy

24 Oct 2016

FDA approved pembrolizumab (Keytruda®) for the treatment of patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) whose tumors express PD-L1 as determined by an FDA-approved test.

6 Feb 2017

Gene therapy shown to restore hearing in deaf mice

9 Feb 2017

Peter Mansfield died

20 Feb 2017

Data published from 25 centres in 13 countries for 281 patients indicated autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation can halt the progression of MS disability

Feb 2017

US National Academies of Science and Medicine issue report saying possible to proceed with CRISPR in germ-line experiments but urge caution

2 Mar 2017

Gene therapy reported to successfully reverse sickle cell disease in first patient

3 Mar 2017

Cambridge scientists report the development of an aritificial mouse embryo using stem cells

16 Mar 2017

Study published showing a personalised treatment using a patient's own stem cells effective for treating macular degeneration, a common blinding disease

16 Mar 2017

Follow-up of three women given stem cell treatment in 2015 to treat macular degeneration raises concerns

17 Mar 2017

Monoclonal antibody shown to effectively cut cholesterol levels, thereby preventing heart attacks and strokes

23 Mar 2017

US FDA granted accelerated approval to avelumab for the treatment of patients 12 years and older with metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma