Timeline of key events in biotechnology

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N Krauzewicz, K Stokrova, C Jenkins, M Elliott, CF Higgns, BE Griffin, ‘Virus-like gene transfer to cell nuclei mediated by polyoma virus pseudocapsids’, Gene Therapy, 7 (2000), 2122-31.2000-01-02T00:00:00+0000Mojica F J, Diez-Villasenor C, Soria E, Juez G, 'Biological significance of a family of regularly spaced repeats in the genomes of Archaea, Bacteria and mitochondria', Molecular Microbiology 36/1 (April 2000): 244–6.2000-01-18T00:00:00+0000Benesch was a biochemist who helped discover how haemoglobin, a protein in red blood cells, transports oxygen from the lungs to all cells in the body. This she did with her husband Reinhold in 1967. They subsequently made important breakthroughs into the formation of sickle cells, the cause of sickle-cell anaemia, using the electron microscope. Ruth was one of the 10,000 Jewish children who escaped Nazi Germany to England as part of the Kindertransport programme. 2000-03-25T00:00:00+00002000-06-01T00:00:00+0000T. Nogtomi, H. Okayama, H. Masubuchi, T. Yonekawa, K. Wantabe, N. Amino, T. Hase, 'Loop-mediated isothermal amplification', Nucleic Acids Research, 28/12 (2000), e63.2000-06-15T00:00:00+0000U.S. President Bill Clinton and the British Prime Minister Tony Blair announced the completion of a rough draft of the human genome. 2000-06-26T00:00:00+0000Smith, J, Bibikova, M, Whitby, F G, Reddy, A R, Chandrasegaran, S, Carroll, D, 'Requirements for double-strand cleavage by chimeric restriction enzymes with zinc finger DNA-recognition domains', Nucleic Acids Research, 28 (2000), 3361–9. 2000-09-01T00:00:00+0000G.J. Freeman, A.J. Long, Y. Iwai, et al, 'Engagement of the PD-1 immunoinhibitory receptor by a novel B7 family member leads to negative regulation of lymphocyte activation', J Exp Med, 192/7 (2000), 1027–34.2000-10-01T00:00:00+0000Michael Smith shared the 1993 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for a technique that enables researchers to introduce specific mutations into genes and, thus, to the proteins that they encode. He developed the method, known as site-directed mutagenesis, in the 1970s, in collaboration with Fred Sanger and Clyde A Hutchinson III. The advantage of the technique was that it allowed comparisons to be made of different protein molecules and provide a means to deliberately alter a specific gene thereby making it possible to modify the characteristics of an organism. His work opened up a new chapter for studying and treating genetic diseases. Site-directed mutagenesis is a pivotal tool today in genetic and protein research and engineering and at the forefront of the development of monoclonal antibody drugs. 2000-10-04T00:00:00+0000Bloch was a German-American biochemist who shared the 1964 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for helping to uncover the mechanism and regulation of cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism. This work laid the foundation for understanding the relationship between blood cholesterol levels and atherosclerosis, a disease in which plaque builds up inside the body's arteries. 2000-10-15T00:00:00+0000Songtao Shi and colleagues at the National Institutes of Health discovered stem cells in the pulp found in the centre of extracted adult wisdom teeth. S Gronthos et al, 'Postnatal human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) in vitro and in vivo', PNAS, 97/25 (2000), 13625-30. 2000-12-05T00:00:00+0000The work was undertaken by an international team of scientists from Europe, the US and Japan. They sequenced the DNA of Arabidopsis thaliana, a flowering weed in the mustard family. The sequenced genome contains 25,498 genes encoding proteins from 11,000 families. The project took 4 years to complete. 2000-12-14T00:00:00+0000This is the first collaborative stem cell research network2001-01-01T00:00:00+00002001-01-01T00:00:00+0000Known as the CAM 307 trial, the study compareds Campath-1H with chlorambucil, a standard first-line treatment for the disease.2001-01-01T00:00:00+00002001-01-01T00:00:00+0000Research Directorate-General, EC, Science Policies in the European Union: Promoting science through mainstreaming gender equality (2001), ISBN 92-828-8682-4. Proposes Member States pass legislation to oblige employers to keep collect statistics to monitor gender balance in terms of employment and pay in universities, research institutions2001-01-01T00:00:00+00002001-01-01T00:00:00+00002001-01-01T00:00:00+0000A consortium including scientists from Celera Genomics and 13 other organisations published the first consensus sequence of human genome. It was shown to have a 2.91 billion base pair sequence. The project took advantage of the DNA sequencing technique pioneered by Fred Sanger. 2001-02-16T00:00:00+0000
Date Event People Places Sciences
2 Jan 2000Polyoma virus shown to be potential tool for delivering gene therapyKrauzewicz, Stokrova, Jenkins, Elliott, Higgns, GriffinImperial College, Czech Academy of Sciences, University of WalesGene therapy
18 Jan 2000More clustered repeats of DNA identified in other bacteria and archaea, termed Short Regularly Spaced Repeats (SRSR)Mojica, Diez-Villasenor, Soria, Juez University of Alicante, University Miguel HernandezCRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
25 Mar 2000Ruth Erica (Leroi) Benesch diedBeneschColumbia UnivesityBiochemistry
Jun 2000Sharma took up fellowship with Lloyd Old SharmaMemorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center 
15 Jun 2000New simpler and cheaper PCR method published opening possibility for use in middle to low-income countriesNogtomi, Okayama, Masubuchi, Yonekawa, Wantabe, AminoUniversity of Tokyo, Osaka University, Eiken Chemical CoDiagnostics, PCR
26 Jun 2000Human genome draft sequence announced  DNA Sequencing, Genomics
1 Sep 2000 Experiments show zinc finger nucleases can create double-stranded DNA breaks in cellsSmith, Bibikova, Whitby, Reddy, Chandrasegaran, Carroll Johns Hopkins University, University of Utah, Pondicherry UniversityGene editing, Zinc fingers
Oct 2000PD-1 protein shown to be important mechanism in dampening down the immune responseFreeman, Long, IwaiDana-Farber Cancer InstituteImmune checkpoint inhibitors
4 Oct 2000Michael Smith diedSmithUniversity of British ColumbiaGene editing, Genetics, Monoclonal antibodies
15 Oct 2000Konrad Bloch diedBlochHarvard UniversityBiochemistry
5 Dec 2000Wisdom teeth demonstrated to be source of stem cellsShi, Gronthos, Mankani, Brahim, Gehron RobeyNIHStem cells
14 Dec 2000First complete plant genome sequenced  DNA Sequencing, Genomics
2001The Stem Cell Network is formed   Stem cells
2001Dermal stem cells identified in adult skin tissue   Stem cells
2001 - 2004Trial to establish efficacy of Campath-1H as first-line treatment for B-CLL. GenzymeCampath
2001Pharmion licenses azacitidine from Pharmacia and Upjohn to Pharmacia's azacityidine technology, patents and clinical data  Epigenetics
2001European Technology Assessment Network (ETAN) report demonstrated women held fewer than 10% top positions in academic system despite women making up half of student population in Europe   
2001WHO recorded that 126 (66%) of its 191 member states had universal infant or childhood hepatitis B vaccination programmes  Vaccine
2001Hepatitis B vaccine cost US$0.30 per dose  Vaccine
Feb 2001First consensus sequence of human genome publishedSanger, Arber, WuLaboratory of Molecular Biology, Celera, Sanger InstituteDNA Sequencing

2 Jan 2000

Polyoma virus shown to be potential tool for delivering gene therapy

18 Jan 2000

More clustered repeats of DNA identified in other bacteria and archaea, termed Short Regularly Spaced Repeats (SRSR)

25 Mar 2000

Ruth Erica (Leroi) Benesch died

Jun 2000

Sharma took up fellowship with Lloyd Old

15 Jun 2000

New simpler and cheaper PCR method published opening possibility for use in middle to low-income countries

26 Jun 2000

Human genome draft sequence announced

1 Sep 2000

Experiments show zinc finger nucleases can create double-stranded DNA breaks in cells

Oct 2000

PD-1 protein shown to be important mechanism in dampening down the immune response

4 Oct 2000

Michael Smith died

15 Oct 2000

Konrad Bloch died

5 Dec 2000

Wisdom teeth demonstrated to be source of stem cells

14 Dec 2000

First complete plant genome sequenced

2001

The Stem Cell Network is formed

2001

Dermal stem cells identified in adult skin tissue

2001 - 2004

Trial to establish efficacy of Campath-1H as first-line treatment for B-CLL.

2001

Pharmion licenses azacitidine from Pharmacia and Upjohn to Pharmacia's azacityidine technology, patents and clinical data

2001

European Technology Assessment Network (ETAN) report demonstrated women held fewer than 10% top positions in academic system despite women making up half of student population in Europe

2001

WHO recorded that 126 (66%) of its 191 member states had universal infant or childhood hepatitis B vaccination programmes

2001

Hepatitis B vaccine cost US$0.30 per dose

Feb 2001

First consensus sequence of human genome published