Timeline of key events in biotechnology

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Gerty Cori shared the 1947 Nobel Prize for Medicine for discovering how the body metabolises glycogen, which is important to how the body stores energy. 1896-08-15T00:00:00+0000Cori shared the 1947 the Nobel Prize for Medicine for discovering how the body metabolises glycogen, which is important to how the body stores energy. 1896-12-05T00:00:00+0000Paul Ehrlich, a German scientist, proposes that all cells possess a wide variety of special receptors, or side chains, that function like gatekeepers or locks for each cell. This known as Ehrlich's side chain theory.1897-01-01T00:00:00+0000Enders shared the 1954 Nobel Prize for helping to develop a technique to grow the poliomyeltitis virus, paving the way to a vaccine against polio. 1897-02-10T00:00:00+0000Reichstein was a chemist who shared the 1950 Nobel Prize for Medicine for discoveries concerning the 'hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects'.1897-07-20T00:00:00+0000Wyckoff pioneered x-ray crystallography of bacteria.1897-08-09T00:00:00+0000William G Ruppel discovered the nucleotide while trying to isolate the bacterial toxin responsible for tuberculosis. 1898-01-01T00:00:00+0000Schoenheimer developed the technique of radioactive tagging to trace biochemical processes in the living body. 1898-05-10T00:00:00+0000Claude shared the 1974 Nobel Prize for Medicine for discoveries concerning cell structure and function. 1898-08-24T00:00:00+0000Florey helped develop a method to isolate and purify penicillin for clinical use. 1898-09-24T00:00:00+0000The vaccine was developed by William Coley, a New York surgeon, together with the pharmaceutical company Parke, Davis & Co. The vaccine contained a combination of heat-killed bacteria. 1899-01-01T00:00:00+0000Theiler won the 1951 Nobel Prize for Medicine for helping to develop a vaccine against yellow fever. 1899-01-30T00:00:00+0000An American-Canadian physiologist, Best co-discovered insulin.1899-02-27T00:00:00+0000Fieser synthesised the first viamin K, an important blood-clotting agent, and also invemnted the military agent napalm. 1899-04-07T00:00:00+0000Julian was a pioneer of pharmacological synthesis. He was the first African-American granted a doctoral degree in chemistry and the first to be inducted into the National Academy of Sciences. 1899-04-11T00:00:00+0000Lipmann shared the 1953 Nobel Prize for Medicine for the discovery of coenzyme A and its role in nutrition.1899-06-12T00:00:00+0000Karl Landsteiner, Austrian scientist, observes a clumping effect when the blood of two people are mixed. On the basis of this he identifies three human blood groups A, B and O, which he labels as C. He also notes that blood transfusion between persons with the same blood group does not result in the destruction of blood cells, but occurs between persons of different blood groups.1900-01-01T00:00:00+0000Richard Kuhn awarded 1938 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for his work on carostenoids and vitamins. He is also credited with the discovery ot the deadly nerve agent Soman. 1900-12-03T00:00:00+0000Karl Landsteiner, devises a test for A, B and O blood groupings using antibodies.1901-01-01T00:00:00+0000The work was carried out independently by Leo Loeb, in Canada and the US, and by Carl Jensen in Copenhagen. Results from the experiments showed some animals were more susceptible to transplanted tumour tissue than others. This ignited a debate 1901-01-01T00:00:00+0000
Date Event People Places Sciences
15 Aug 1896Gerty Theresa Cori, nee Radnitz, was born in Prague, Austria-Hungary (now Czech Republic)CoriWashington University in St LouisBiochemistry
5 Dec 1896Carl F Cori was born in Prague, Austria-Hungary (now Czech Republic)CoriWashington University in St LouisBiochemistry
1897Antibody formation theoryEhrlich Antibodies
10 Feb 1897John F Enders was born West Hartford, CT, USAEndersChildren's Hospital BostonVirology, Vaccine
20 Jul 1897Tadeus Reichstein was born in Wloclawek, PolandReichsteinBasel UniversityBiochemistry, Endocrinology
9 Aug 1897Ralph W G Wyckoff was born in Geneva, NY, USAWyckoffRockefeller UniversityBacteriology, Virology
1898A nucelotide called tuberculinic acid found to bind to the protein tuberculin. It is now regarded as the precursor to the discovery of DNA methylationRuppelPhilipps University of MarburgDNA methylation, Epigenetics
10 May 1898Rudolf Schoenheimer was born in Berlin, Germany SchoenheimerColumbia univbersityAnalytical chemistry
24 Aug 1898Albert Claude was born in Longlier, BelgiumClaudeLonglier, Belgium 
24 Sep 1898Howard Walter Florey was born   
1899First commercial vaccine developed for treatment of sarcomaColeyMemorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Parke Davis & CoImmunology, Cancer immunotherapy, Oncology,
30 Jan 1899Max Theiler was born in Pretoria, South AfricaTheilerPretoria, South AfricaVaccine
1899Charles H Best was born in West Pembroke, ME, USABestUniversity of TorontoEndocrinology
7 Apr 1899Louis F Fieser was born in Columbus, Ohio, USAFieserHarvard University 
11 Apr 1899Percy Lavon Julian was born in Montgomery, Alabama, USAJulianHarvard UniversityPharmacology
12 Jun 1899Fritz A Lipmann born in Koenigsberg (now Kaliningrad), Germany (now Russia)Lipmann Nutrition
1900 - 1901Blood grouping observedLandsteinerUniversity of ViennaAntibodies
3 Dec 1900Richard Kuhn was born in Vienna, Austria-HungaryKuhnUniversity of HeidelbergBiochemistry
1901Blood groupings diagnostic developedLandsteinerUniversity of ViennaAntibodies
1901 - 1903First successful transplants of tumours in animals reported, providing a new experimental system for studying the role of the immune system in cancerLeob, JensenUniversity of Pennsylvania, Agriculture and Veterinary InstituteCancer immunotherapy, Oncology

15 Aug 1896

Gerty Theresa Cori, nee Radnitz, was born in Prague, Austria-Hungary (now Czech Republic)

5 Dec 1896

Carl F Cori was born in Prague, Austria-Hungary (now Czech Republic)

1897

Antibody formation theory

10 Feb 1897

John F Enders was born West Hartford, CT, USA

20 Jul 1897

Tadeus Reichstein was born in Wloclawek, Poland

9 Aug 1897

Ralph W G Wyckoff was born in Geneva, NY, USA

1898

A nucelotide called tuberculinic acid found to bind to the protein tuberculin. It is now regarded as the precursor to the discovery of DNA methylation

10 May 1898

Rudolf Schoenheimer was born in Berlin, Germany

24 Aug 1898

Albert Claude was born in Longlier, Belgium

24 Sep 1898

Howard Walter Florey was born

1899

First commercial vaccine developed for treatment of sarcoma

30 Jan 1899

Max Theiler was born in Pretoria, South Africa

1899

Charles H Best was born in West Pembroke, ME, USA

7 Apr 1899

Louis F Fieser was born in Columbus, Ohio, USA

11 Apr 1899

Percy Lavon Julian was born in Montgomery, Alabama, USA

12 Jun 1899

Fritz A Lipmann born in Koenigsberg (now Kaliningrad), Germany (now Russia)

1900 - 1901

Blood grouping observed

3 Dec 1900

Richard Kuhn was born in Vienna, Austria-Hungary

1901

Blood groupings diagnostic developed

1901 - 1903

First successful transplants of tumours in animals reported, providing a new experimental system for studying the role of the immune system in cancer