Timeline of key events in biotechnology

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An American chemist, Pauling helped pioneer quantum chemistry and mechanics. He also co-authored the first paper that suggested sickle-cell anaemia was a genetic disease, which introduced the concept of 'molecular disease'. 1901-02-28T00:00:00+0000Alexander developed the first effective treatment against Haemophilus influenzae, a major killer of infants and was one of the first scientsts to study antibiotics resistance. 1901-04-05T00:00:00+0000du Vigneaud won the 1955 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for his research into sulfur compounds and for the synthesis of Oxytocin, a hormone that acts as a transmitter in the brain. 1901-05-18T00:00:00+0000Huggins shared the 1966 Nobel Prize for discoveries relating to hormonal treatment of prostrate cancer.1901-09-22T00:00:00+0000Theodor Boveri, German biologist, and Walter Sutton, American geneticist and physician, independently develop the theory that chromosomes carry genetic material.1902-01-01T00:00:00+0000Archibald Garrod, an English physician, suggests that genetic defects cause the loss of enzymes and hereditary metabolic diseases, providing the first premise for gene therapy. 1902-01-01T00:00:00+0000Patients reported an alleviation of their symptoms. E von Leyden, F Blumenthal, 'Vorlaufige Mittheilungen uber einige Ergebnisse der Krebsforschung aug der I. medizinischen Klinik', Deutsche Med Wschr, 28 (1902), 637-8.1902-01-01T00:00:00+0000Lwoff shared the 1965 Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis'.1902-05-08T00:00:00+0000McClintock was the first to discover that genes could shift to different locations by themselves. 1902-06-16T00:00:00+0000A Swedish biochemist, Tiselius developed the devise electrophoresis to separate and measure charged particles through a stationary liquid in an electric field. He also pioneered synthetic blood plasma.1902-08-10T00:00:00+0000Wilhelm Johannsen, a Danish botanist and geneticist, introduces the terms phenotype to denote the observable traits of an organism, and genotype to denote the inherited instructions an organism carries within its cells. The terms are published in his paper Om arvelighed i samfund og i rene linie. This lays the foundation for the study of genetics. 1903-01-01T00:00:00+0000John C Eccles shared the 1963 Nobel Prize for Medicine for discoveries relating to peripheral and central portions of the nerve cell membrane.1903-01-27T00:00:00+0000Boyd was an American immunologist who helped discover blood types are an inherited trait1903-03-04T00:00:00+0000Butenandt won the 1939 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for his discovery of sex hormones.1903-03-24T00:00:00+0000Pincus was an American biologist who is most well-known for helping to develop the first oral contraceptive. He was also instrumental in generating the first IVF rabbits. 1903-04-09T00:00:00+0000Theorell won the 1955 Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'discoveries concerning the nature and mode of action of oxidation enzymes.'1903-07-06T00:00:00+0000Beadle was jointly awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1958 for discovering the role of genes in regulating biochemical events within cells.1903-10-22T00:00:00+0000Snell shared the 1980 Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunological reactions'.1903-12-19T00:00:00+0000Drew was an African-American physician and surgeon who helped develop large-scale blood banks for blood transfusion which helped save thousands of lives of Allied soldiers in World War II. 1904-06-03T00:00:00+0000Stanley shared the 1946 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for the 'preparation of enzymes and virus proteins in a pure form.'1904-08-16T00:00:00+0000
Date Event People Places Sciences
28 Feb 1901Linus C Pauling was born in Portland OR, USAPaulingCalifornia Institute of TechnologyGenetics
5 Apr 1901Hattie Elizabeth Alexander was born in New York City, USAAlexanderColumbia UniversityAntibacterial agents, Antimicrobial resistance
18 May 1901Vincent du Vigneaud was born in Chicago IL, USAdu VigneaudCornell UniversityBiochemistry
22 Sep 1901Charles B Huggins was born Halifax, CanadaHugginsUniversity of ChicagoOncology, Endocrinology
1902Chromosomes linked with inheritanceBoveri, GarrodZoological-Zootomical Institute, Columbia UniversityGenetics, DNA
1902 - 1908Metabolic disease explained by genetic defectsGarrodOxford UniversityGenetics
1902First attempt to vaccinate against cancer with a patient's own tumour tissuevon Leyden, Blumenthal Immunology, Cancer immunotherapy, Oncology
8 May 1902Andre Lwoff was born in Ainay-le-Chateau, FranceLwoffPasteur InstituteMicrobiology, Virology
16 Jun 1902Barbara McClintock was born in Hartford CT, USAMcClintockUniversity of MissouriGenetics
10 Aug 1902Arne W K Tiselius born in Stockholm, SwedenTiseliusUppsala UniversityBiochemistry
1903The notion genetics is introducedJohannsenRoyal Veterinary UniversityDNA
27 Jan 1903John C Eccles was born in Melbourne, AustraliaEcclesAustralian National UniversityNeuroscience
4 Mar 1903William Clouser Boyd was born in Dearborn, Missouri, USABoydBoston UniversityImmunology
24 Mar 1903Adolf F J Butenandt was born in Bremerhaven, GermanyButenandtBremerhaven, Germany 
9 Apr 1903Gregory Pincus was bornPincusWorcester Foundation for Experimental BiologyReproduction
Jul 1903Axel H T Theorell was born in Linkoping, SwedenTheorellKarolinska InstitutetBiochemistry
22 Oct 1903George Wells Beadle was born in Wahoo NE, USABeadleCalifornia Institute of TechnologyGenetics
19 Dec 1903George D Snell was born in Bradford MA, USASnellJackson LaboratoryGenetics, Immunology
3 Jun 1904Charles Richard Drew was born in Washington DC, USADrewWashington DC 
16 Aug 1904Wendell M Stanley was born in Ridgeville IN, USAStanleyRockefeller UniversityBiochemistry

28 Feb 1901

Linus C Pauling was born in Portland OR, USA

5 Apr 1901

Hattie Elizabeth Alexander was born in New York City, USA

18 May 1901

Vincent du Vigneaud was born in Chicago IL, USA

22 Sep 1901

Charles B Huggins was born Halifax, Canada

1902

Chromosomes linked with inheritance

1902 - 1908

Metabolic disease explained by genetic defects

1902

First attempt to vaccinate against cancer with a patient's own tumour tissue

8 May 1902

Andre Lwoff was born in Ainay-le-Chateau, France

16 Jun 1902

Barbara McClintock was born in Hartford CT, USA

10 Aug 1902

Arne W K Tiselius born in Stockholm, Sweden

1903

The notion genetics is introduced

27 Jan 1903

John C Eccles was born in Melbourne, Australia

4 Mar 1903

William Clouser Boyd was born in Dearborn, Missouri, USA

24 Mar 1903

Adolf F J Butenandt was born in Bremerhaven, Germany

9 Apr 1903

Gregory Pincus was born

9 Apr 1903

Axel H T Theorell was born in Linkoping, Sweden

22 Oct 1903

George Wells Beadle was born in Wahoo NE, USA

19 Dec 1903

George D Snell was born in Bradford MA, USA

3 Jun 1904

Charles Richard Drew was born in Washington DC, USA

16 Aug 1904

Wendell M Stanley was born in Ridgeville IN, USA