Timeline of key events in biotechnology

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Hershey shared the 1969 Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses.'1908-12-04T00:00:00+0000Wilhelm Johannsen uses the word gene for the first time to describe units of heredity in his book Elemente der exakten Erblichkeitslehre. The book becomes the founding text of genetics. 1909-01-01T00:00:00+0000Paul Ehrlich, German scientist, suggests that one day it will be possible to use antibodies as compounds to target disease.1909-01-01T00:00:00+0000Levi-Montalcini shared the 1986 Nobel Prize for Medicine for discovering nerve growth factors.1909-04-22T00:00:00+0000Tatum shared the 1958 Nobel Prize for Medicine for the 'discovery that genes act by regulating definite chemical events.'1909-12-14T00:00:00+0000Phoebus Levene, a Russian-American biochemist, describes the building blocks of DNA, including four types of bases: adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and thymine (T) .1910-01-01T00:00:00+0000Thomas Hunt Morgan, American evolutionary biologist, links the inheritance of a specific trait with a particular chromosome in fruit flies (Drosophila). 1910-01-01T00:00:00+0000E. Freund, G. Kaminer, 'Ueber die Beziehungen zwischen Tumorzellen und Blutserum', Biochem. Ztschr, 26 (1910) 26, 312-24.1910-01-01T00:00:00+0000Martin shared the 1952 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for the 'invention of partition chromatography.'1910-03-01T00:00:00+0000van Beneden was a Belgian cytologist who woked out how chromosomes divide during cell meiosis and that all cells have the same number of chromosomes in each species.1910-04-28T00:00:00+0000Fraenkel-Conrat was a biochemist who discovered that RNA was pivotal to the genetic control of viral reproduction. 1910-04-29T00:00:00+0000Dorothy Hodgkin, was a British biochemist who developed protein crystallography and X-ray crystallography which was used to confirm the structure of penicillin, for which she won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1964.1910-05-10T00:00:00+0000The research was carried out by Peyton Rous. The idea that a virus could cause cancer was greeted with scepticism in the scientific community.1911-01-01T00:00:00+0000Galton is best known as an early pioneer of Eugenics1911-01-17T00:00:00+0000Kolff invented the first kidney dialysis machine.1911-02-14T00:00:00+0000Katz shared the 1970 Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'discoveries concerning the humoral transmittors in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release and inactivation.'1911-03-26T00:00:00+0000Lynen shared the 1964 Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of the cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism.'1911-04-06T00:00:00+0000Stein shared the 1972 Nobel Prize for contributing to understanding the 'connection between chemical structure and catalytic activity of the active centre of the ribonuclease molecule.'1911-06-25T00:00:00+0000Jerne shared the 1984 Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'theories concerning the specificity in development and control of the immune system' and laying the foundation for the production of monoclonal antibodies.1911-12-23T00:00:00+0000Bloch shared the 1964 Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of the cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism.'1912-01-21T00:00:00+0000
Date Event People Places Sciences
4 Dec 1908Alfred D Hershey was born in Owosso, MI, USAHersheyCarnegie Institution of WashingtonGenetics, Virology
1909The term gene is first usedJohannsenUniversity of CopenhagenDNA
1909Antibodies put forward as potential 'magic bullets' for medicineEhrlichRoyal Institute of Experimental TherapyAntibodies
22 Apr 1909Rita Levi-Montalcini was born in Turin, ItalyLevi-MontalciniInstitute of Cell Biology of the CNRCell, Biochemistry
14 Dec 1909Edward Lawrie Tatum was born in Boulder CO, USATatumRockefeller UniversityGenetics
1910First description of the building blocks of DNALeveneRockefeller UniversityDNA
1910Chromosomes linked with hereditary traitsMorganColumbia UniversityGenetics
1910Austrian physicians Ernest Freund and Gisa Kaminer observed that something in blood serum from cancer patients pervents the destruction of cancer cellsFreund, KaminerRudolf-Stiftung HospitalImmune checkpoint inhibitors, Cancer immunotherapy, Oncology
1 Mar 1910Archer J P Martin was born in London, United KingdomMartinNational Institute for Medical ResearchAnalytical chemistry
28 Apr 1910Edouard van Beneden diedvan Beneden University of LiegeCell, Genetics
29 Apr 1910Heinz Ludwig Fraenkel-Conrat was bornFraenkel-Conrat University of California BerkeleyGenetics, Virology
10 May 1910Dorothy M Crowfoot Hodgkin was born in Cairo, EgyptHodgkinCairo, EgyptX-ray crystallography
1911Research provided the first evidence that virus transmits cancer in chickensRousRockefeller InstituteImmunology, Oncology, Virology
17 Jan 1911Francis Galton diedGalton Genetics
14 Feb 1911Willem J Kolff was born Leiden, NetherlandsKolff Transplantation
26 Mar 1911Bernard Katz was born in Leipzig, GermanyKatzUniversity College LondonNeuroscience
6 Apr 1911Feodor Lynen was born in Munich, GermanyLynenMax-Planck-Institute for Cellular ChemistryBiochemistry
25 Jun 1911William H Stein was born in New York NY, USASteinRockefeller UniversityRNA
23 Dec 1911Niels K Jerne was born in London, United KingdomJerneBasel Institute for ImmunologyImmunology, Monoclonal antibodies
21 Jan 1912Konrad Bloch was born in Neisse (now Nysa), Germany (now Poland)BlochHarvard UniversityBiochemistry

4 Dec 1908

Alfred D Hershey was born in Owosso, MI, USA

1909

The term gene is first used

1909

Antibodies put forward as potential 'magic bullets' for medicine

22 Apr 1909

Rita Levi-Montalcini was born in Turin, Italy

14 Dec 1909

Edward Lawrie Tatum was born in Boulder CO, USA

1910

First description of the building blocks of DNA

1910

Chromosomes linked with hereditary traits

1910

Austrian physicians Ernest Freund and Gisa Kaminer observed that something in blood serum from cancer patients pervents the destruction of cancer cells

1 Mar 1910

Archer J P Martin was born in London, United Kingdom

28 Apr 1910

Edouard van Beneden died

29 Apr 1910

Heinz Ludwig Fraenkel-Conrat was born

10 May 1910

Dorothy M Crowfoot Hodgkin was born in Cairo, Egypt

1911

Research provided the first evidence that virus transmits cancer in chickens

17 Jan 1911

Francis Galton died

14 Feb 1911

Willem J Kolff was born Leiden, Netherlands

26 Mar 1911

Bernard Katz was born in Leipzig, Germany

6 Apr 1911

Feodor Lynen was born in Munich, Germany

25 Jun 1911

William H Stein was born in New York NY, USA

23 Dec 1911

Niels K Jerne was born in London, United Kingdom

21 Jan 1912

Konrad Bloch was born in Neisse (now Nysa), Germany (now Poland)