Timeline of key events in biotechnology

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Weller was a virologist who shared the 1954 Nobel Prize for Medicine for the 'discovery of the ability of poliomyelitis viruses to grow in cultures of various types of tissue.'1915-06-15T00:00:00+0000Ehrlich, winner of the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1908, is most well-known for coining the term 'antibody' and his side-chain theory of antibody formation which transformed understandings of how the immune system worked and laid the foundation for the development of serum therapy and monoclonal antibodies. 1915-08-20T00:00:00+0000Shankman was the first to describe how a healthy cell changes into a cancerous cell. Her work helped transform cervical cancer into an easily diagnosed and treatable condition. She also demonstrated the links between the herpes simplex virus and cervical cancer and between cervical cancer and the oral contraceptive pill.1915-09-19T00:00:00+0000Sheehan developed the first synthetic penicillin.1915-09-23T00:00:00+0000Sutherland determined how hormones work through the isolation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate. This he demonstrated acts as a second messenger in cells and has an important role in the actions of hormones at the cellular level.1915-11-19T00:00:00+0000The trials were carried out by James B Murphy and colleagues at the Rockefeller Institute. 1916-01-01T00:00:00+0000Bergstrom shared the 1982 Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'discoveries concerning prostaglandins and related biologically active substances.'1916-01-10T00:00:00+0000Anfinsen won the 1972 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for his work 'on ribonuclease, especially concerning the connection between the amino acid sequence and the biologically active conformation.'1916-03-26T00:00:00+0000Furchgott shared the 1998 Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system.'1916-06-04T00:00:00+0000Crick shared the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1962 for 'discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material.'1916-06-08T00:00:00+0000Mechnikov discovered phagocytes (macrophages), which are a major defence mechanism in the immune system. 1916-07-15T00:00:00+0000Robbins co-pioneered the growth of the poliomyelitis virus in a test tube from infected tissue which paved the way to the development of vaccines against the disease. 1916-08-25T00:00:00+0000Dausset shared the 1980 Nobel Prize for Medicine for discoveries 'concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunological reactions'. 1916-10-19T00:00:00+0000A pioneer in the development of the oral polio and modern rabies vaccines, Koprowski was the first scientist, together with colleagues, to be granted a patent for monoclonal antibodies. 1916-12-05T00:00:00+0000Wilkins shared the 1962 Nobel Prize for Medicine for work in determining structure of DNA1916-12-15T00:00:00+0000Karl Landsteiner, Austrian-born American biologist and physician, shows the body capable of producing antibodies against synthetic antigens never encountered before.1917-01-01T00:00:00+0000Kendrew shared the 1962 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for eliucidating the structures of globular proteins.1917-03-24T00:00:00+0000von Behring won the 1901 Nobel Prize for Medicine for his serum treatments against diptheria and tetanus.1917-03-31T00:00:00+0000Woodward won the 1965 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for opening up the field of artificial synthesis. He synthesised the first organic compounds like quinine, cholesterol, cortisone, strychnine, and chlorophyll. 1917-04-10T00:00:00+0000Fenn won the 2002 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for the development of mass spectrometric methods to analyse biological molecules. 1917-06-15T00:00:00+0000
Date Event People Places Sciences
15 Jun 1915Thomas H Weller was born in Ann Arbor MI, USAWellerChildren's Medical Center BostonVirology
20 Aug 1915Paul Ehrlich diedEhrlichGoettingen UniversityAntibodies, Immunology
19 Sep 1915Elizabeth S Shankman was born in Cobalt, Ontario, CanadaShankmanUniversity of California at Los AngelesOncology
23 Sep 1915John C Sheehan was born in Battle Creek, MI, USASheehanMassachusetts Institute of TechnologyAntibacterial agents
19 Nov 1915Earl W Sutherland was born in Burlingame, KS, USASutherlandVanderbilt UniversityCell
1916 - 1922Disappointing results reported from clinical trials treating breast cancer patients with low doses of X-ray radiation following tumour removal, discrediting the theory that stimulation of lymphocytes could help cure cancer. MurphyRockefeller InstituteImmunology, Cancer immunotherapy, Oncology
10 Jan 1916Sune K Bergstrom was born in Stockholm, SwedenBergstromKarolinska InstituteBiochemistry
26 Mar 1916Christian B Anfinsen was born in Monessen PA, USA AnfinsenNational Institutes of HealthRNA
4 Jun 1916Robert F Furchgott was born in Charleston SC, USAFurchgottState University of New YorkPharmacology, Cardiovascular
8 Jun 1916Francis H C Crick was born in Northampton, United KingdomCrickLaboratory of Molecular BiologyDNA, Genetics
15 Jul 1916Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov diedMechnikovPasteur InstituteImmunology
25 Aug 1916Frederick Chapman Robbins was born in Auburn AL, USARobbinsWestern Reserve UniversityVirology, Vaccine
19 Oct 1916Jean Dausset was born in Toulouse, FranceDaussetUniversity of ParisImmunology
5 Dec 1916Hilary Koprowski was born in Warsaw, PolandKoprowskiWarsaw, Poland 
15 Dec 1916Maurice H F Wilkins was born in Pongaroa, New ZealandWilkinsKing's College LondonDNA, Genetics
1917Antibodies shown to form against synthetic antigens (foreign substances)LandsteinerWilhelminenspitalAntibodies
24 Mar 1917John C Kendrew was born in Oxford, United KingdomKendrewLaboratory of Molecular BiologyBiochemistry
31 Mar 1917Emil Adolf von Behring diedvon Behring Antibodies
Apr 1917Robert Burns Woodward was born in Boston MA, USAWoodwardHarvard UniversityPharmacology
15 Jun 1917John B Fenn was born in New York NY, USAFennVirginia Commonwealth University,Analytical chemistry

15 Jun 1915

Thomas H Weller was born in Ann Arbor MI, USA

20 Aug 1915

Paul Ehrlich died

19 Sep 1915

Elizabeth S Shankman was born in Cobalt, Ontario, Canada

23 Sep 1915

John C Sheehan was born in Battle Creek, MI, USA

19 Nov 1915

Earl W Sutherland was born in Burlingame, KS, USA

1916 - 1922

Disappointing results reported from clinical trials treating breast cancer patients with low doses of X-ray radiation following tumour removal, discrediting the theory that stimulation of lymphocytes could help cure cancer.

10 Jan 1916

Sune K Bergstrom was born in Stockholm, Sweden

26 Mar 1916

Christian B Anfinsen was born in Monessen PA, USA

4 Jun 1916

Robert F Furchgott was born in Charleston SC, USA

8 Jun 1916

Francis H C Crick was born in Northampton, United Kingdom

15 Jul 1916

Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov died

25 Aug 1916

Frederick Chapman Robbins was born in Auburn AL, USA

19 Oct 1916

Jean Dausset was born in Toulouse, France

5 Dec 1916

Hilary Koprowski was born in Warsaw, Poland

15 Dec 1916

Maurice H F Wilkins was born in Pongaroa, New Zealand

1917

Antibodies shown to form against synthetic antigens (foreign substances)

24 Mar 1917

John C Kendrew was born in Oxford, United Kingdom

31 Mar 1917

Emil Adolf von Behring died

31 Mar 1917

Robert Burns Woodward was born in Boston MA, USA

15 Jun 1917

John B Fenn was born in New York NY, USA