Timeline of key events in biotechnology

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Kocher won the 1909 Nobel Prize for Medicine for his research and surgical techniques involving the thyroid.1917-07-27T00:00:00+0000Buchner won the 1907 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for his reseach into the process of fermentation.1917-08-13T00:00:00+0000Chatterjee was renowned for her breakthroughs in the development of anti-epileptic and anti-malarial drugs. 1917-09-23T00:00:00+0000de Duve helped determine the structure and function of parts of the cell. 1917-10-02T00:00:00+0000Porter shared the 1972 Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'discoveries concerning the chemical structure of antibodies.'1917-10-08T00:00:00+0000Huxley shared the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1963 for 'discoveries concerning the ionic mechanisms involved in excitation and inhibition in the peripheral and central portions of the nerve cell membrane'.1917-11-22T00:00:00+0000Elion shared the 1988 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for 'discoveries of important principles for drug treatment.'1918-01-23T00:00:00+0000Sager discovered the transmission of genetic traits through chloroplast DNA. This was the first example of genetics not involving the cell nucleus. 1918-02-07T00:00:00+0000Kornberg shared the 1959 Nobel Prize for Medicine for the discovery of the 'mechanisms in the biological synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid.'1918-03-03T00:00:00+0000Lewis shared the 1995 Nobel Prize for Medicine for discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development.1918-05-20T00:00:00+0000Krebs was a biochemist who discovered a series of chemical reactions in the cell that breaks down food molecules into carbon dioxide, water and energy. This is known as the Krebs cycle. 1918-06-06T00:00:00+0000Boyer shared the 1997 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for elucidating the 'enzymatic mechanism underlying the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate.'1918-07-31T00:00:00+0000The first to determine the DNA sequence of insulin, Sanger proved proteins have a defined chemical composition. He was also pivotal to the development of the dideoxy chain-termination method for sequencing DNA molecules, known as the Sanger method. This provided a breakthrough in the sequencing of long stretches of DNA in terms of speed and accuracy and laid the foundation for the Human Genome Project. 1918-08-13T00:00:00+0000Skou shared the 1997 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for discovering an ion-transporting enzyme.1918-10-08T00:00:00+0000Karl Ereky, a Hungarian Engineer, introduced the term biotechnology to describe his use of of sugar beets as the source of food for large scale production of pigs. Ereky defined biotechnology as all lines of work by which products are produced from raw materials with the aid of living things. He published the term in his book Biotechnologie der Fleisch, Fett und Milcherzeugung im landwirtschaftlichen Grossbetriebe. Ereky went on to develop the idea that biotechnology could help solve food and energy shortages. 1919-01-01T00:00:00+0000Murray shared the 1990 Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'discoveries concerning organ and cell transplantation in the treatment of human disease.' He performed the first successful kidney transplant between identical twins. 1919-04-01T00:00:00+0000Fischer won the 1902 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for demonstrating the structure of biological compounds, including sugars proteins and purines. 1919-07-15T00:00:00+0000Benesch was a biochemist who co-discovered how haemoglobin transports oxygen during respiration. 1919-08-13T00:00:00+0000Hounsfield shared the 1979 Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'the development of computer assisted tomography.'1919-08-28T00:00:00+0000Thomas shared the 1990 Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'discoveries concerning organ and cell transplantation in the treatment of human disease.'1920-03-15T00:00:00+0000
Date Event People Places Sciences
27 Jul 1917Emil Theodor Kocher diedKocher  
13 Aug 1917Eduard Buchner diedBuchner  
23 Sep 1917Asima Chatterjee was born in Bengal, IndiaChatterjeeUniversity of Calcutta 
2 Oct 1917Christian R de Duve was born in Thames Ditton, United Kingdomde DuveRockefeller UniversityCell
8 Oct 1917Rodney R Porter was born in Newton-le-Willows, United KingdomPorterOxford UniversityAntibodies
22 Nov 1917Andrew F Huxley was born in Hampstead, United KingdomHuxleyUniversity College LondonCell, Neuroscience
23 Jan 1918Gertrude B Elion was born in New York NY, USAElionWellcome Research LaboratoriesPharmacology
7 Feb 1918Ruth Sager was born in Brookline, Massachusetts, USASagerRockefeller UniversityGenetics
3 Mar 1918Arthur Kornberg was born in Brooklyn NY, USAKornbergStanford UniversityGenetics, DNA, RNA
20 May 1918Edward B Lewis was born in Wilkes-Barre, PA, USALewisCalifornia Institute of TechnologyGenetics, Embryology
6 Jun 1918Hans Adolf Krebs was born in Hildesheim, GermanyKrebs Sheffield UniversityCell, Biochemistry
31 Jul 1918Paul D Boyer was born in Provo UT, USABoyerUniversity of California, Los AngelesBiochemistry
13 Aug 1918Frederick Sanger, twice Nobel Prize winner, bornSangerRendcomb, Gloucestershire, United KingdomDNA Sequencing
8 Oct 1918Jens C Skou was born in Lemvig, DenmarkSkouAarhus UniversityBiochemistry
1919First use of the term 'biotechnology'ErekyJozsef Technical University 
1 Apr 1919Joseph E Murray was born in Milford MA, USAMurrayBrigham and Women's HospitalTransplantation, Immunology
15 Jul 1919Hermann Emil Fischer diedFischerUniversity of BerlinBiochemistry
13 Aug 1919Reinhold Benesch was born in PolandBeneschColumbia UnivesityBiochemistry
28 Aug 1919Godfrey N Hounsfield was born in Newark, United KingdomHounsfieldCentral Research LaboratoriesDiagnostic imaging
15 Mar 1920E Donnall Thomas was born in Mart TX, USAThomasFred Hutchinson Cancer Research CenterTransplantaion, Immunology

27 Jul 1917

Emil Theodor Kocher died

13 Aug 1917

Eduard Buchner died

23 Sep 1917

Asima Chatterjee was born in Bengal, India

2 Oct 1917

Christian R de Duve was born in Thames Ditton, United Kingdom

8 Oct 1917

Rodney R Porter was born in Newton-le-Willows, United Kingdom

22 Nov 1917

Andrew F Huxley was born in Hampstead, United Kingdom

23 Jan 1918

Gertrude B Elion was born in New York NY, USA

7 Feb 1918

Ruth Sager was born in Brookline, Massachusetts, USA

3 Mar 1918

Arthur Kornberg was born in Brooklyn NY, USA

20 May 1918

Edward B Lewis was born in Wilkes-Barre, PA, USA

6 Jun 1918

Hans Adolf Krebs was born in Hildesheim, Germany

31 Jul 1918

Paul D Boyer was born in Provo UT, USA

13 Aug 1918

Frederick Sanger, twice Nobel Prize winner, born

8 Oct 1918

Jens C Skou was born in Lemvig, Denmark

1919

First use of the term 'biotechnology'

1 Apr 1919

Joseph E Murray was born in Milford MA, USA

15 Jul 1919

Hermann Emil Fischer died

13 Aug 1919

Reinhold Benesch was born in Poland

28 Aug 1919

Godfrey N Hounsfield was born in Newark, United Kingdom

15 Mar 1920

E Donnall Thomas was born in Mart TX, USA