Timeline of key events in biotechnology

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Fischer shared the 1992 Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'discoveries concerning reversible protein phosphorylation as a biological regulatory mechanism.'1920-04-06T00:00:00+0000Monod shared the 1965 Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis.'1920-06-07T00:00:00+0000Jacob shared the 1965 Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis.' 1920-06-17T00:00:00+0000Ivanovsky was a Russian microbiologist who was one the first scientists to discover viruses.1920-06-20T00:00:00+0000Franklin was a biophysicist who developed the first x-ray crystalography photograph establishing the double helix structure of DNA. Both Watson and Crick used her photograph to establish their model of DNA for which they won the Nobel Prize. 1920-07-25T00:00:00+0000Mitchell won the 1978 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for contributing to understanding biological energy transfer. 1920-09-29T00:00:00+0000Benacerraf shared the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1980 for 'discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulates immunological reactions'.1920-10-29T00:00:00+0000Witkin is best known for her work on DNA mutagenesis and DNA repair. She helped elucidate the first co-ordinated stress response. This she did studying the response of bacteria to UV radiation. Witkins was one of the first few women to be elected to the US National Academy of Sciences, in 1977. She was also awarded the National Medal of Science in 2002. 1921-03-09T00:00:00+0000Merrifield won the 1984 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for inventing the process of solid phase peptide synthesis.1921-07-15T00:00:00+0000 Yalow shared the 1977 Nobel Prize for Medicine for the development of radioimmunoassay diagnostic tests to measure the concentration of hormones, vitamins, viruses, enzymes, drugs and other substances. 1921-07-19T00:00:00+0000A German biologist, Petri is credited with the invention of the petri dish, a shallow glass cylinder used to culture cells and bacteria.1921-12-20T00:00:00+0000Khorana shared the 1968 Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis.'1922-01-09T00:00:00+0000The insulin was given to a Canadian 14 year old boy, Leonard Thompson, by Frederick Grant Banting, a Canadian medical physician.1922-01-11T00:00:00+0000Holley shared the 1968 Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis.'1922-01-28T00:00:00+0000Laveran shared the 1907 Nobel Prize for Medicine for identifying protozoan as the cause of malaria. 1922-05-18T00:00:00+0000Good performed the first successful bone marrow transplant to treat a disease other than cancer. He also determined the role of the thymus and tonsils in the immune system.1922-05-21T00:00:00+0000Takamine was the first to isolate the hormone adrenalin from the suprarenal gland. It was the first pure hormone isolated from a natural source.1922-07-22T00:00:00+0000Founder of Sera-Lab, the first biotechnology company to commercialise monoclonal antibodies, Murray's entrepreneurial efforts paved the way to the wide-scale adoption of the technology in research and its clinical application. 1922-10-21T00:00:00+0000Hertwig was a German biologist who determined that fertilisation started when the nuclei of sperm and ovum cells fused.1922-10-25T00:00:00+0000Barnard was a South African cardiac surgeon who performed the first successful human to human heart transplant.1922-11-08T00:00:00+0000
Date Event People Places Sciences
6 Apr 1920Edmond H Fischer was born in Shanghai, ChinaFischerUniversity of Washington 
7 Jun 1920Jacques Monod was born in Nancy, FranceMonodPasteur InstituteGenetics
17 Jun 1920Francois Jacob was born in Nancy, FranceJacobPasteur InstituteGenetics
20 Jun 1920Dmitry Iosifovich Ivanovsky died   
25 Jul 1920Rosalind E Franklin was born in London, United KingdomFranklinKings College LondonDNA
29 Sep 1920Peter D Mitchell was born in Mitcham, United KingdomMitchellGlynn Research LaboratoriesBiochemistry
29 Oct 1920Baruj Benacerraf was born in Caracas, VenezuelaBenacerrafHarvard Medical SchoolImmunology
9 Mar 1921Evelyn Witkin was born in New York City, USAWitkinNew York City 
15 Jul 1921Robert Bruce Merrifield born in Fort Worth TX, USAMerrifield Biochemistry
19 Jul 1921Rosalyn Yalow was born in New York NY, USAYalowVeterans Administration HospitalDiagnostics, Endocrinology
20 Dec 1921Richard Julius Petri diedPetriImperial Health OfficeBacteriology
9 Jan 1922Har Gobind Khorana was born in Raipur, IndiaKhoranaRaipur, IndiaGenetics
1922Insulin was used to treat diabetes for the first time. BantingUniversity of Toronto 
28 Jan 1922Robert W Holley was born in Urbana IL, USAHolleyCornell UniversityGenetics
18 May 1922Charles L Alphonse Laveran diedLaveranPasteur Institute 
21 May 1922Robert A Good was born in Crosby, Minnesota, USAGood University of MinnesotaImmunology, Transplantation
22 Jul 1922Jokichi Takamine diedTakamine Biochemistry
21 Oct 1922David Murray was born in Poole, Dorset, United KingdomMurrayPoole, Dorset, United Kingdom 
25 Oct 1922Oskar Hertwig diedHertwig Reproduction
8 Nov 1922Christiaan Barnard was born in Beaufort West, South AfricaBarnardUniversity of Cape TownTransplantation

6 Apr 1920

Edmond H Fischer was born in Shanghai, China

7 Jun 1920

Jacques Monod was born in Nancy, France

17 Jun 1920

Francois Jacob was born in Nancy, France

20 Jun 1920

Dmitry Iosifovich Ivanovsky died

25 Jul 1920

Rosalind E Franklin was born in London, United Kingdom

29 Sep 1920

Peter D Mitchell was born in Mitcham, United Kingdom

29 Oct 1920

Baruj Benacerraf was born in Caracas, Venezuela

9 Mar 1921

Evelyn Witkin was born in New York City, USA

15 Jul 1921

Robert Bruce Merrifield born in Fort Worth TX, USA

19 Jul 1921

Rosalyn Yalow was born in New York NY, USA

20 Dec 1921

Richard Julius Petri died

9 Jan 1922

Har Gobind Khorana was born in Raipur, India

1922

Insulin was used to treat diabetes for the first time.

28 Jan 1922

Robert W Holley was born in Urbana IL, USA

18 May 1922

Charles L Alphonse Laveran died

21 May 1922

Robert A Good was born in Crosby, Minnesota, USA

22 Jul 1922

Jokichi Takamine died

21 Oct 1922

David Murray was born in Poole, Dorset, United Kingdom

25 Oct 1922

Oskar Hertwig died

8 Nov 1922

Christiaan Barnard was born in Beaufort West, South Africa