Timeline of key events in biotechnology

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Cohen helped idolate the nerve growth factor that induces the differentiation of nerve tissue. The resesearch has helped advance knowledge about cancer growth and the development of cancer treatments. 1922-11-17T00:00:00+0000Lederberg was a major pioneer of bacterial genetics. She discovered the lambda phage and invented the replica plating technique. 1922-12-18T00:00:00+0000Carlsson shared the 2000 Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system.'1923-01-25T00:00:00+0000Askonas co-developed one of the first systems for the cloning of antibody-forming B cells in vivo, some of the earliest monoclonal antibodies. She was also one of the first scientists to isolate and clone virus specific T lymphocytes, laying the foundation for defining different influenza sub-sets and improving vaccines. 1923-04-01T00:00:00+0000An American physician and virologist, Gajdusek helped discover the origins and dissemination of infectious diseases. He also investigated kuru, a neurological disease later determined to be the first human prion disease. 1923-09-09T00:00:00+0000E. Freund, G. Kaminer, Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift, Jan 19241924-01-01T00:00:00+0000Guillemin shared the 1977 Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'discoveries concerning the peptide hormone production of the brain.'1924-01-11T00:00:00+0000Loeb was a German-American physiologist who demonstrated the possibility of reproduction without male fertilisation, parthenogenesis, in sea urchin eggs. 1924-02-11T00:00:00+0000Cormack shared the 1979 Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'the development of computer assisted tomography.'1924-02-23T00:00:00+0000MacEwan was a Scottish physician who developed a technique to locate brain tumours by observing changes in motor and sensory functions.1924-03-22T00:00:00+0000Wiesel shared the 1981 Nobel Prize for Medicine for discoveries into how the brain processes visual stimuli.1924-06-03T00:00:00+0000Black shared the 1988 Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'discoveries of important principles for drug treatment'. He invented the first modern blood-pressure drug and first modern ulcer drug. 1924-06-14T00:00:00+0000Bayliss co-discovered the first hormone. Named secretin after the Greek word meaning to set in motion, the hormone helps secrete pancreatic juice when food enters the intestines. 1924-08-27T00:00:00+0000Benesch was a biochemist who co-discovered how haemoglobin transports oxygen during respiration. 1925-02-25T00:00:00+0000Dayhoff is known as the founder of bioinformatics. This she did by pioneering the application of mathematics and computational techniques to the sequencing of proteins and nucleic acids and establishing the first publicly available database for research in the area. 1925-03-11T00:00:00+0000Miramontes synthesised noresthindrone, one of the first compounds used as an oral contraceptive. 1925-03-16T00:00:00+0000Lederberg shared the 1958 Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'discoveries concerning genetic recombination and the organization of the genetic material of bacteria.'1925-05-23T00:00:00+0000Smithies shared the 2007 Nobel Prize for Medicine for discovering the principles for 'introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells.'1925-06-23T00:00:00+0000T.B. Johnson, R.D. Coghill, 'The discovery of 5-methyl-cytosine in tuberculinic acid, the nucleic acid of the Tubercle bacillus', Journal of the American Chemical Society, 47/11 (1925, 2838–44. 1925-11-01T00:00:00+0000Rodell shared the 1994 Nobel Prize in Medicine for the discovery of G-proteins and their role in signal transduction within the cell.1925-12-01T00:00:00+0000
Date Event People Places Sciences
17 Nov 1922Stanley Cohen was born in Brooklyn, NY, USACohenVanderbilt UniversityCell, Biochemistry
18 Dec 1922Esther Lederberg was born in Bronx, New York, USALederbergWisconsin UniversityGenetics, Antimicrobial resistance, Bacteriophages, Lambda phage
25 Jan 1923Arvid Carlsson was born in Uppsala, SwedenCarlssonGoteborg UniversityNeuroscience
1 Apr 1923Brigitte Askonas was born in Vienna, AustriaAskonasVienna 
9 Sep 1923Daniel C Gajdusek was born in Yonkers NY, USAGajdusek National Institutes of HealthInfectious diseases
1924Austrian physicians Ernest Freund and Gisa Kaminer discover a substance in intestines of cancer patients that reduce ability of normal serum to dissolve cancer cells. Freund, KaminerRudolf-Stiftung HospitalImmune checkpoint inhibitors, Cancer immunotherapy, Oncology
11 Jan 1924Roger Guillemin was born in Dijon, FranceGuilleminSalk InstituteEndocrinology
11 Feb 1924Jacques Loeb diedLoebRockefeller UniversityReproduction
23 Feb 1924Allan M Cormack was born in Johannesburg, South AfricaCormackTufts UniversityDiagnostic imaging
22 Mar 1924William MacEwen diedMacEwan Neuroscience
3 Jun 1924Torsten N Wiesel born in Uppsala, SwedenWiesel Neuroscience
14 Jun 1924James W Black was born in Uddingston, ScotlandBlackKing's College LondonPharmacology
27 Aug 1924William Maddock Bayliss diedBaylissUniversity College London 
25 Feb 1925Ruth Erica (Leroi) Benesch was born in Paris, FranceBeneschColumbia UnivesityBiochemistry
11 Mar 1925Margaret Dayhoff was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USADayhoffPhiladelphia 
16 Mar 1925Luis Ernesto Miramontes was bornMiramontes  
23 May 1925Joshua Lederberg was born in Montclair, NJ, USALederbergUniversity of WisconsinGenetics, Plasmids
23 Jun 1925Oliver Smithies was born in Halifax, United KingdomSmithesUniversity of North CarolinaGenetics
Nov 1925T.B. Johnson and R.D. Coghill reported detecting a minor amount of methylated cytosine derivative as byproduct of hyrdrolysis of tuberculinic acid with sulfuric acid but other scientists struggled to replicate their results. Johnson, CoghillYale UniversityDNA methylation, Epigenetics
1 Dec 1925Martin Rodbell was born in Baltimore MD, USARodbellNational Institute of Environmental Health SciencesCell

17 Nov 1922

Stanley Cohen was born in Brooklyn, NY, USA

18 Dec 1922

Esther Lederberg was born in Bronx, New York, USA

25 Jan 1923

Arvid Carlsson was born in Uppsala, Sweden

1 Apr 1923

Brigitte Askonas was born in Vienna, Austria

9 Sep 1923

Daniel C Gajdusek was born in Yonkers NY, USA

1924

Austrian physicians Ernest Freund and Gisa Kaminer discover a substance in intestines of cancer patients that reduce ability of normal serum to dissolve cancer cells.

11 Jan 1924

Roger Guillemin was born in Dijon, France

11 Feb 1924

Jacques Loeb died

23 Feb 1924

Allan M Cormack was born in Johannesburg, South Africa

22 Mar 1924

William MacEwen died

3 Jun 1924

Torsten N Wiesel born in Uppsala, Sweden

14 Jun 1924

James W Black was born in Uddingston, Scotland

27 Aug 1924

William Maddock Bayliss died

25 Feb 1925

Ruth Erica (Leroi) Benesch was born in Paris, France

11 Mar 1925

Margaret Dayhoff was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

16 Mar 1925

Luis Ernesto Miramontes was born

23 May 1925

Joshua Lederberg was born in Montclair, NJ, USA

23 Jun 1925

Oliver Smithies was born in Halifax, United Kingdom

Nov 1925

T.B. Johnson and R.D. Coghill reported detecting a minor amount of methylated cytosine derivative as byproduct of hyrdrolysis of tuberculinic acid with sulfuric acid but other scientists struggled to replicate their results.

1 Dec 1925

Martin Rodbell was born in Baltimore MD, USA