Timeline of key events in biotechnology

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Nathans was the first to demonstrate how restriction enzymes could be used to cleaving DNA and how to piece together its fragments to contruct a complete map of DNA. His work inspired the use of restriction enzymes for many different biotechnology applications, including DNA sequencing and the construction of recombinant DNA.1928-10-30T00:00:00+0000 Zinder discovered how hereditary information is transferred from one organism to another. The process is known as genetic transduction.1928-11-07T00:00:00+0000Ames developed a biological test to quickly identify whether or not a chemical compound is a potential carcinogen. Bacteria are exposed to the test substance and allowed to multiply. 1928-12-16T00:00:00+0000E Witebsky, 'Disponibilitiit und Spezifitat alkoholloslicher Strukturen von Organen und bosartigen Geschwulsten', Zeitschrift fur Imrnunitaetsforschung, Allergie und Klinische Immunologie' 62 (1929), 35-73. 1929-01-01T00:00:00+0000Founded by Clarence Little, one of the leading researchers into genetic differences governing the rejection of foreign tissues. 1929-01-01T00:00:00+0000R Pearl, 'Cancer and tuberculosis', American Journal of Hygiene, 9 (1929), 97-149. 1929-04-01T00:00:00+0000Lauterbur shared the 2003 Nobel Prize in Medicine for pioneering magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), body scanning technology.1929-05-06T00:00:00+0000Werner Arber shared the 1978 Nobel Prize in Medicine for the discovery of 'restriction enzymes and their application to problems in molecular genetics.'1929-06-03T00:00:00+0000Edelman shared the 1972 Nobel Prize for Medicine for discoveries concerning the chemical structure of antibodies. 1929-07-01T00:00:00+0000Ruddle helped pioneer human gene mapping and established many of the techniques and a framework for setting up the Human Genome Project. He is also known for having generated, with Jon W. Gordon and George Scango the first successful transgenic mouse. His work heralded the development of genetically modified animals as research models to investigate the function of genes and genetic cause of disease. He also co-discovered, with William McGinnis, the first human homeobox genes, important regulators of gene development. 1929-08-19T00:00:00+0000Kandel shared the 2000 Nobel Prize for Medicine for discoveries 'concerning signal transduction in the nervous system.'1929-11-07T00:00:00+0000Griffin was a major pioneer in the DNA sequencing field and research into the Epstein-Barr virus1930-01-23T00:00:00+0000Eijkman was a Dutch physician who helped discover vitamins and identify beriberi as a disease caused by poor diet. 1930-11-05T00:00:00+0000Youyou discovered artemisinin and dihydroartemisinin, used to treat malaria for which she received the 2015 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. She is the first female citizen of the People's Republic of China to receive a Nobel Prize.1930-12-30T00:00:00+0000First prototype of electron microscope constructed by Ernest Ruska, German physicist, and Max Knoll, electrial engineer.1931-01-01T00:00:00+0000A French immunologist, Miller discovered the function of the thymus and identified two major subsets of lymphocytes (T and B cells).1931-04-02T00:00:00+0000Hamilton Othanel Smith co-discovered with Kent W Wilcox and Thomas Kelly the site-specific restriction enzyme now known as HindII which facilitates the cutting and pasting of specific DNA fragments for the generation of recombinant DNA.1931-08-23T00:00:00+00001932-01-01T00:00:00+0000Key developer of vaccine against rubella virus1932-01-01T00:00:00+0000Gilbert shared the 1980 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for his work in determining base sequences in nucleic acids.1932-03-21T00:00:00+0000
Date Event People Places Sciences
30 Oct 1928Daniel Nathans was born in Wilmington, Delaware, USANathansWilmington, Delaware 
7 Nov 1928Norton David Zinder was born New York City, USAZinderRockefeller UniversityGenetics
16 Dec 1928Bruce N Ames was bornAmesUniversity California BerkeleyDiagnostics, Oncology
1929First molecular marker, antigen, identified on a tumour, laying foundation for use of antibodies to diagnose and treat cancerWitebsky University of HeidelbergImmunology, Cancer immunotherapy, Oncology, Monoclonal antibodies
1929Jackson Memorial Laboratories established to develop inbred strains of mice to study the genetics of cancer and other diseases Jackson Memorial LaboratoroiesGenetics, Immunology, Oncology, Transgenic animals
Apr 1929Autopsies carried out on tuberculosis patients show them less likely to have contracted cancerPearlJohns Hopkins UniversityImmunology, Cancer immunotherapy, Oncology,
6 May 1929Paul C Lauterbur was born in Sidney, Ohio, USALauterburSidney, Ohio 
3 Jun 1929Werner Arber was born in Granichen, SwitzerlandArberUniversity of GenevaRestriction enzymes, Recombinant DNA, DNA Sequencing
1 Jul 1929Gerald M Edelman was born in New York NY, USAEdelmanRockefeller UniversityAntibodies
19 Aug 1929Frank Ruddle was born in West New York, New JerseyRuddleWest New York 
7 Nov 1929Eric R Kandel was born in Vienna, AustriaKandelColumbia UniversityNeuroscience
23 Jan 1930Beverly Griffin was born in Dehli, Louisiana, USAGriffinImperial College 
5 Nov 1930Christiaan Eijkman diedEijkmanUtrecht UniversityNutrition
30 Dec 1930Tu Youyou was born in Zhejiang, ChinaYouyouZhejiang 
1931Invention of the electron microscopeRuska  
Apr 1931Jacques F A P Miller was bornMillerWalter and Eliza Hall InstituteImmunology
23 Aug 1931Hamilton Smith was born in New York CitySmithNew York City 
1932Sanger attends Bryanston School, Dorset, as boarderSanger DNA Sequencing
1932Stanley Plotkin born in New York City, USAPlotkinWistar Institute
21 Mar 1932Walter Gilbert was born in Boston MA, USAGilbertHarvard UniversityBiochemistry

30 Oct 1928

Daniel Nathans was born in Wilmington, Delaware, USA

7 Nov 1928

Norton David Zinder was born New York City, USA

16 Dec 1928

Bruce N Ames was born

1929

First molecular marker, antigen, identified on a tumour, laying foundation for use of antibodies to diagnose and treat cancer

1929

Jackson Memorial Laboratories established to develop inbred strains of mice to study the genetics of cancer and other diseases

Apr 1929

Autopsies carried out on tuberculosis patients show them less likely to have contracted cancer

6 May 1929

Paul C Lauterbur was born in Sidney, Ohio, USA

3 Jun 1929

Werner Arber was born in Granichen, Switzerland

1 Jul 1929

Gerald M Edelman was born in New York NY, USA

19 Aug 1929

Frank Ruddle was born in West New York, New Jersey

7 Nov 1929

Eric R Kandel was born in Vienna, Austria

23 Jan 1930

Beverly Griffin was born in Dehli, Louisiana, USA

5 Nov 1930

Christiaan Eijkman died

30 Dec 1930

Tu Youyou was born in Zhejiang, China

1931

Invention of the electron microscope

Apr 1931

Jacques F A P Miller was born

23 Aug 1931

Hamilton Smith was born in New York City

1932

Sanger attends Bryanston School, Dorset, as boarder

1932

Stanley Plotkin born in New York City, USA

21 Mar 1932

Walter Gilbert was born in Boston MA, USA