Timeline of key events in biotechnology

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Michael Smith shared the 1993 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for a technique that enables researchers to introduce specific mutations into genes and, thus, to the proteins that they encode.1932-04-26T00:00:00+0000Ross elucidated the life-cycle of the parasite that causes malaria: Plasmodium.1932-09-16T00:00:00+0000Vilcek helped develop methods for the molecular characterisation of the cytokine human interferon and for its production for clinical use. In addition, Vilcek was instrumental in elucidating the biological action of tumour necrosis factor (TNF), a cytokine involved in the promotion of inflammation. Together with Junming Le, Vilcek created the first monoclonal antibody against TNF approved for the treatment of autoimmune diseases and inflammatory disorders. 1933-06-17T00:00:00+0000Mansfield won the 2003 Nobel Prize for Medicine for pioneering magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), body scanning technology.1933-10-09T00:00:00+0000John Marrack, a British chemical pathologist, proposes the biochemical forces which underly the bond between antibodies and antigens. 1934-01-01T00:00:00+0000Sanuelson shared the 1982 Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'discoveries concerning prostaglandins and related biologically active substances.'1934-05-21T00:00:00+0000Curie won two Nobel Prizes, one in 1903 and another in 1911 for pioneering the study of radioactivity.1934-07-04T00:00:00+0000A histologist and neuroscientist, Ramon y Cajal shared the 1906 Nobel Prize for Medicine for discoveries about the structure of the nervous system. 1934-10-17T00:00:00+0000Temin shared the 1975 Nobel Prize for Medicine for work on the interactions between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell. 1934-12-10T00:00:00+0000A pathologist and microbiologist, Smith identified the causes of several infectious parasitic diseases, including Texas Cattle Fever caused by ticks. His work laid the ground for investigation of yellow fever and malaria. 1934-12-10T00:00:00+0000The American biomedical scientists Michael Heidelberger, Forrest Kendall and Elvin Kabat demonstrate antibodies to be proteins.1935-01-01T00:00:00+0000Macleod was a Scottish physician who, together with Frederick Baring, discovered insulin.1935-03-16T00:00:00+0000Cohen helped pioneer recombinant DNA.1935-06-30T00:00:00+0000Mendel co-discovered vitamins A and B, lysine and tryptophan and their role in nutrition.1935-12-09T00:00:00+0000Studies a combination of chemistry, physics, maths and physiology and specialises in biochemistry in his final year.1936-01-01T00:00:00+0000Bishop won the 1989 Nobel Prize for Medicine for discovering retroviral oncogenes.1936-02-22T00:00:00+0000A French bacteriologist, Nicolle determined that lice were the transmission vector of epidemic typhus and worked out the transmission method of tick fever. He developed a vaccine for Malta fever.1936-02-28T00:00:00+0000Together with Stanley Cohen, Boyer demonstrated the possibility of producing recombinant DNA in bacteria in 1973. This they did by combining a gene for frog ribosomal RNA with a bacterial plasmid which was then put into a strain of E-coli for expression. Based on this technique Boyer helped found Genentech, the first biotechnology company dedicated to commercialising recombinant DNA. This he did in 1976 in collaboration with Robert Swanson. 1936-07-10T00:00:00+0000Together with Marc Feldmann, Maini helped identify TNF alpha as a key cytokine in the process of rheumatoid arthritis, laying the foundation for the development of monoclonal antibody drugs to treat autoimmune diseases.1936-11-30T00:00:00+0000Klinman developed the splenic fragment system, a technique that helped generate some of earliest monoclonal antibodies against viral antigens and cancer. 1937-03-23T00:00:00+0000
Date Event People Places Sciences
26 Apr 1932Michael Smith was born in Blackpool, United KingdomSmithUniversity of British ColumbiaRecombinant DNA, Monoclonal antibodies
16 Sep 1932Ronald Rossborn diedRossUniversity College LiverpoolInfectious diseases
17 Jun 1933Jan Vilcek was born in Bratislava, SlovakiaVilcekBratislava, Slovakia 
9 Oct 1933Peter Mansfield was born in London, United KingdomMansfieldLondon, United Kingdom 
1934 - 1938Antigen-antibody binding hypothesis formulatedMarrackLondon UniversityAntibodies
21 May 1934Bengt I Samuelsson was born in Halmstad, SwedenSamuelsonKarolinska InstituteBiochemistry
4 Jul 1934Marie Curie diedCurie  
17 Oct 1934Santiago Ramon y Cajal diedRamon y CajalMadrid UniversityNeuroscience
10 Dec 1934Howard M Temin was born in Philadelphia PA, USATeminUniversity of WisconsinGenetics, Virology, Oncology
10 Dec 1934Theobald Smith diedSmith Infectious diseases, Bacteriology
1935 - 1936Antibodies shown to be proteinsHeidelberger, Kendall, KabatColumbia UniversityAntibodies
16 Mar 1935John J R Macleod diedMacleodUniversity of AberdeenBiochemistry
30 Jun 1935Stanley Norman Cohen was born in Perth Amboy, NJ, USACohenStanford UniversityRecombinant DNA
9 Dec 1935Lafayette Benedict Mendel diedMendelYale UniversityNutrition
1936 - 1940Sanger takes degree in Natural Sciences at Cambridge UniversitySangerCambridge UniversityDNA Sequencing
Feb 1936J Michael Bishop born in York PA, USABishopUniversity California San FranciscoOncology, Virology
28 Feb 1936Charles Jules Henry Nicolle died  Vaccine
10 Jul 1936Herbert Boyer was born in Derry, Pennsylvania, USABoyerDerry, Pennsylvania 
30 Nov 1936Ravinder Maini was born in Ludhiana, IndiaMainiLudhiana, India 
23 Mar 1937Norman Klinman was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USAKlinmanPhiladelphia 

26 Apr 1932

Michael Smith was born in Blackpool, United Kingdom

16 Sep 1932

Ronald Rossborn died

17 Jun 1933

Jan Vilcek was born in Bratislava, Slovakia

9 Oct 1933

Peter Mansfield was born in London, United Kingdom

1934 - 1938

Antigen-antibody binding hypothesis formulated

21 May 1934

Bengt I Samuelsson was born in Halmstad, Sweden

4 Jul 1934

Marie Curie died

17 Oct 1934

Santiago Ramon y Cajal died

10 Dec 1934

Howard M Temin was born in Philadelphia PA, USA

10 Dec 1934

Theobald Smith died

1935 - 1936

Antibodies shown to be proteins

16 Mar 1935

John J R Macleod died

30 Jun 1935

Stanley Norman Cohen was born in Perth Amboy, NJ, USA

9 Dec 1935

Lafayette Benedict Mendel died

1936 - 1940

Sanger takes degree in Natural Sciences at Cambridge University


J Michael Bishop born in York PA, USA

28 Feb 1936

Charles Jules Henry Nicolle died

10 Jul 1936

Herbert Boyer was born in Derry, Pennsylvania, USA

30 Nov 1936

Ravinder Maini was born in Ludhiana, India

23 Mar 1937

Norman Klinman was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA