Timeline of key events in biotechnology

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Evans shared the 2007 Nobel Prize for Medicine for discovering the 'principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells.'1941-01-01T00:00:00+0000Term first used by A. Jost, a Danish microbiologist, in lecture on sexual reproduction in yeast presented to the Technical Institute in Lwow, Poland 1941-01-01T00:00:00+0000Walker shared the 1997 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for describing the enzymatic synthesis of adenosine triphosphate.1941-01-07T00:00:00+0000Banting was a Canadian physician who helped discover and isolate insulin. He also helped demonstrate its use to treat diabetes in dogs. 1941-02-21T00:00:00+0000Brown shared the 1985 Nobel Prize for discovering how cholesterol metabolism is regulated. This laid the foundation for the development of statin drugs to lower cholesterol. 1941-04-13T00:00:00+0000Berger was a German psychologist who developed the first electroencephalogram (EEG) for recording brain wave patterns.1941-06-01T00:00:00+0000Gilman shared the 1994 Nobel Prize for Medicine for discovering G-proteins and their role in signal transduction within cells.1941-07-01T00:00:00+0000Schoenheimer developed the technique of radioactive tagging to trace biochemical processes in the living body. 1941-09-11T00:00:00+0000An oncologist and scientist, Levy helped pioneer the development of the first monoclonal antibodies effective in combating cancer. His work laid the foundation for the development of Rituxan, the first monoclonal antibody drug approved by the FDA for the treatment of cancer. 1941-12-06T00:00:00+0000Research undertaken by Health Division of Manhattan Project. 1942-01-01T00:00:00+0000Observation made by Leon O. Jacobson working within Health Division of the Manhattan Project.1942-01-01T00:00:00+0000C.H. Waddington, 'The Epigenotype', Endeavour, 1 (1942), 18-20.1942-01-01T00:00:00+0000Bragg shared the 1915 Nobel Prize in Physics with his son, William Lawrence Bragg, for the development of x-ray crystallography.1942-03-12T00:00:00+0000Sulston shared the 2002 Nobel Prize for identifying how genes regulate the life cycle of cells through apoptosis. 1942-03-27T00:00:00+0000Prusiner won the 1997 Nobel Prize in Medicine for discovering the prion, a protein that can cause infections by improper protein folding, resulting in disease in the brain and neural tissue. 1942-05-28T00:00:00+0000Nusslein-Volhard shared the 1958 Nobel Prize for Medicine for discoveries relating to genetic control of early embryonic development.1942-10-20T00:00:00+0000A bioentrepreneur and venture capitalist, Green was the first Chief Executive Officer of Hybritech, America's first monoclonal antibody biotechnology company, and helped found or manage eleven medical technology companies. 1942-11-30T00:00:00+0000Landsteiner won the 1930 Nobel Prize for Medicine for his discovery of blood types. He also helped identify the Rh factor and the poliovirus. 1943-06-26T00:00:00+0000A British molecular biologist, Roberts helped discover, with Philp A Sharp, introns, sections of DNA that do not carry genetic information. 1943-09-06T00:00:00+0000Sanger undertakes the research as part of team working with Albert Chibnall in Department of Biochemistry. His work is initially supported by a Beit Memorial Fellowship from 1944 and then by Medical Research Council from 1951. 1944-01-01T00:00:00+0000
Date Event People Places Sciences
1 Jan 1941Martin J Evans was born in Stroud, United KingdomEvansCardiff UniversityGenetics
1941Term 'genetic engineering' first coinedJost Recombinant DNA
7 Jan 1941John E Walker was born in Halifax, United KingdomWalkerLaboratory of Molecular BiologyBiochemistry
1941Frederick Grant Banting diedGrantUniversity of TorontoBiochemistry
13 Apr 1941Michael S Brown was born in New York NY, USABrownUniversity of Texas 
1 Jun 1941Hans Berger diedBerger Neuroscience
1 Jul 1941Alfred G Gilman was born in New Haven, Connecticut, USAGilmanNew Haven, ConnecticutCell
11 Sep 1941Rudolf Schoenheimer died SchoenheimerColumbia univbersityAnalytical chemistry
6 Dec 1941Ronald Levy was born in Carmel, California, United StatesLevyCarmel, California 
1942 - 1945Animal experiments launched to investigate the biological effects of acute and chronic exposure to different forms and intensities of ionising radiationJacobson, Zirkle, Bloom University of ChicagoStem cells
1942 - 1945One part of the blood system, the spleen, offers some form of protection against radiation damageJacobsonUniversity of ChicagoStem cells
1942'Epigenetics' coined as a term to describe how genes interact with the environment to produce the physical traits of an organism WaddngtonCambridge UniversityEpigenetics
12 Mar 1942William Henry Bragg diedBragg X ray crystallography
Mar 1942John E Sulston, winner of 2002 Nobel Prize for Medicine, born in Cambridge, United KingdomSulstonLaboratory of Molecular BiologyCell, Genetics
28 May 1942Stanley B Prusiner was born in Des Moines, Iowa, USAPrusinerDes Moines, IowaNeurosciences
20 Oct 1942Christiane Nusslein-Volhard was born in Magdeburg, GermanyNusslein-VolhardMax-Planck-Institute for Developmental BiologyEmbyology, Genetics
30 Nov 1942Ted Greene was born in Cleveland, Ohio, USAGreeneCleveland, Ohio 
26 Jun 1943Karl Landsteiner diedLandsteiner Immunology
6 Sep 1943Richard J Roberts was bornRoberts DNA
1944Sanger starts working on amino acid composition of insulinSangerCambridge UniversityDNA Sequencing

1 Jan 1941

Martin J Evans was born in Stroud, United Kingdom

1941

Term 'genetic engineering' first coined

7 Jan 1941

John E Walker was born in Halifax, United Kingdom

1941

Frederick Grant Banting died

13 Apr 1941

Michael S Brown was born in New York NY, USA

1 Jun 1941

Hans Berger died

1 Jul 1941

Alfred G Gilman was born in New Haven, Connecticut, USA

11 Sep 1941

Rudolf Schoenheimer died

6 Dec 1941

Ronald Levy was born in Carmel, California, United States

1942 - 1945

Animal experiments launched to investigate the biological effects of acute and chronic exposure to different forms and intensities of ionising radiation

1942 - 1945

One part of the blood system, the spleen, offers some form of protection against radiation damage

1942

'Epigenetics' coined as a term to describe how genes interact with the environment to produce the physical traits of an organism

12 Mar 1942

William Henry Bragg died

12 Mar 1942

John E Sulston, winner of 2002 Nobel Prize for Medicine, born in Cambridge, United Kingdom

28 May 1942

Stanley B Prusiner was born in Des Moines, Iowa, USA

20 Oct 1942

Christiane Nusslein-Volhard was born in Magdeburg, Germany

30 Nov 1942

Ted Greene was born in Cleveland, Ohio, USA

26 Jun 1943

Karl Landsteiner died

6 Sep 1943

Richard J Roberts was born

1944

Sanger starts working on amino acid composition of insulin