This website provides a curated collection of resources about the people, places and technologies that have enabled biotechnology to transform our healthcare and the world we live in today

Timeline of key events

Timeline of key events in biotechnology

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Date Event People Places Sciences
1960National Biomedical Research Foundation establishedLedleyGeorgetown UniversityDNA Sequencing
1960Sanger begins to devise ways to sequence nucleic acids, starting with RNASangerCambridge UniversityDNA Sequencing
20 Sep 1960Ernest Goodpasture diedGoodpastureHarvard UniversityVirology, Vaccine
19 Oct 1960Craig C Mello was born in New Haven CT, USAMelloUniversity of Massachusetts RNA interference
1961 - 1966Genetic code cracked for the first timeKhorana, HolleyUniversity of Wisconsin, Cornell UniversityDNA
1961Cesar Milstein is awarded a second doctorate in biochemistry at Cambridge UniversityMilsteinSir William Dunn School of Pathology 
1961Cesar Milstein takes up a position at the Instituto Malbran, Buenos AiresMilsteinInstituto Malbran 
1961Existence and properties of transplantable stem cells in mouse bone marrow established and the first methodology for counting them is devisedJames, Till, McCulloch, Siminovitch, Becker, Wu, FowleOntario Cancer InstituteStem cells
1961Normal cell population discovered to only be able to divide a limited number of times before it stopsHayflickWistar InstituteCell, Genetics, Oncology
31 Mar 1961Experiments reveal a type of RNA (messenger RNA) transports genetic information from the nucleus to the protein-making machinery in a cellBrenner, Crick, Jacob DNA, RNA, genetics
06 Apr 1961Jule Bordet diedBordetPasteur InstituteImmunology
15 Apr 1961Carol W Greider was born in San Diego CA, USAGreiderJohns Hopkins University Genetics
22 Apr 1961Genes linked to X-chromosome inactivation in female mice embyosLyonCambridge UniversityEpigenetics, Embyology
May 1961Coding mechanism for DNA discoveredNirenberg, MatthaeiNational Institute for HealthDNA
25 Dec 1961Otto Loewi diedLoewiGraz UniversityNeuroscience
1962Antibodies discovered to have structure like a 'Y'Porter, EdelmanNational Institute for Medical Research, Rockefeller University Antibodies
1962An Argentinian military coup throws Cesar Milstein's academic work into disarrayMilsteinInstituto Malbran 
1962Nuclei from adult frog cells reprogrammed to full embryonic potential after transfer into frog eggsGurdon, AltmanCambridge UniversityStem cells
1962Concept of restriction and modification enzymes bornArber, DussoixUniversity of GenevaRestriction enzymes, Recombinant DNA, DNA Sequencing, Epigenetics
1962Sanger moves to the newly created Laboratory of Molecular Biology in CambridgeSangerLaboratory of Molecular BiololgyDNA Sequencing

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