This website provides a curated collection of resources about the people, places and technologies that have enabled biotechnology to transform our healthcare and the world we live in today

Timeline of key events

Timeline of key events in biotechnology

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Date Event People Places Sciences
1961Cesar Milstein takes up a position at the Instituto Malbran, Buenos AiresMilsteinInstituto Malbran 
1961Existence and properties of transplantable stem cells in mouse bone marrow established and the first methodology for counting them is devisedJames, Till, McCulloch, Siminovitch, Becker, Wu, FowleOntario Cancer InstituteStem cells
1961Normal cell population discovered to only be able to divide a limited number of times before it stopsHayflickWistar InstituteCell, Genetics, Oncology
31 Mar 1961Experiments reveal a type of RNA (messenger RNA) transports genetic information from the nucleus to the protein-making machinery in a cellBrenner, Crick, Jacob DNA, RNA, genetics
06 Apr 1961Jule Bordet diedBordetPasteur InstituteImmunology
15 Apr 1961Carol W Greider was born in San Diego CA, USAGreiderJohns Hopkins University Genetics
May 1961Coding mechanism for DNA discoveredNirenberg, MatthaeiNational Institute for HealthDNA
25 Dec 1961Otto Loewi diedLoewiGraz UniversityNeuroscience
1962Antibodies discovered to have structure like a 'Y'Porter, EdelmanNational Institute for Medical Research, Rockefeller University Antibodies
1962An Argentinian military coup throws Cesar Milstein's academic work into disarrayMilsteinInstituto Malbran 
1962Nuclei from adult frog cells reprogrammed to full embryonic potential after transfer into frog eggsGurdon, AltmanCambridge UniversityStem cells
1962Concept of restriction and modification enzymes bornArber, DussoixUniversity of GenevaRestriction enzymes, Recombinant DNA, Sequencing DNA
1962Sanger moves to the newly created Laboratory of Molecular Biology in CambridgeSangerLaboratory of Molecular BiololgySequencing DNA
1962WI-38 cell line developed - important to development of vaccinesHayflick, MoorheadWistar InstituteVaccine, Virology
Jun 1962Green fluorescent protein discovered in jellyfish, providing tool for observing previously invisible cellular processesShimomura, Johnson SaigaPrinceton UniversityCell
1963Plaque test allows visualisation of antibodiesJerne, NordinUniversity of PittsburghAntibodies
1963Cesar Milstein returns to Cambridge and begins researching the structure and diversity of antibodiesMilsteinLaboratory of Molecular BiologyMonoclonal antibodies
1963 - 1963Development of first attentuated measles virus vaccineEnders, Katz Vaccine, Virology
1963Creation of first vaccine against mumpsHillemanMerck & CoVaccines, Virology
11 May 1963Herbert Spencer Gasser diedGasserRockefeller Institute 

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