Timeline of key events in biotechnology

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Independently Rodney Porter, a British scientist, and Gerald Edelman, an American biologist, determine the structure of antibodies to consist of heavy and light protein chains, which join together to form three sections yielding a molecule shaped like the letter Y.1962-01-01T00:00:00+0000Milstein decides to leave Argentina when the director of the Instituto Malbran and his supporters are dismissed in the wake of the tumoil created by a military coup led by General Raul Poggi.1962-01-01T00:00:00+00001962-01-01T00:00:00+0000Sanger now has close contact with protein crystallographers, molecular geneticists and protein chemists1962-01-01T00:00:00+0000Created by Leonard Hayflick and Paul S Moorhead.1962-01-01T00:00:00+0000Werner Arber, Swiss microbiologist and geneticist, and his doctoral student Daisy Dussoix propose bacteria produce restriction and modification enzymes to counter invading viruses. W. Arber, D. Dussoix, Journal Molecular Biology, 5 (1962), 18–36 and 37-49.1962-01-23T00:00:00+0000The protein was discovered in a small mouse-sized jellyfish Aequorea victoria by the Japenese born scientist Osamu Shimomura while at Princeton University. It was published in O Shimomura, FH Johnson FH, Y Saiga, 'Extraction, purification and properties of aequorin, a bioluminescent protein from the luminous hydromedusan, Aequorea', Journal of Cellular and Comparative Physiology', 59/3 (1962), 223–39.1962-06-01T00:00:00+0000Niels Jerne, Danish immunologist, and Albert Nordin develop a plaque test which allows for the first time scientists to visualise and determine the number of antibody-producing cells with the naked eye. 1963-01-01T00:00:00+0000Milstein is awarded a three-year MRC contract, arranged by Fred Sanger, to work at the Laboratory of Molecular Biology.1963-01-01T00:00:00+0000Developed by Samuel Katz and John F Enders, the vaccine would later be incorporated into the MMR, a combination vaccine against measles, mumps and rubella.1963-01-01T00:00:00+0000The vaccine was made by Maurice Hilleman using material taken from his daughter, Jeryl Lynn, when she suffered measles. The Jeryl strain of the mumps vaccine is still in use today and used in the MMR vaccine.1963-01-01T00:00:00+0000Gasser was an American physiologist. He shared the 1944 Nobel Prize for Medicine for discovering different fibers in nerves that conduct electrochemical pulses at different rates. Discovered in the 1930s, this work laid the foundation for the theory that one type of fiber conducts pain signals and others conduct motor control signals. Gasser was the director of the Rockefeller Institute from 1936 to 1953. 1963-05-11T00:00:00+0000C.M. Milstein, 'Disulphide bridges and dimers of Bence-Jones Protein,' Journal of Molecular Biology, 9 (1964), 836-8.1964-01-01T00:00:00+0000Domagk was a German pathologist, physician and bacteriologist. He is best known for having found sulphonamide to be an effective drug against bacterial infections. The molecule had originally been synthesised by chemists at the German company Bayer in 1908. Domagk discovered the antibacterial properties of the drug through preliminary tests in mice in 1931. Soon after this he successfully treated his own daughter struck down by a severe streptococcal infection. His work paved the way to the widespread adoption of sulphonamide drugs, the first commercially available antibiotics, in the late 1930s to treat infections caused by streptococci, including blood infections, childbirth fever, and erysipelas. Domagk was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1939 but the Nazi regime forced him to refuse it, with the Gestapo putting him under arrest for a week. He finally received the Nobel Prize in 1947. 1964-04-24T00:00:00+0000E.J. Delorme, P. Alexander, 'Treatment of primary fibrosarcoma in the rat with immune lymphocytes', Lancet, 2 (1964), 117–120.1964-07-18T00:00:00+0000Euler-Chelpin was a Swedish biochemist known for his investigations into the process of fermentation and the actions of enzymes during fermentation.1964-11-06T00:00:00+0000Transplant conducted by George Mathe at the Institute of Cancer and Immunotherapeutics, Paul-Brouse Hospital, Paris. The procedure focuses on genetically different patient and donor. 1965-01-01T00:00:00+0000Stem cells gain increasing interest for the recovery of the blood system in patients undergoing chemotherapy and bone marrow transplants1965-01-01T00:00:00+0000The Institute is based in Manchester, UK1965-01-01T00:00:00+0000The cultivation is on solid (agar) media in petri dishes. This marks a major methodological advance as marrow is difficult to grow in the laboratory.1965-01-01T00:00:00+0000
Date Event People Places Sciences
1962Antibodies discovered to have structure like a 'Y'Porter, EdelmanNational Institute for Medical Research, Rockefeller University Antibodies
1962An Argentinian military coup throws Cesar Milstein's academic work into disarrayMilsteinInstituto Malbran 
1962Nuclei from adult frog cells reprogrammed to full embryonic potential after transfer into frog eggsGurdon, AltmanCambridge UniversityStem cells
1962Sanger moves to the newly created Laboratory of Molecular Biology in CambridgeSangerLaboratory of Molecular BiololgyDNA Sequencing
1962WI-38 cell line developed - important to development of vaccinesHayflick, MoorheadWistar InstituteVaccine, Virology
23 Jan 1962Concept of restriction and modification enzymes bornArber, DussoixUniversity of GenevaRestriction enzymes, Recombinant DNA, DNA Sequencing, Epigenetics
Jun 1962Green fluorescent protein discovered in jellyfish, providing tool for observing previously invisible cellular processesShimomura, Johnson SaigaPrinceton UniversityCell
1963Plaque test allows visualisation of antibodiesJerne, NordinUniversity of PittsburghAntibodies
1963Cesar Milstein returns to Cambridge and begins researching the structure and diversity of antibodiesMilsteinLaboratory of Molecular BiologyMonoclonal antibodies
1963 - 1963Development of first attentuated measles virus vaccineEnders, Katz Vaccine, Virology
1963Creation of first vaccine against mumpsHillemanMerck & CoVaccines, Virology
11 May 1963Herbert Spencer Gasser diedGasserRockefeller InstituteNeuroscience
1964Cesar Milstein publishes his first paper on antibodiesMilsteinLaboratory of Molecular BiologyAntibodies
24 Apr 1964Gerhard Domagk diedDomagkMunster UniversityAntibacterial agents, Bacteriology
1964Immune lymphocytes first proposed as possible tool for adoptive cellular therapyDelome, Alexander Chester Beatty Research Institute, Institute of Cancer ResearchAdoptive cell therapy
6 Nov 1964Hans von Euler-Chelpin died   
1965First successful allogeneic marrow transplant reported in patient with leukaemiaMatheInstitute of Cancer and ImmunotherapeuticsStem cells
1965Distinctive and powerfully regenerative cell resident in bone marrow, known from now on as stem cells  Stem cells
1965Paterson Institute for Cancer Research established as a major centre for blood stem cell researchLajtha, Schofield, Lord, Dexter, PatersonPaterson Institute for Cancer Research, Christie Cancer HosptialStem cells
1965Development of a technique for the in vitro cultivation of bone marrow cellsMetcalf, Bradley, Sachs, PluznikQueen Elizabeth II Hospital, Weizmann InstituteStem cells

1962

Antibodies discovered to have structure like a 'Y'

1962

An Argentinian military coup throws Cesar Milstein's academic work into disarray

1962

Nuclei from adult frog cells reprogrammed to full embryonic potential after transfer into frog eggs

1962

Sanger moves to the newly created Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Cambridge

1962

WI-38 cell line developed - important to development of vaccines

23 Jan 1962

Concept of restriction and modification enzymes born

Jun 1962

Green fluorescent protein discovered in jellyfish, providing tool for observing previously invisible cellular processes

1963

Plaque test allows visualisation of antibodies

1963

Cesar Milstein returns to Cambridge and begins researching the structure and diversity of antibodies

1963 - 1963

Development of first attentuated measles virus vaccine

1963

Creation of first vaccine against mumps

11 May 1963

Herbert Spencer Gasser died

1964

Cesar Milstein publishes his first paper on antibodies

24 Apr 1964

Gerhard Domagk died

1964

Immune lymphocytes first proposed as possible tool for adoptive cellular therapy

6 Nov 1964

Hans von Euler-Chelpin died

1965

First successful allogeneic marrow transplant reported in patient with leukaemia

1965

Distinctive and powerfully regenerative cell resident in bone marrow, known from now on as stem cells

1965

Paterson Institute for Cancer Research established as a major centre for blood stem cell research

1965

Development of a technique for the in vitro cultivation of bone marrow cells