Timeline of key events in biotechnology

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900 page monograph provides the first introduction to the application of digital computing in biology and medicine. 1965-01-01T00:00:00+0000Hench shared the 1950 Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects'.1965-03-30T00:00:00+0000Erlanger shared the 1944 Nobel Prize for Medicine for research into the the actions of nerve fibers. 1965-12-05T00:00:00+0000S. Brenner, C. Milstein, 'Origin of antibody variation', Nature, 211 (1966), 242-3.1966-07-16T00:00:00+0000LJ Old, EA Boyse, E Oettgen, ED Harven, ED Geering, B Williamson, P Clifford, 'Precipitating antibody in human serum to an antigen present in cultured Burkitt's lymphoma cells', Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 56 (1966), 1699–1704.1966-12-01T00:00:00+0000S. Rogers, ‘Shope papilloma virus: A passenger in man and its significance to the potential control of the host genome’, Nature, 212, 1120 (1966), 1220-22.1966-12-10T00:00:00+0000The sequencer was developed by Pehr Victor Edman with Geoffrey Begg1967-01-01T00:00:00+0000Muller was awarded the 1946 Nobel Prize for 'the discovery of the production of mutations by means of X-ray irradiation'.1967-04-15T00:00:00+0000Pincus was an American biologist who is most well-known for helping to develop the first oral contraceptive. He was also instrumental in generating the first IVF rabbits. 1967-08-22T00:00:00+0000Ray Wu and A.D. Kaiser report on the partial sequence of bacteriophage lambda DNA in the Journal of Molecular Biology, 35/3 (1968), 523-37. 1968-01-01T00:00:00+0000The proceedure was performed by physician-scientist Robert Good to treat boy born with severe combined immunodeficiency. 1968-01-01T00:00:00+00001968-01-01T00:00:00+0000An Australian pathologist, Florey helped develop a method to isolate and purify penicillin for clinical use. 1968-02-21T00:00:00+0000An American paediatrician and microbiogist, Alexander developed the first effective treatment against Haemophilus influenzae, a major killer of infants and was one of the first scientsts to study antibiotics resistance. 1968-06-24T00:00:00+0000Heymans, a pharmacologsit, won the 1938 Nobel Prize for Medicine for discovering how respiration is regulated by pressure sensory organs associated with the cartoid artery and aortic arch.1968-07-18T00:00:00+0000Dale shared the 1936 Nobel Prize for Medicine for helping to identify the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and the chemical process by which nerve impulses are transmitted.1968-07-23T00:00:00+0000T. Friedmann, J.E. Seegmiller, J.H. Subak-Sharpe, 'Metabolic Cooperation between Genetically Marked Human Fibroblasts in Tissue Culture', Nature, 220 (1968), 272-74.1968-10-19T00:00:00+0000Funded by the multinational pharmaceutical company F. Hoffman La Roche, the Basel Institute of Immunology was designed to keep the pharmaceutical company keep ahead of developments in biology, cell biology and biochemistry. It rapidly became the world's largest centres for immunological research and antibody investigation.1969-01-01T00:00:00+0000Joseph Sinkovics, a Hungarian clinical pathologist and laboratory clinical virologist, successfully develops a cell line of antibodies with known specificity that could be grown indefinitely by fusing antibody-producing plasma cells with lymphoma cells.1969-01-01T00:00:00+0000Norman Klinman, an American immunologist, devises a splenic fragments culture technique for growing antibodies.1969-01-01T00:00:00+0000
Date Event People Places Sciences
1965Ledley publishes Uses of Computers in Biology and MedicineLedleyNational Biomedical Research FoundationDNA Sequencing
30 Mar 1965Philip Showalter Hench diedHenchMayo ClinicBiochemistry, Endocrinology
5 Dec 1965Joseph Erlanger diedErlangerWashington University in St LouisNeuroscience
Jul 1966Cesar Milstein and Sydney Brenner publish theory attributing antibody diversity to somatic mutationBrenner, MilsteinLaboratory of Molecular BiologyAntibodies
Dec 1966Scientists detect antibodies to the Epstein-Barr virus in patients with nasopharyngeal cancer which suggest the cancer is caused by a virus. Old, Boyse, OettgenMemorial Sloan Kettering Cancer CenterCancer immunotherapy, Oncology, Virology
10 Dec 1966First evidence published suggesting a virus could provide delivery tool for transferring functional genesRogersOak Ridge National LaboratoryGene therapy
1967First automatic protein sequencer developedEdman, BeggSt Vincent's School of Medical ResearchDNA, DNA Sequencing
15 Apr 1967Hermann J Muller diedMullerIndiana UniversityGenetics
22 Aug 1967Gregory Pincus diedPincusWorcester Foundation for Experimental BiologyReproduction
1968The first partial sequence of a viral DNA is reportedWu, KaiserCornell University, Stanford University Medical SchoolDNA Sequencing
1968First successful bone marrow transplant from a siblingGoodMemorial Sloan Kettering Cancer CenterImmunology, Stem cells, Transplantation
1968Paul Berg started experiments to generate recombinant DNA moleculesBergStanford UniversityRecombinant DNA
21 Feb 1968Howard Walter Florey died   
24 Jun 1968Hattie Elizabeth Alexander diedAlexanderColumbia UniversityAntibacterial agents, Antimicrobial resistance
18 Jul 1968Corneille Jean Francois Heymans died   
23 Jul 1968Henry H Dale diedDale Neuroscience
19 Oct 1968American scientists demonstrate that adding foreign genes to cultured cells from patients with Lesch-Nethan syndrome can correct genetic defects that cause the neurological diseaseFriedmann, SeegmillerNational Institutes of HealthGene therapy
1969Basel Institute of Immunology foundedJerneBasel Institute of ImmunologyAntibodies
1969First antibodies with known specificity grownSinokovicsMD Anderson Cancer CenterAntibodies
1969Splenic fragment technique devised for growing antibodiesKlinmanWistar InstituteMonoclonal antibodies

1965

Ledley publishes Uses of Computers in Biology and Medicine

30 Mar 1965

Philip Showalter Hench died

5 Dec 1965

Joseph Erlanger died

Jul 1966

Cesar Milstein and Sydney Brenner publish theory attributing antibody diversity to somatic mutation

Dec 1966

Scientists detect antibodies to the Epstein-Barr virus in patients with nasopharyngeal cancer which suggest the cancer is caused by a virus.

10 Dec 1966

First evidence published suggesting a virus could provide delivery tool for transferring functional genes

1967

First automatic protein sequencer developed

15 Apr 1967

Hermann J Muller died

22 Aug 1967

Gregory Pincus died

1968

The first partial sequence of a viral DNA is reported

1968

First successful bone marrow transplant from a sibling

1968

Paul Berg started experiments to generate recombinant DNA molecules

21 Feb 1968

Howard Walter Florey died

24 Jun 1968

Hattie Elizabeth Alexander died

18 Jul 1968

Corneille Jean Francois Heymans died

23 Jul 1968

Henry H Dale died

19 Oct 1968

American scientists demonstrate that adding foreign genes to cultured cells from patients with Lesch-Nethan syndrome can correct genetic defects that cause the neurological disease

1969

Basel Institute of Immunology founded

1969

First antibodies with known specificity grown

1969

Splenic fragment technique devised for growing antibodies