Timeline of key events in biotechnology

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1981-01-01T00:00:00+0000Philip Karr, a patient with lymphoma, is treated by Ron Levy at Stanford University with a customised monoclonal antibody. It marks the first time a monoclonal antibody successfully treats cancer in a patient.1981-01-01T00:00:00+00001981-01-01T00:00:00+0000A German biophysicist, Delbruck helped discover how viruses replicate their genetic structure, showing that bacterial resistance from viruses is due to random mutation and not the result of adaptive changes. In 1969 he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine on the back of this work. 1981-03-09T00:00:00+0000S.J. Compere, R.D. Palmiter, 'DNA methylation controls the inducibility of the mouse metallothionein-I gene lymphoid cells', Cell, 25 (1981), 233–240. 1981-07-01T00:00:00+0000MJ Evans, MH Kaufman, 'Establishment in culture of pluripotential cells from mouse embryos', Nature, 292/154 (1981), 154-56.1981-07-09T00:00:00+0000The work opened up the possibility of sequencing the virus. It was published in J R Arrand, L. Rymo, J E Walsh, E Bjorck, T Lindahl and B E Griffin, ‘Molecular cloning of the complete Epstein-Barr virus genome as a set of overlapping restriction endonuclease fragments’, Nucleic Acids Research, 9/13 (1981), 2999-2014.1981-07-10T00:00:00+0000Orr-Weaver, T L, Szostak, J W, Rothstein, R J, 'Yeast transformation: A model system for the study of recombination', PNAS, 78/10 (1981), 6353-8.1981-10-01T00:00:00+0000Costantini, F, Lacy, E, 'Introduction of a rabbit b-globin gene into the mouse germ line', Nature, 294 (1981), 92–4.1981-11-05T00:00:00+0000Krebs was a biochemist who in 1933 was forced to leave Nazi Germany because his father was Jewish. He is best known for having discovered two important chemical reactions in the body - the urea cycle and the citric acid cycle. These chemical reactions help break down food molecules into carbon dioxide, water and energy. He made the breakthrough in the 1930s. The process is known as the Krebs cycle. Krebs was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1954.1981-11-22T00:00:00+0000Held in Paris, the international workshop on human differentiation helped formulate a system for classifying monoclonals and bring out standardisation. Importantly it established a system based on identifying monoclonals found clustered around specific antigens. This laid the foundation for the CD nomeclature which has become a univeral tool for scientists to share and exchange knowledge about immune responses and disease. 1982-01-01T00:00:00+0000Encouraged by Cesar Milstein, collaborative research undertaken by Steven Sacks, Edwin Lennox and Douglas Voak produces monoclonal antibodies suitable for patenting and commercialisation for routine blood typing. 1982-01-01T00:00:00+0000The progenitor cells are biological cells that, like stem cells, have the capacity to differentiate into a specific type of cell. The distinction between marrow and progenitor cells is made by measuring the regenerative capacity in vivo of the cells using colony methods. 1982-01-01T00:00:00+0000The company is a public company1982-01-01T00:00:00+0000In this method genomic DNA is randomly fragmented and cloned to produce a random library in E Coli. The clones are then sequenced at random and the results assembled by computer which compares all of the sequence reads and aligns the matching sequences to produce the complete genome sequence. 1982-01-01T00:00:00+00001982-01-01T00:00:00+00001982-01-01T00:00:00+0000The aim of the experiment was to see if it was possible to replace a mutant human beta globin gene with a normal human beta globin gene in a human genome. The mutant human globin gene is known to cause sickle cell anaemia, the first disease linked to a single gene which commonly affects people of African descent. The experiment was conducted by Oliver Smithies who adapted a gene-rescuing procedure developed by Mitchell Goldfarb and colleagues. It proved successful and was the first time any scientist had shown it possible to modify a single gene in a genome as large as that of humans or other mammals. Scientists had already demonstrated it was possible to do in yeast which had a genome of less than one hundredth the size. 1982-04-22T00:00:00+0000Funding secured for the setting up of GenBank, to be located at Los Alamos National Laboratory. It was to serve as a repository for newly determined sequences, as a tool for sequencers assembling genomes and for bioinformatic researchers. 1982-06-01T00:00:00+0000EA Grimm, A Mazumder, HZ Zhang, SA Rosenberg, 'Lymphokine-activated killer cell phenomenon', Journal Experimental Medicine, 155 (1982), 1823-41.1982-06-01T00:00:00+0000
Date Event People Places Sciences
1981First embryonic stem cells identified in mice EvansCambridge UniversityStem cells
1981First patient successfully treated with anti-idiotype monoclonal antibodyLevyStanford University Medical SchoolCancer immunotherapy, Monoclonal antibodies
Jan 1981First cloning of mice claimedIllmensee, HoppeUniversity of Geneva, Jackson laboratoryCloning
9 Mar 1981Max Delbruck diedDelbruckCalifornia Institute of TechnologyGenetics, Virology
Jul 1981First evidence provided to show that DNA methylation involved in silencing X-chromosomeCompere, PalmitterHoward Hughes Medical InstituteDNA methylation, Epigenetics
9 Jul 1981Mouse embryonic stem cells first isolated and cultured in the laboratoryEvans, Kaufman, MartinCambridge University, UCSFStem cells
10 Jul 1981Complete library of overlapping DNA fragments of Epstein Barr Virus clonedGriffin, Arrand, Walsh, Bjorck, RymoImperial Cancer Research Fund Laboratories, University of GothenbergRecombinant DNA, Oncology, Virology, Cloning
Oct 1981Double-stranded DNA break technique developed for genetically modifying yeast Orr-Weaver, Szostak, RothsteinHarvard University, New Jersey Medical SchoolGene editing
5 Nov 1981First report of successful nuclear integration and germ-line transmission of foreign DNA into laboratory miceConstantini, LacyOxford University, Yale UniversityGene editing; Transgenic animals
22 Nov 1981Hans Adolf Krebs diedKrebsUniversity of Freiburg, Cambridge University, Sheffield University, Oxford UniversityCell, Biochemistry
1982First international workshop on human differentiation antigens establishes international code for classifying and coding monoclonal antibodiesBoumsell, BernardSaint-Louis HospitalMonoclonal antibodies
1982Monoclonal antibodies generated for routine use in ABO blood typingLennox, Milstein, Sacks, VoakLaboratory of Molecular Biology, Addenbrookes HospitalMonoclonal antibodies
1982Marrow stem cells shown to be distinct from progenitor cells   Stem cells
1982AIS, the first biotechnology company to commercialise blood stem cell-based innovation is established AISStem cells
1982Whole genome sequencing method is introduced for DNA sequencing  DNA Sequencing
1982 - 1985Studies reveal azacitidine, a cytoxic agent developed by Upjohn, inhibits DNA methylation  DNA methylation, Epigenetics
1982Azacitidine fails to win FDA approval for treatment of acute myelogenous leukaemia due to lack of controlled studies showing clinical benefit  Epigenetics, Oncology
22 Apr 1982First experiment launched to test feasibility of gene targeting in the human genomeSmithiesUniversity of WisconsinGene editing, Gene Therapy
Jun 1982NIH agrees to provide US$3.2 million over 5 years to establish and maintain a nucleic sequence database  DNA Sequencing
Jun 1982Steven Rosenberg and colleagues first describe lymphokine-activated killer cellsGrimm, Mazumder, Zhang, RosenbergNational Cancer InstituteImmunology, Cancer immunotherapy, Oncology, Adoptive cell therapy

1981

First embryonic stem cells identified in mice

1981

First patient successfully treated with anti-idiotype monoclonal antibody

Jan 1981

First cloning of mice claimed

9 Mar 1981

Max Delbruck died

Jul 1981

First evidence provided to show that DNA methylation involved in silencing X-chromosome

9 Jul 1981

Mouse embryonic stem cells first isolated and cultured in the laboratory

10 Jul 1981

Complete library of overlapping DNA fragments of Epstein Barr Virus cloned

Oct 1981

Double-stranded DNA break technique developed for genetically modifying yeast

5 Nov 1981

First report of successful nuclear integration and germ-line transmission of foreign DNA into laboratory mice

22 Nov 1981

Hans Adolf Krebs died

1982

First international workshop on human differentiation antigens establishes international code for classifying and coding monoclonal antibodies

1982

Monoclonal antibodies generated for routine use in ABO blood typing

1982

Marrow stem cells shown to be distinct from progenitor cells

1982

AIS, the first biotechnology company to commercialise blood stem cell-based innovation is established

1982

Whole genome sequencing method is introduced for DNA sequencing

1982 - 1985

Studies reveal azacitidine, a cytoxic agent developed by Upjohn, inhibits DNA methylation

1982

Azacitidine fails to win FDA approval for treatment of acute myelogenous leukaemia due to lack of controlled studies showing clinical benefit

22 Apr 1982

First experiment launched to test feasibility of gene targeting in the human genome

Jun 1982

NIH agrees to provide US$3.2 million over 5 years to establish and maintain a nucleic sequence database

Jun 1982

Steven Rosenberg and colleagues first describe lymphokine-activated killer cells