Timeline of key events in biotechnology

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Costantini, F, Lacy, E, 'Introduction of a rabbit b-globin gene into the mouse germ line', Nature, 294 (1981), 92–4.1981-11-05T00:00:00+0000Krebs was a biochemist who discovered a series of chemical reactions in the cell that breaks down food molecules into carbon dioxide, water and energy. This is known as the Krebs cycle. 1981-11-22T00:00:00+0000Held in Paris, the international workshop on human differentiation helped formulate a system for classifying monoclonals and bring out standardisation. Importantly it established a system based on identifying monoclonals found clustered around specific antigens. This laid the foundation for the CD nomeclature which has become a univeral tool for scientists to share and exchange knowledge about immune responses and disease. 1982-01-01T00:00:00+0000Encouraged by Cesar Milstein, collaborative research undertaken by Steven Sacks, Edwin Lennox and Douglas Voak produces monoclonal antibodies suitable for patenting and commercialisation for routine blood typing. 1982-01-01T00:00:00+0000The progenitor cells are biological cells that, like stem cells, have the capacity to differentiate into a specific type of cell. The distinction between marrow and progenitor cells is made by measuring the regenerative capacity in vivo of the cells using colony methods. 1982-01-01T00:00:00+0000The company is a public company1982-01-01T00:00:00+0000In this method genomic DNA is randomly fragmented and cloned to produce a random library in E Coli. The clones are then sequenced at random and the results assembled by computer which compares all of the sequence reads and aligns the matching sequences to produce the complete genome sequence. 1982-01-01T00:00:00+00001982-01-01T00:00:00+00001982-01-01T00:00:00+0000The experiment was conducted by Oliver Smithies who adapted a gene-rescuing procedure developed by Goldfarb and colleagues to isolate a transforming gene from T24 bladder carcinoma cells. 1982-04-22T00:00:00+0000Funding secured for the setting up of GenBank, to be located at Los Alamos National Laboratory. It was to serve as a repository for newly determined sequences, as a tool for sequencers assembling genomes and for bioinformatic researchers. 1982-06-01T00:00:00+0000EA Grimm, A Mazumder, HZ Zhang, SA Rosenberg, 'Lymphokine-activated killer cell phenomenon', Journal Experimental Medicine, 155 (1982), 1823-41.1982-06-01T00:00:00+0000Theorell won the 1955 Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'discoveries concerning the nature and mode of action of oxidation enzymes.'1982-08-15T00:00:00+0000The first drug (human insulin), based on recombinant DNA, is marketed. 1982-10-01T00:00:00+0000JP Allison, BW McIntyre, D Bloch, 'Tumor-specific antigen of murine T-lymphoma defined with monoclonal antibody', Journal Immunology, 129 (1982), 2293.1982-11-01T00:00:00+00001982-12-01T00:00:00+0000A N Houghton, M Eisinger, A P Albino, J G Cairncross, L J Old, 'Surface antigens of melanocytes and melanomas. Markers of melanocyte differentiation and melanoma subsets', Journal Experimental Medicine, 156/6 (1982), 1755-66.1982-12-01T00:00:00+0000Argentinian scientists Cesar Milstein and Claudio Cuello demonstrate the feasibility of creating bispecific monoclonal antibodies for use in immunohistochemistry, but application for patent, filed in 1983, is abandoned as result of prior patent promoting theory of such a technique. 1983-01-01T00:00:00+0000The course is started at Cold Harbour Laboratory together with collaborators from other centres.1983-01-01T00:00:00+00001983-01-01T00:00:00+0000
Date Event People Places Sciences
5 Nov 1981First report of successful nuclear integration and germ-line transmission of foreign DNA into laboratory miceConstantini, LacyOxford University, Yale UniversityGene editing; Transgenic animals
22 Nov 1981Hans Adolf Krebs diedKrebs Sheffield UniversityCell, Biochemistry
1982First international workshop on human differentiation antigens establishes international code for classifying and coding monoclonal antibodiesBoumsell, BernardSaint-Louis HospitalMonoclonal antibodies
1982Monoclonal antibodies generated for routine use in ABO blood typingLennox, Milstein, Sacks, VoakLaboratory of Molecular Biology, Addenbrookes HospitalMonoclonal antibodies
1982Marrow stem cells shown to be distinct from progenitor cells   Stem cells
1982AIS, the first biotechnology company to commercialise blood stem cell-based innovation is established AISStem cells
1982Whole genome sequencing method is introduced for DNA sequencing  DNA Sequencing
1982 - 1985Studies reveal azacitidine, a cytoxic agent developed by Upjohn, inhibits DNA methylation  DNA methylation, Epigenetics
1982Azacitidine fails to win FDA approval for treatment of acute myelogenous leukaemia due to lack of controlled studies showing clinical benefit  Epigenetics, Oncology
22 Apr 1982First experiment launched to test feasibility of inserting a corrective DNA in the right place in the human genomeSmithiesUniversity of WisconsinGene editing, Gene Therapy
Jun 1982NIH agrees to provide US$3.2 million over 5 years to establish and maintain a nucleic sequence database  DNA Sequencing
Jun 1982Steven Rosenberg and colleagues first describe lymphokine-activated killer cellsGrimm, Mazumder, Zhang, RosenbergNational Cancer InstituteImmunology, Cancer immunotherapy, Oncology, Adoptive cell therapy
15 Aug 1982Axel H T Theorell diedTheorellKarolinska Institutet,Biochemistry
Oct 1982First recombinant DNA based drug approved Genentech IncRecombinant DNA
Nov 1982James Allison and collegues use monoclonal antibody to provide first biochemical description of tumour specific antigen of murine T-lymphomaAllison, McIntyre, BlochUniversity of Texas System Cancer CenterImmunology, Cancer immunotherapy, Monoclonal antibodies, Oncology
Dec 1982Giant mice made with the injection of rat growth hormoneBrinster, PalmiterUniversity of Pennsylvania, University of Washington SeattleTransgenic animals
1 Dec 1982First molecular markers, antigens, identified in melanoma tumours. These markers are now targeted by cancer drugsHoughton, Eisinger, Albino, Cairncross, OldMemorial Sloan Kettering Cancer CenterImmunology, Cancer immunotherapy, Oncology
1983First bispecific monoclonal antibody producedCuello, MilsteinLaboratory of Molecular Biology, Oxford UniversityMonoclonal antibodies
1983Course started in the molecular embyology of miceCostantini, Hogan, Lacy Cold Spring Harbour Laboratory, NIMR, Sloan Kettering Cancer Research Center, Columbia UniversityTransgenic animals
1983Sanger retiresSangerLaboratory of Molecular BiologyDNA Sequencing

5 Nov 1981

First report of successful nuclear integration and germ-line transmission of foreign DNA into laboratory mice

22 Nov 1981

Hans Adolf Krebs died

1982

First international workshop on human differentiation antigens establishes international code for classifying and coding monoclonal antibodies

1982

Monoclonal antibodies generated for routine use in ABO blood typing

1982

Marrow stem cells shown to be distinct from progenitor cells

1982

AIS, the first biotechnology company to commercialise blood stem cell-based innovation is established

1982

Whole genome sequencing method is introduced for DNA sequencing

1982 - 1985

Studies reveal azacitidine, a cytoxic agent developed by Upjohn, inhibits DNA methylation

1982

Azacitidine fails to win FDA approval for treatment of acute myelogenous leukaemia due to lack of controlled studies showing clinical benefit

22 Apr 1982

First experiment launched to test feasibility of inserting a corrective DNA in the right place in the human genome

Jun 1982

NIH agrees to provide US$3.2 million over 5 years to establish and maintain a nucleic sequence database

Jun 1982

Steven Rosenberg and colleagues first describe lymphokine-activated killer cells

15 Aug 1982

Axel H T Theorell died

Oct 1982

First recombinant DNA based drug approved

Nov 1982

James Allison and collegues use monoclonal antibody to provide first biochemical description of tumour specific antigen of murine T-lymphoma

Dec 1982

Giant mice made with the injection of rat growth hormone

1 Dec 1982

First molecular markers, antigens, identified in melanoma tumours. These markers are now targeted by cancer drugs

1983

First bispecific monoclonal antibody produced

1983

Course started in the molecular embyology of mice

1983

Sanger retires