Timeline of key events in biotechnology

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Theorell won the 1955 Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'discoveries concerning the nature and mode of action of oxidation enzymes.'1982-08-15T00:00:00+0000The first drug (human insulin), based on recombinant DNA, is marketed. 1982-10-01T00:00:00+0000JP Allison, BW McIntyre, D Bloch, 'Tumor-specific antigen of murine T-lymphoma defined with monoclonal antibody', Journal Immunology, 129 (1982), 2293.1982-11-01T00:00:00+00001982-12-01T00:00:00+0000A N Houghton, M Eisinger, A P Albino, J G Cairncross, L J Old, 'Surface antigens of melanocytes and melanomas. Markers of melanocyte differentiation and melanoma subsets', Journal Experimental Medicine, 156/6 (1982), 1755-66.1982-12-01T00:00:00+0000Argentinian scientists Cesar Milstein and Claudio Cuello demonstrate the feasibility of creating bispecific monoclonal antibodies for use in immunohistochemistry, but application for patent, filed in 1983, is abandoned as result of prior patent promoting theory of such a technique. 1983-01-01T00:00:00+0000The course is started at Cold Harbour Laboratory together with collaborators from other centres.1983-01-01T00:00:00+00001983-01-01T00:00:00+0000Based on investigation of blood drawn from AIDS patients who developed Kaposi sarcoma, a cancer caused by a virus. The research was carried out by Susan Krown and Bijan Safai.1983-01-01T00:00:00+0000M Oren, A J Levine, 'Molecular cloning of a cDNA specific for the murine p53 cellular tumor antigen', PNAS, 80 (1983), 56–9. 1983-01-01T00:00:00+0000LV Crawford, DC Pim, EG Gurney, P Goodfellow, J Taylor-Papaidmitriou,'The 53,000-dalton cellular protein and its role in transformation', International Review of Experimental Pathology, 25 (1983) 1-50. 1983-01-01T00:00:00+0000A.P. Feinberg, B. Vogelstein, 'Hypomethylation distinguishes genes of some human cancers from their normal counterparts', Nature, 301/5895 (1983), 89-92.1983-01-06T00:00:00+0000Speigelman developed the nucleic acid hybridization technique that enables specific DNA and RNA strands to be removed from cells and is the foundation of present day recombinant DNA technology. 1983-01-20T00:00:00+0000Dayhoff is known as the founder of bioinformatics. This she did by pioneering the application of mathematics and computational techniques to the sequencing of proteins and nucleic acids and establishing the first publicly available database for research in the area. 1983-02-05T00:00:00+0000GC Bosma, RP Custer, MJ Bosma, 'A severe combined immunodeficiency mutation in the mouse', Nature, 301 (1983), 527-30. 1983-02-10T00:00:00+0000Von Euler was a Swedish physiologist and pharmacologist best known for working out the distribution and fate of noradrenaline in biological tissues and the nervous system. In 1970 he shared the Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'discoveries concerning the humoral transmittors in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release and inactivation.'1983-03-09T00:00:00+0000T Taniguchi et al, 'Structure and expression of a cloned cDNA for human interleukin-2', Nature, 302 (1983), 305-10.1983-03-24T00:00:00+0000Kary Mullis, an American biochemist based at Cetus, proposed an alternative method to Sanger's DNA sequencing method to analyse Sickle cell Anaemia mutation which laid the foundation for the development of the PCR technique. 1983-05-01T00:00:00+0000Murine leukaemia retrovirus genetically modified to produce the vector. R. Mann, R.C. Milligam, D. Baltimore, ‘Construction of a Retrovirus Packaging Mutant and Its Use to Produce Helper-Free Defective Retrovirus’, Cell, 33/1 (1983), 153-59.1983-05-01T00:00:00+0000Claude was a Belgian physician and cell biologist. In 1930 he developed the process of cell fractionation which involves grinding up cells to break up the membrane and their contents. The material is then placed in a centrifuge to separate out the cells's components. With the technique he was able to identify and purify the RNA from the Rous sarcoma virus which causes cancer in chickens. Claude was also one of the first to use of the electron microscope to study biological cells, which enabled him to discover that ribosomes are the power houses of all cells. In addition he helped show that all eukaryotic cells have a lace-work structure. In 1974 he shared the Nobel Prize for Medicine for discoveries concerning cell structure and function.1983-05-22T00:00:00+0000
Date Event People Places Sciences
15 Aug 1982Axel H T Theorell diedTheorellKarolinska Institutet,Biochemistry
Oct 1982First recombinant DNA based drug approved Genentech IncRecombinant DNA
Nov 1982James Allison and collegues use monoclonal antibody to provide first biochemical description of tumour specific antigen of murine T-lymphomaAllison, McIntyre, BlochUniversity of Texas System Cancer CenterImmunology, Cancer immunotherapy, Monoclonal antibodies, Oncology
Dec 1982Giant mice made with the injection of rat growth hormoneBrinster, PalmiterUniversity of Pennsylvania, University of Washington SeattleTransgenic animals
1 Dec 1982First molecular markers, antigens, identified in melanoma tumours. These markers are now targeted by cancer drugsHoughton, Eisinger, Albino, Cairncross, OldMemorial Sloan Kettering Cancer CenterImmunology, Cancer immunotherapy, Oncology
1983First bispecific monoclonal antibody producedCuello, MilsteinLaboratory of Molecular Biology, Oxford UniversityMonoclonal antibodies
1983Course started in the molecular embyology of miceCostantini, Hogan, Lacy Cold Spring Harbour Laboratory, NIMR, Sloan Kettering Cancer Research Center, Columbia UniversityTransgenic animals
1983Sanger retiresSangerLaboratory of Molecular BiologyDNA Sequencing
1983Link drawn between immune deficiency and cancer  Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer CenterImmunology, Oncology, Virology
1983Murine p53 gene clonedLevine, OrenWeizmann Institute, State University New YorkOncology, p53
Jan 1983Official naming of p53Crawford, Pim, Gurney, Goodfellow, Taylor-PapdimitriouImperial Cancer Research Fundp53
6 Jan 1983Widespread loss of DNA methylation found on cytosine-guanine (CpG) islands in tumour samplesFeinberg, VogelsteinJohns Hopkins UniversityDNA methylation, Epigenetics
20 Jan 1983Solomon Spiegelman diedSpiegelmanUniversity of MinnesotaRecombinant DNA
5 Feb 1983Margaret Dayhoff died in Silver Spring, Maryland, USADayhoffSilver Spring, Maryland 
10 Feb 1983Discovery of mouse strain with severe combined immune deficiency, providing valuable research model for investigating diseases like cancer and HIVBosma, CusterFox Chase Cancer CenterImmunology, Oncology
9 Mar 1983Ulf von Euler diedvon EulerKarolinska InstituteNeuroscience
24 Mar 1983First cloning of Interleukin 2 (Il-2)Taniguchi, Matsui, Fujita, Takaoka, Kashmina, Yoshimoto, HamuroJapanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Ajinomoto Co IncImmunology, Cancer immunotherapy, Oncology
1983Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) starts to be developed as a technique to amplify DNAMullisCetus CorporationPCR, DNA Sequencing
May 1983Creation of first retroviral vector suitable for gene therapyMann, Mulligan, BaltimoreMassachusetts Institute of Technology, Whitehead Institute for Biomedical ResearchGene therapy
22 May 1983Albert Claude died ClaudeRockefeller Institute, Jules Bordet Institute, University of BrusselsCell

15 Aug 1982

Axel H T Theorell died

Oct 1982

First recombinant DNA based drug approved

Nov 1982

James Allison and collegues use monoclonal antibody to provide first biochemical description of tumour specific antigen of murine T-lymphoma

Dec 1982

Giant mice made with the injection of rat growth hormone

1 Dec 1982

First molecular markers, antigens, identified in melanoma tumours. These markers are now targeted by cancer drugs

1983

First bispecific monoclonal antibody produced

1983

Course started in the molecular embyology of mice

1983

Sanger retires

1983

Link drawn between immune deficiency and cancer

1983

Murine p53 gene cloned

Jan 1983

Official naming of p53

6 Jan 1983

Widespread loss of DNA methylation found on cytosine-guanine (CpG) islands in tumour samples

20 Jan 1983

Solomon Spiegelman died

5 Feb 1983

Margaret Dayhoff died in Silver Spring, Maryland, USA

10 Feb 1983

Discovery of mouse strain with severe combined immune deficiency, providing valuable research model for investigating diseases like cancer and HIV

9 Mar 1983

Ulf von Euler died

24 Mar 1983

First cloning of Interleukin 2 (Il-2)

1983

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) starts to be developed as a technique to amplify DNA

May 1983

Creation of first retroviral vector suitable for gene therapy

22 May 1983

Albert Claude died