Timeline of key events in biotechnology

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M Durst, L Gissmann, H Ikenberg, H zur Hausen, 'A papillomavirus DNA from a cervical carcinoma and its prevalence in cancer biopsy samples from different geographic regions', Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 80 (1983), 3812-15.1983-06-01T00:00:00+0000J Kappler et al, 'The major histocompatibility complex-restricted antigen receptor on T cells in mouse and man', Cell, 35 (1983), 295-02. 1983-11-01T00:00:00+0000C Czerkinsky, L Nilsson, H Nygren, O Ouchterlony, A Tarkowski, 'A solid-phase enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay for enumeration of specific antibody-secreting cells', Journal of Immunology Methods, 65/1-2 (1983), 109-21.1983-12-16T00:00:00+0000Identified by Curt Civin and his team at Johns Hopkins, the subset of cells bearing the CD34 (surface) marker is shown also to contain other kinds of cell. The research shows that the blood stem cell can be enriched for, but not purified. The advance proves useful in the clinical setting where enrichment for the CD34 cell can aid faster recovery of the blood system in patients undergoing chemotherapy and/or bone marrow transplants for serious blood disorders. 1984-01-01T00:00:00+00001984-01-01T00:00:00+00001984-01-01T00:00:00+0000 Illmensee’s 1981 announcement of cloning mice is believed to be fraudulent1984-01-01T00:00:00+0000Two independent teams demonstrate the phenomenon: Jonathan Izzant and Harold Weintraub; John Rubenstein and Jean-Francoise Nicolas.1984-01-01T00:00:00+0000Smithies, O, Koralewski, M A, Song, K Y, Kucherlapati, R S, 'Homologous recombination with DNA introduced into mammalian cells', Cold Spring Harbor symposia on quantitative biology, 49 (1984), 161-70.1984-01-01T00:00:00+0000SA Rosenberg, 'Adoptive immunotherapy of cancer: accomplishments and prospects', Cancer Treat Rep, 68/1 ( (1984): 233–55.1984-01-01T00:00:00+0000D Wolf, V Rotter, 'Inactivation of p53 gene expression by an insertion of Moloney murine leukemia virus-like DNA sequences', Mol Cell Biol, 4 (1984), 1402–10. 1984-01-01T00:00:00+0000G Matlashewski, et al, 'Isolation and characterization of a human p53 cDNA clone: expression of the human p53 gene', EMBO Journal, 3 (1984), 3257–62.1984-01-01T00:00:00+0000The transfer of an embryo from one human to another was carried out by John Buster at UCLA Medical Center. 1984-02-03T00:00:00+0000Mullis reports on his production of olgionucleotides and some results from his experiments with PCR to Cetus Corporation's annual meeting but few show any interest. 1984-06-01T00:00:00+0000A Knuth, B Danowski, HF Oettgen, LJ Old, 'T cell-mediated cytotoxicity against malignant melanoma', Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 81 (1984), 3511-15. 1984-06-01T00:00:00+0000The first genetic fingerprint was discovered by accident by Alec Jeffrey when conducting experiments to look at how genetic variations evolved. 1984-09-10T00:00:00+0000Two teams of scientists publish methods for the generation of chimeric monoclonal antibodies, that is antibodies possessing genes that are half-human and half mouse. Each team had developed their techniques separate from each other. The first team was lead by Michael Neuberger together with Terence Rabbitts and other colleagues at the Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge. The second team consisted of Sherie Morrison and colleagues at Stanford University together with Gabrielle Boulianne and others at the University of Toronto. 1984-12-01T00:00:00+0000Susumu Tonegawa, Japanese scientist, identifies immunoglobulin genes1985-01-01T00:00:00+0000The American scientist George Smith develops a method using bacteriophages for studying protein-protein, protein-peptide and protein-DNA interaction. Today phage display is a major tool for drug discovery.1985-01-01T00:00:00+00001985-01-01T00:00:00+0000
Date Event People Places Sciences
Jun 1983Harald Zur Hausen identifies the human papillomavirus as the causative agent of cervical cancerzur HausenUniversity of FreibergOncology, Virology
Nov 1983A team of researchers including Philippa Marrack, John Kappler and James P Allison identified the first T cell antigen receptorKappler, Kubo, Haskins, Hannum, Marrack, Pigeon, McIntyre, Allison, TrowbridgeUniversity of Colorado, University of Texas System Cancer Center, National Jewish Hospital and Research Cener, Salk InstituteImmunology, Cancer immunotherapy, Oncology
16 Dec 1983New method published for measuring antigen-specific T cell responses enabling clinical trial immune monitoringCzerkinsky, Nilsson, Nygren, Ouchterlony, TarkowskiUniversity of GoteborgImmunology
1984A molecular marker, CD34, is identified as specific for a subset of marrow cells containing the blood stem cellCivinJohns HopkinsStem cells
1984CD34 marker used as the basis for cell separation technology  Stem cells
1984Blood stem cells extensively purified for first time  Stem cells
1984First mouse clone claim challenged University of GenevaCloning
1984Antisense RNA shown to inhibit gene activityIzzant, Weintraub, Rubenstein, NicolasFred Hutchinson Cencer Research Center, University of California San FranciscoRNA interference
1984Experiment published demonstrating possibility of inserting a corrective DNA in the right place in genome of mammalian cellsSmithies, Koralewski, Song, KucherlapatiUniversity of WisconsinGene eding, Gene Therapy
1984Experiments show that injections with T-cell growth factor interleukin-2 can shrink tumours in humansRosenbergNational Cancer InstituteCancer immunotherapy, Adoptive cell therapy
1984p53 inactivated in tumour cells for first timeWolf, RotterWeizmann InstituteOncology, p53
1984Human p53 gene clonedMatlashewski, Lamb, Pim, Peacock, Crawford, BenchimoImperial Cancer Research Fund Laboratories, Ontario Cancer Institute, University of TorontoOncology, p53
3 Feb 1984First human baby born after UCLA research team transfer embryo from one woman to anotherBusterUniversity California Los AngelesEmbryology, Reproduction, IVF
Jun 1984Results from PCR experiments start being reportedMullisCetus CorporationPCR, DNA Sequencing
Jun 1984First clinical experiments demonstrate the possibility of training T cells to attack tumoursKnuth, Danowski, Oettgen, OldMemorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer CenterImmunology, Cancer immunotherapy, Oncology
10 Sep 1984First genetic fingerprint revealedJeffreysUniversity of LeicesterDNA sequencing, genetics, PCR
1984First chimeric monoclonal antibodies developed, laying foundation for safer and more effective monoclonal antibody therapeuticsNeuberger, Rabbitts, Morrison, Oi, Herzenberg, Boulianne, Schulman, HozumiLaboratory of Molecular Biology, Stanford Univerity Medical SchoolMonoclonal antibodies, Recombinant DNA
1985Antibody genes identifiedTonegawaBasel Institute of ImmunologyMonoclonal antibodies
1985Phage display method is developed for selecting peptides, proteins or antibodies from a wide number of variants.SmithUniversity of MissouriPhage Display
Jan 1985 - May 1987Cetus developed PCR for measuring amount of HIV circulating in blood Cetus CorporationPCR

Jun 1983

Harald Zur Hausen identifies the human papillomavirus as the causative agent of cervical cancer

Nov 1983

A team of researchers including Philippa Marrack, John Kappler and James P Allison identified the first T cell antigen receptor

16 Dec 1983

New method published for measuring antigen-specific T cell responses enabling clinical trial immune monitoring

1984

A molecular marker, CD34, is identified as specific for a subset of marrow cells containing the blood stem cell

1984

CD34 marker used as the basis for cell separation technology

1984

Blood stem cells extensively purified for first time

1984

First mouse clone claim challenged

1984

Antisense RNA shown to inhibit gene activity

1984

Experiment published demonstrating possibility of inserting a corrective DNA in the right place in genome of mammalian cells

1984

Experiments show that injections with T-cell growth factor interleukin-2 can shrink tumours in humans

1984

p53 inactivated in tumour cells for first time

1984

Human p53 gene cloned

3 Feb 1984

First human baby born after UCLA research team transfer embryo from one woman to another

Jun 1984

Results from PCR experiments start being reported

Jun 1984

First clinical experiments demonstrate the possibility of training T cells to attack tumours

10 Sep 1984

First genetic fingerprint revealed

1984

First chimeric monoclonal antibodies developed, laying foundation for safer and more effective monoclonal antibody therapeutics

1985

Antibody genes identified

1985

Phage display method is developed for selecting peptides, proteins or antibodies from a wide number of variants.

Jan 1985 - May 1987

Cetus developed PCR for measuring amount of HIV circulating in blood