Timeline of key events in biotechnology

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Two independent teams demonstrate the phenomenon: Jonathan Izzant and Harold Weintraub; John Rubenstein and Jean-Francoise Nicolas.1984-01-01T00:00:00+0000Smithies, O, Koralewski, M A, Song, K Y, Kucherlapati, R S, 'Homologous recombination with DNA introduced into mammalian cells', Cold Spring Harbor symposia on quantitative biology, 49 (1984), 161-70.1984-01-01T00:00:00+0000SA Rosenberg, 'Adoptive immunotherapy of cancer: accomplishments and prospects', Cancer Treat Rep, 68/1 ( (1984): 233–55.1984-01-01T00:00:00+0000D Wolf, V Rotter, 'Inactivation of p53 gene expression by an insertion of Moloney murine leukemia virus-like DNA sequences', Mol Cell Biol, 4 (1984), 1402–10. 1984-01-01T00:00:00+0000G Matlashewski, et al, 'Isolation and characterization of a human p53 cDNA clone: expression of the human p53 gene', EMBO Journal, 3 (1984), 3257–62.1984-01-01T00:00:00+0000The transfer of an embryo from one human to another was carried out by John Buster at UCLA Medical Center. 1984-02-03T00:00:00+0000Mullis reports on his production of olgionucleotides and some results from his experiments with PCR to Cetus Corporation's annual meeting but few show any interest. 1984-06-01T00:00:00+0000A Knuth, B Danowski, HF Oettgen, LJ Old, 'T cell-mediated cytotoxicity against malignant melanoma', Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 81 (1984), 3511-15. 1984-06-01T00:00:00+0000Two teams of scientists publish methods for the generation of chimeric monoclonal antibodies, that is antibodies possessing genes that are half-human and half mouse. Each team had developed their techniques separate from each other. The first team was lead by Michael Neuberger together with Terence Rabbitts and other colleagues at the Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge. The second team consisted of Sherie Morrison and colleagues at Stanford University together with Gabrielle Boulianne and others at the University of Toronto. 1984-12-01T00:00:00+0000Susumu Tonegawa, Japanese scientist, identifies immunoglobulin genes1985-01-01T00:00:00+0000The American scientist George Smith develops a method using bacteriophages for studying protein-protein, protein-peptide and protein-DNA interaction. Today phage display is a major tool for drug discovery.1985-01-01T00:00:00+00001985-01-01T00:00:00+0000The suggestion involves the insertion of gene segments from a human antibody into the DNA of early mouse embryos. It is put forward by scientists at Columbia University, this idea is published in FW. Alt, TK. Blackwell, GD. Yancopoulos, 'Immunoglobulin genes in transgenic mice', Trends Genetics, 1 (1985), 231–6.1985-01-01T00:00:00+0000These are created with the objective of studying self-tolerance. 1985-01-01T00:00:00+0000Miller, J, McLachlan, A D, Klug, A, 'Repetitive zinc-binding domains in the protein transcription factor IIIA from Xenopus oocytes', EMBO Journal, 4 (1985), 1609-14.1985-01-01T00:00:00+0000PJ Maddon et al, Cell, 42 (1985), 93-104; Littman et al, Cell, 40 (1985), 237-46. 1985-01-01T00:00:00+0000A. Bird, M. Taggart, M. Frommer, O.J. Miller, D. Macleod, ‘A fraction of the mouse genome that is derived from islands of nonmethylated, CpG-rich DNA’, Cell, 40/1 (1985 Jan;40(1):91-9. 1985-01-01T00:00:00+00001985-01-22T00:00:00+0000The application establishes polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as a method for amplifying DNA in vitro. PCR uses heat and enzymes to make unlimited copies of genes and gene fragments. The application is broad and is based on analysis of Sickle Cell Anaemia mutation via PCR and Oligomer restriction. 1985-03-01T00:00:00+0000Alec Jeffreys published hypervariable minisatellite regions in human DNA, which paved the way to DNA fingerprinting.1985-03-07T00:00:00+0000
Date Event People Places Sciences
1984Antisense RNA shown to inhibit gene activityIzzant, Weintraub, Rubenstein, NicolasFred Hutchinson Cencer Research Center, University of California San FranciscoRNA interference
1984Experiment published demonstrating possibility of inserting a corrective DNA in the right place in genome of mammalian cellsSmithies, Koralewski, Song, KucherlapatiUniversity of WisconsinGene eding, Gene Therapy
1984Experiments show that injections with T-cell growth factor interleukin-2 can shrink tumours in humansRosenbergNational Cancer InstituteCancer immunotherapy, Adoptive cell therapy
1984p53 inactivated in tumour cells for first timeWolf, RotterWeizmann InstituteOncology, p53
1984Human p53 gene clonedMatlashewski, Lamb, Pim, Peacock, Crawford, BenchimoImperial Cancer Research Fund Laboratories, Ontario Cancer Institute, University of TorontoOncology, p53
3 Feb 1984First human baby born from embryo transferBuster Embyology
Jun 1984Results from PCR experiments start being reportedMullisCetus CorporationPCR, DNA Sequencing
Jun 1984First clinical experiments demonstrate the possibility of training T cells to attack tumoursKnuth, Danowski, Oettgen, OldMemorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer CenterImmunology, Cancer immunotherapy, Oncology
1984First chimeric monoclonal antibodies developed which lays foundation for safer and more effective monoclonal antibody therapeuticsNeuberger, Rabbitts, Morrison, Oi, Herzenberg, Boulianne, Schulman, HozumiLaboratory of Molecular Biology, Stanford Univerity Medical SchoolMonoclonal antibodies, Recombinant DNA
1985Antibody genes identifiedTonegawaBasel Institute of ImmunologyMonoclonal antibodies
1985Phage display method is developed for selecting peptides, proteins or antibodies from a wide number of variants.SmithUniversity of MissouriPhage Display
Jan 1985 - May 1987Cetus developed PCR for measuring amount of HIV circulating in blood Cetus CorporationPCR
Jan 1985Idea put forward for the creation of transgenic mice to produce human antibodiesAlt, Blackwell, YancopoulosColumbia UniversityMonoclonal antibodies, gene cloning
1985First transgenic mice created with with genes coding for both the heavy and light chain domains in an antibody.Kohler, RusconiMax-Planck InstituteTransgenic animals, Monoclonal antibodies
1985Discovery of the first zinc finger nuclease, a site-specific endonuclease (enzyme) designed to bind and cleave DNA at specific positionsMiller, McLachlan, KlugLaboratory of Molecular BiologyGene editing, Zinc fingers
1985T cell surface proteins CD4 and CD8 cloned Maddon, Littman, Godfrey, Maddon Chess, AxelColumbia UniversityImmunology, Cancer immunotherapy, Oncology
Jan 1985DNA methylation found to occur on specific DNA segments called CpG islandsBird, Taggart, Fromer, Miller, MacleodEdinburgh University, Kanematsu Laboratories, Columbia UniversityDNA methylation, Epigenetics
Jan 1985NIH publishes its first draft guidelines for proposing experiments in human somatic cell gene theray  Gene therapy
Mar 1985Mullis and Cetus Corporation filed patent for the PCR techniqueMullisCetus CorporationPCR, DNA Sequencing
Mar 1985DNA fingerprinting principle laid outJeffreysUniversity of LeicesterDNA Sequencing

1984

Antisense RNA shown to inhibit gene activity

1984

Experiment published demonstrating possibility of inserting a corrective DNA in the right place in genome of mammalian cells

1984

Experiments show that injections with T-cell growth factor interleukin-2 can shrink tumours in humans

1984

p53 inactivated in tumour cells for first time

1984

Human p53 gene cloned

3 Feb 1984

First human baby born from embryo transfer

Jun 1984

Results from PCR experiments start being reported

Jun 1984

First clinical experiments demonstrate the possibility of training T cells to attack tumours

1984

First chimeric monoclonal antibodies developed which lays foundation for safer and more effective monoclonal antibody therapeutics

1985

Antibody genes identified

1985

Phage display method is developed for selecting peptides, proteins or antibodies from a wide number of variants.

Jan 1985 - May 1987

Cetus developed PCR for measuring amount of HIV circulating in blood

Jan 1985

Idea put forward for the creation of transgenic mice to produce human antibodies

1985

First transgenic mice created with with genes coding for both the heavy and light chain domains in an antibody.

1985

Discovery of the first zinc finger nuclease, a site-specific endonuclease (enzyme) designed to bind and cleave DNA at specific positions

1985

T cell surface proteins CD4 and CD8 cloned

Jan 1985

DNA methylation found to occur on specific DNA segments called CpG islands

Jan 1985

NIH publishes its first draft guidelines for proposing experiments in human somatic cell gene theray

Mar 1985

Mullis and Cetus Corporation filed patent for the PCR technique

Mar 1985

DNA fingerprinting principle laid out