Timeline of key events in biotechnology

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The suggestion involves the insertion of gene segments from a human antibody into the DNA of early mouse embryos. It is put forward by scientists at Columbia University, this idea is published in FW. Alt, TK. Blackwell, GD. Yancopoulos, 'Immunoglobulin genes in transgenic mice', Trends Genetics, 1 (1985), 231–6.1985-01-01T00:00:00+0000These are created with the objective of studying self-tolerance. 1985-01-01T00:00:00+0000Miller, J, McLachlan, A D, Klug, A, 'Repetitive zinc-binding domains in the protein transcription factor IIIA from Xenopus oocytes', EMBO Journal, 4 (1985), 1609-14.1985-01-01T00:00:00+0000PJ Maddon et al, Cell, 42 (1985), 93-104; Littman et al, Cell, 40 (1985), 237-46. 1985-01-01T00:00:00+0000A. Bird, M. Taggart, M. Frommer, O.J. Miller, D. Macleod, ‘A fraction of the mouse genome that is derived from islands of nonmethylated, CpG-rich DNA’, Cell, 40/1 (1985 Jan;40(1):91-9. 1985-01-01T00:00:00+00001985-01-22T00:00:00+0000The application establishes polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as a method for amplifying DNA in vitro. PCR uses heat and enzymes to make unlimited copies of genes and gene fragments. The application is broad and is based on analysis of Sickle Cell Anaemia mutation via PCR and Oligomer restriction. 1985-03-01T00:00:00+0000This was developed by the British geneticist Jeffreys. He developed the technique as part of his efforts to trace genes through family lineages. It was based on his discovery that each individual had unique numbers of repeated DNA fragments, called restriction fragment length polymorphisms, in their cells. The principle was described in A J Jeffreys, V Wilson, S L Thein, 'Hypervariable 'minisatellite' regions in human DNA', Nature, 314 (1985), 67-73. 1985-03-07T00:00:00+0000Undertaken to prove maternity of a 15 year old boy threatened with deportation to Ghana by the UK Home Office because of doubts over the identity of his mother, an immigrant based in the UK. The test proved the boy was related to his mother. Without the test the mother and son would not have been able to remain together in the same country. 1985-05-17T00:00:00+0000An Australian virologist and physician, MacFarlane Burnet is most well known for his discovery of acquired immunological tolerance and demonstrating how the body recognises the difference between self and non-self. His work helped advance the development of vaccines, tissue transplantation, monoclonal antibodies and associated therapies. 1985-08-31T00:00:00+0000An English biochemist, Porter helped determine the chemical structure of antibodies. 1985-09-07T00:00:00+0000An American microbiologist, Enders shared the 1954 Nobel Prize for helping to develop a technique to grow the poliomyeltitis virus, paving the way to a vaccine against polio. 1985-09-08T00:00:00+0000Smithies, O, Gregg, R G, Boggs, S S, Koralewski, M A, Kucherlapati, R S, 'Insertion of DNA sequences into the human chromosomal beta-globin locus by homologous recombination', Nature, 317 (1985): 230-34.1985-09-19T00:00:00+0000Rose was an American biochemist and nutrition. He isolated the amino acid threonine in 1932 and demonstrated in rats that a diet that lacked the amino acid stunted their growth. By 1949 he had established that ten amino acids were vital to human health: histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan and valine. Based on this work he was appointed to the US Food and Nutrition Board of the National Research Council which drew up dietary recommendations. 1985-09-25T00:00:00+00001985-12-01T00:00:00+0000Jasin, M, de Villiers, J, Weber, F, Schaffner, W, 'High frequency of homologous recombination in mammalian cells', Cell, 43/3 part 2 (1985), 695-703.1985-12-01T00:00:00+0000SA Rosenberg et al, 'Observations on the systemic administration of autologous lymphokine-activated killer cells and recombinant interleukin-2 to patients with metastatic cancer', New England Journal of Medicine, 313 (1985), 1485-92.1985-12-05T00:00:00+0000JM Adams, AW Harris, CA Pinkert, LM Corcoran, WS Alexander, S Cory, RD Palmiter, RL, Brinster, 'The c-myc oncogene driven by immunoglobulin enhancers induces lymphoid malignancy in transgenic mice', Nature, 318 (1985), 533-38.1985-12-12T00:00:00+0000The technique enabled the amplification of small fragments of DNA on a large scale. It was published in RK Saiki et al, Enzymatic Amplification of beta-globin Genomic Sequences and Restriction Site Analysis for Diagnosis of Sickle Cell Anemia, Science, 230 (1985), 1350-54.1985-12-20T00:00:00+00001986-01-01T00:00:00+0000
Date Event People Places Sciences
Jan 1985Idea put forward for the creation of transgenic mice to produce human antibodiesAlt, Blackwell, YancopoulosColumbia UniversityMonoclonal antibodies, gene cloning
1985First transgenic mice created with with genes coding for both the heavy and light chain domains in an antibody.Kohler, RusconiMax-Planck InstituteTransgenic animals, Monoclonal antibodies
1985Discovery of the first zinc finger nuclease, a site-specific endonuclease (enzyme) designed to bind and cleave DNA at specific positionsMiller, McLachlan, KlugLaboratory of Molecular BiologyGene editing, Zinc fingers
1985T cell surface proteins CD4 and CD8 cloned Maddon, Littman, Godfrey, Maddon Chess, AxelColumbia UniversityImmunology, Cancer immunotherapy, Oncology
Jan 1985DNA methylation found to occur on specific DNA segments called CpG islandsBird, Taggart, Fromer, Miller, MacleodEdinburgh University, Kanematsu Laboratories, Columbia UniversityDNA methylation, Epigenetics
Jan 1985NIH publishes its first draft guidelines for proposing experiments in human somatic cell gene theray  Gene therapy
Mar 1985Mullis and Cetus Corporation filed patent for the PCR techniqueMullisCetus CorporationPCR, DNA Sequencing
7 Mar 1985DNA fingerprinting principle laid out JeffreysUniversity of LeicesterDNA sequencing, genetics, PCR
17 May 19851st legal case resolved using DNA fingerprintingJeffreysUniversity of LeicesterDNA sequencing, genetics
31 Aug 1985Frank Macfarlane Burnet diedBurnettWalter and Eliza Hall InstituteImmunology
7 Sep 1985Rodney R Porter diedPorterOxford UniversityAntibodies
8 Sep 1985John F Enders diedEndersChildren's Hospital BostonVirology, Vaccine
19 Sep 1985Technique published for the accurate insertion of a corrective DNA in the human genomeSmithies, Gregg, Boggs, Koralewski, KucherlapatiUniversity of WisconsinGene eding, Gene Therapy
25 Sep 1985William Cumming Rose diedRoseUniversity of IllinoisNutrition, Biochemistry
Dec 1985Cetus Corporation and Perkin-Elmer partnered to develop instruments and reagents for PCR Cetus CorporationPCR
Dec 1985Experiments with plasmids indicate double-strand break technique efficient for gene editing in mammalian cellsJasin, de Villiers, Weber, SchaffnerUniversity of ZurichGene editing
Dec 1985IL-2 based immunotherapy shown to reduce tumours in patients with melanoma and renal cell cancerRosenbergNational Cancer InstituteImmunology, Cancer immunotherapy, Oncology, Adoptive cell therapy
Dec 1985New transgenic mouse model developed to study cancer, opening up the possibility of studying oncogene cooperation and the efficacy of novel anti-cell signal drugs for lymphoma therapyAdams, Harris, Pinkert, Corcoran, Alexander, Cory, Palmiter, BrinsterWalter and Eliza Hall Institute, University of Pennsylvania, Howard Hughes Medical InstituteTrangenic animals, Oncology
20 Dec 1985The Polymerase Chain Reaction technique was publishedMullisCetus CorporationPCR, DNA Sequencing
1986National Marrow Donor Programme established in US  Stem cells

Jan 1985

Idea put forward for the creation of transgenic mice to produce human antibodies

1985

First transgenic mice created with with genes coding for both the heavy and light chain domains in an antibody.

1985

Discovery of the first zinc finger nuclease, a site-specific endonuclease (enzyme) designed to bind and cleave DNA at specific positions

1985

T cell surface proteins CD4 and CD8 cloned

Jan 1985

DNA methylation found to occur on specific DNA segments called CpG islands

Jan 1985

NIH publishes its first draft guidelines for proposing experiments in human somatic cell gene theray

Mar 1985

Mullis and Cetus Corporation filed patent for the PCR technique

7 Mar 1985

DNA fingerprinting principle laid out

17 May 1985

1st legal case resolved using DNA fingerprinting

31 Aug 1985

Frank Macfarlane Burnet died

7 Sep 1985

Rodney R Porter died

8 Sep 1985

John F Enders died

19 Sep 1985

Technique published for the accurate insertion of a corrective DNA in the human genome

25 Sep 1985

William Cumming Rose died

Dec 1985

Cetus Corporation and Perkin-Elmer partnered to develop instruments and reagents for PCR

Dec 1985

Experiments with plasmids indicate double-strand break technique efficient for gene editing in mammalian cells

Dec 1985

IL-2 based immunotherapy shown to reduce tumours in patients with melanoma and renal cell cancer

Dec 1985

New transgenic mouse model developed to study cancer, opening up the possibility of studying oncogene cooperation and the efficacy of novel anti-cell signal drugs for lymphoma therapy

20 Dec 1985

The Polymerase Chain Reaction technique was published

1986

National Marrow Donor Programme established in US