Timeline of key events in biotechnology

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1872-01-01T00:00:00+0000d'Herelle was a microbiologist who co-discovered bacteriophages, viruses that infect bacteria.1873-04-25T00:00:00+0000Berger was a psychologist who developed the first electroencephalogram (EEG) for recording brain wave patterns.1873-05-21T00:00:00+0000Loewi shared the 1936 Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'discoveries relating to chemical transmission of nerve impulses.'1873-06-03T00:00:00+0000Carrel was awarded the 1912 Nobel Prize for Medicine in recognition of 'his work on vascular structure and the transplantation of blood vessels and organs'.1873-06-28T00:00:00+0000Erlanger shared the 1944 Nobel Prize for Medicine for research into the the actions of nerve fibers. 1874-01-05T00:00:00+0000Dale shared the 1936 Nobel Prize for Medicine for helping to identify the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and the chemical process by which nerve impulses are transmitted.1875-06-09T00:00:00+0000Macleod was a Scottish physician who, together with Frederick Baring, discovered insulin.1876-09-06T00:00:00+0000Noguchi was a bacteriologist who discovered the bacteria that cause syphilis - Treponema pallidum.1876-11-24T00:00:00+0000von Baer was an Estonian biologist who was the first to isolate the mammalian egg cell. 1876-11-28T00:00:00+0000A German chemist, Windaus, gained the 1928 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his research into cholesterol and other sterols and their relation to vitamins. H1876-12-25T00:00:00+0000Albrecht Kossel, German biochemist, shows that the substance called nuclein consists of a protein and non-protein component.1877-01-01T00:00:00+0000Avery was a Canadian-American physician who helped discover the genetic information in genes and chromosomes is made up of DNA.1877-10-21T00:00:00+0000An American virologist, Zinsser isolated the bacterium that causes typhus. 1878-11-17T00:00:00+0000Louis Pasteur develops an attenuated chicken cholera vaccine1879-01-01T00:00:00+0000An American pathologist, Rous was the first to show how viruses could cause cancer. This was based on his work with tumours in chickens. 1879-10-05T00:00:00+0000Hess identified parts of the brain that control internal organs.1881-03-17T00:00:00+0000Schleiden helped develop the theory that cells are the basic structure in all organisms and the basic unit of reproduction. 1881-06-23T00:00:00+0000A Scottish biologist, Fleming discovered the antibiotic penicillin. This was the first of many antibiotic drugs to treat bacterial diseases. 1881-08-06T00:00:00+0000The stem cell is conceived as a distinctive cell which serves as the starting point for blood formation.1882-01-01T00:00:00+0000
Date Event People Places Sciences
1872Walther Flemming, German biologist, describes chromosomes and examines their behaviour during cell division. FlemmingUniversity of KielDNA
25 Apr 1873Felix d'Herelle was born in Montreal, Canadad'HerellePasteur InstituteBacteriology, Virology
21 May 1873Hans Berger was born in Coburg, GermanyBergerCoburg, GermanyNeuroscience
3 Jun 1873Otto Loewi was born in Frankfurt-on-the-Main, GermanyLoewiGraz UniversityNeuroscience
28 Jun 1873Alexis Carrel was born in Sainte-Foy-lès-Lyon, FranceCarrelRockefeller UniversityTransplantation
5 Jan 1874Joseph Erlanger was born in San Francisco CA, USAErlangerWashington University in St LouisNeuroscience
9 Jun 1875Henry H Dale was born in London, United KingdomDaleLondon, United KingdomNeuroscience
6 Sep 1876John J R Macleod was bornMacleodUniversity of AberdeenBicohemistry
24 Nov 1876Hideyo Noguchi was bornNoguchi Bacteriology
28 Nov 1876Karl Ernst von Baer diedvon BaerSt Petersburg Academy of SciencesEmbryology
25 Dec 1876Adolf O R Windaus was born   
1877 - 1880Nucleic acid shown to have protein and non-protein componentsKosselUniversity of TubingenDNA
21 Oct 1877 Oswald Theodore Avery was born in Halifax, CanadaAveryRockefeller UniversityDNA
17 Nov 1878Hans Zinsser was bornZinsserColumbia UniversityBacteriology
1879Chicken cholera vaccine developedPasteurPasteur InstituteBacteriology, Vaccine
5 Oct 1879Peyton Rous was born in Baltimore MD, USARousRockefeller UniversityVirology, Oncology
17 Mar 1881Walter R Hess was born in Frauenfeld, SwitzerlandHessUniversity of ZurichNeuroscience
23 Jun 1881Matthias J Schleiden diedSchleiden University of JenaCell
6 Aug 1881Alexander Fleming was bornFlemingLondon UniversityBacteriology, Biochemistry, Antibacterial agents
1882Concept of the stem cell is put forward for the first timeHaeckel, Dantchakoff, Pappenheim, Ehrlich, MaximowUniversity of Jena, Charite Hospital, Koch Institute, Petrograd University Stem cells

1872

Walther Flemming, German biologist, describes chromosomes and examines their behaviour during cell division.

25 Apr 1873

Felix d'Herelle was born in Montreal, Canada

21 May 1873

Hans Berger was born in Coburg, Germany

3 Jun 1873

Otto Loewi was born in Frankfurt-on-the-Main, Germany

28 Jun 1873

Alexis Carrel was born in Sainte-Foy-lès-Lyon, France

5 Jan 1874

Joseph Erlanger was born in San Francisco CA, USA

9 Jun 1875

Henry H Dale was born in London, United Kingdom

6 Sep 1876

John J R Macleod was born

24 Nov 1876

Hideyo Noguchi was born

28 Nov 1876

Karl Ernst von Baer died

25 Dec 1876

Adolf O R Windaus was born

1877 - 1880

Nucleic acid shown to have protein and non-protein components

21 Oct 1877

Oswald Theodore Avery was born in Halifax, Canada

17 Nov 1878

Hans Zinsser was born

1879

Chicken cholera vaccine developed

5 Oct 1879

Peyton Rous was born in Baltimore MD, USA

17 Mar 1881

Walter R Hess was born in Frauenfeld, Switzerland

23 Jun 1881

Matthias J Schleiden died

6 Aug 1881

Alexander Fleming was born

1882

Concept of the stem cell is put forward for the first time