Timeline of key events in biotechnology

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Hoffmann-LaRoche and Schering-Plough gain FDA permission to market genetically engineered alpha interferon for use as treatment hairy cell leukaemia. The development of interferon rested on the application of both genetic cloning and monoclonal antibodies. 1986-06-04T00:00:00+0000Orthoclone OKT3, developed by Ortho Pharm, was approved as an immunosuppressant drug to reduce acute rejection in patients with kidney transplants. It is a mouse-derived (murine) monoclonal antibody (Muromonab-CD3) that targets a membrane protein on the surface of T cells.1986-06-19T00:00:00+0000White House Office of Science and Technology Policy published its Coordinated Framework for Regulation of Biotechnology establishing regulatory jurisdiction and principles for USDA, EPA, FDA, NIH, NSF and OSHA.1986-06-26T00:00:00+0000FDA grants a BLA to Merck & Co. for Recombivax HB, the first recombinant vaccine for hepatitis B. It is seen as a breakthrough because it carries no risk of infecting healthy people,1986-07-23T00:00:00+0000Lipmann shared the 1953 Nobel Prize for Medicine for the discovery of coenzyme A and its role in nutrition.1986-07-24T00:00:00+0000S.A. Rosenberg, P. Spiess, R. Lafreniere, 'A New Approach to the Adoptive Immunotherapy of Cancer with Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes', Science, 233/4770 (1996), 1318-21.1986-09-19T00:00:00+0000An Austrian biochemist, Albert Szent-Gyorgyi was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1937 for his work on the biochemistry of respiration and his discovery of vitamin C and the components and reactions of the citric acid cycle.1986-10-22T00:00:00+0000MT Lotze, AE Chang, CA Seipp, C Simpson, JT Vetto, AS Rosenberg, 'High-dose recombinant interleukin 2 in the treatment of patients with disseminated cancer', JAMA, 256 (1986), 3117-24. 1986-12-12T00:00:00+0000Benesch was a biochemist who co-discovered how haemoglobin transports oxygen during respiration. 1986-12-30T00:00:00+00001987-01-01T00:00:00+0000The research was led by Thierry Boon and Etienne De Plaen at the Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Belgium1987-01-01T00:00:00+0000J. F. Brunet, J. Denizot, M-F. LLuciani, M. Roux-Dosseto, M. Suzan, M-G. Matte, P. Golstein, 'A new member of the immunoglobulin super- family–CTLA-4', Nature, 328 (1987), 267-70. 1987-01-01T00:00:00+0000The clones were isolated from the blood of melanoma patient with long-term remission following vaccination with irradiated mutagenized autologous tumor cells. M Hein et al, 'Production of stable cytolytic T-cell clones directed against autologous human melanoma', International Journal of Cancer, 39 (1987), 390-96. 1987-03-15T00:00:00+0000Z Dembi et al, 'Transfection of the CD8 gene enhances T-cell recognition', Nature, 326 (1987), 510-11.1987-04-02T00:00:00+0000SA Rosenberg et al, 'A progress report on the treatment of 157 patients with advanced cancer using lymphokine-activated killer cells and interleukin-2 or high-dose interleukin-2 alone', New England Journal of Medicine, 9/316 (1987), 889-97. 1987-04-09T00:00:00+0000Northrop shared the 1946 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for helping to develop the technique for purifying and crystallising enzymes and virus proteins.1987-05-27T00:00:00+00001987-06-17T00:00:00+0000JF Brunet et al, 'A new member of the immunoglobulin superfamily--CTLA-4', Nature 328 (1987), 267-70. 1987-07-16T00:00:00+0000A British zoologist, Medawar developed the theory of acquired immunological tolerance based on his work on skin grafts. His work helped improve the success of tissue and organ transplants. 1987-10-02T00:00:00+0000Capecchi, M, 'Site-directed mutagenesis by gene targeting in mouse embyo-derived stem cells', Cell, 51/3 (1987), 503-12.1987-11-06T00:00:00+0000
Date Event People Places Sciences
Jun 1986Interferon approved for treating hairy cell leukaemia  Recombinant DNA, Monoclonal antibodies
Jun 1986First monoclonal antibody drug approvedChang, Kung, Gringas, Schlossman, Goldstein  Monoclonal antibodies
Jun 1986Co-ordinated US regulatory framework esablished for biotechnology  Regulation
Jul 1986First recombinant vaccine licensed Merck & CoRecombinant DNA, Vaccine
24 Jul 1986Fritz A Lipmann diedLipmann Nutrition
19 Sep 1986Adoptive transfer of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes shown in mice to be 50 to 100 times more effective in therapeutic potency than lymphokine-activated killer cellsRosenberg, Spiess, LafrieniereNational Cancer InstituteAdoptive cell therapy, Cancer immunotherapy, Gene theray
22 Oct 1986Albert Szent-Gyorgyi von Nagyrapolt diedSzent-Gyorgyi Szeged UniversityCell
Dec 1986Anti-tumour responses observed in 3 out of 10 patients given high-doses of Interleukin-2 (IL-2) Rosenberg, Lotze, Chang, Seipp, Simpson, VettoNational Cancer InstituteImmunology, Cancer immunotherapy, Oncology, Adoptive cell therapy
30 Dec 1986Reinhold Benesch diedBeneschColumbia UnivesityBiochemistry
1987First clinical trials of foetal neural cell grafting in patients with Parkinson’s diseaseBjorklund, Lindvall Lund UniversityStem cells
1987 - 1989Scientists lay the foundation for the cloning of human tumour antigens recognised by cytotoxic T lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell that kills cancer cellsDe Plaen, BoonLudwig Institute for Cancer ResearchImmunology, Cancer immunotherapy, Oncology
Jan 1987Jean-Francoise Brunet and colleagues discovered the cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4)Brunet, Denizot, Luciani, Roux-Dosseto, Suzan, Matte, Golstein  
15 Mar 1987First stable human anti-tumour cytotoxic T cell clones isolated and maintained in cultureHerin, Lemoine, Weynants, Vessiere, Van Pel, Knuth, Devos, BoonLudwig InstituteImmunology, Cancer immunotherapy, Oncology
Apr 1987CD8 coreceptor proven to be actively involved in antigen recognition by killer T cellsDembic, Haas, Zamoyska, Parnes, Steinmetz, von BoehmerBasel Institute of ImmunologyImmunology, Cancer immunotherapy, Oncology
9 Apr 1987Successful results reported for trial using the cytokine IL-2 and lymphokine-activated killer cells to treat cancerRosenbergNational Cancer InstituteCancer immunotherapy, Adoptive cell therapy
May 1987John H Northrop diedNorthrop  
Jun 1987The patent for PCR with Taq ploymerase is filedMullis  
Jul 1987Identification of the cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4)Brunet, Denizot, Luciani, Roux-Dosseto, Suzan, Mattei, GolsteinINSERM-CNRSImmune checkpoint inhibitors, Immunology, Cancer immunotherapy, Oncology
2 Oct 1987Peter Medawar diedMedawarUniversity College LondonImmunology
6 Nov 1987Publication of gene targeting technique for targetting mutations in any geneThomas, CapecchiUniversity of UtahGene editing, Transgenic animals

Jun 1986

Interferon approved for treating hairy cell leukaemia

Jun 1986

First monoclonal antibody drug approved

Jun 1986

Co-ordinated US regulatory framework esablished for biotechnology

Jun 1986

First recombinant vaccine licensed

24 Jul 1986

Fritz A Lipmann died

19 Sep 1986

Adoptive transfer of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes shown in mice to be 50 to 100 times more effective in therapeutic potency than lymphokine-activated killer cells

22 Oct 1986

Albert Szent-Gyorgyi von Nagyrapolt died

Dec 1986

Anti-tumour responses observed in 3 out of 10 patients given high-doses of Interleukin-2 (IL-2)

30 Dec 1986

Reinhold Benesch died

1987

First clinical trials of foetal neural cell grafting in patients with Parkinson’s disease

1987 - 1989

Scientists lay the foundation for the cloning of human tumour antigens recognised by cytotoxic T lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell that kills cancer cells

Jan 1987

Jean-Francoise Brunet and colleagues discovered the cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4)

15 Mar 1987

First stable human anti-tumour cytotoxic T cell clones isolated and maintained in culture

Apr 1987

CD8 coreceptor proven to be actively involved in antigen recognition by killer T cells

9 Apr 1987

Successful results reported for trial using the cytokine IL-2 and lymphokine-activated killer cells to treat cancer

9 Apr 1987

John H Northrop died

Jun 1987

The patent for PCR with Taq ploymerase is filed

Jul 1987

Identification of the cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4)

2 Oct 1987

Peter Medawar died

6 Nov 1987

Publication of gene targeting technique for targetting mutations in any gene