Timeline of key events in biotechnology

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Campath-1G is humanised, resulting in Campath-1H. It is accomplished with technology developed by Greg Winter.1988-01-01T00:00:00+0000This patent is filed on the basis of work reported in M Brüggeman, HM Caskey, C Teale, H Waldmann, Williams, Surani, and MS Neuberger, A repertoire of monoclonal antibodies with human heavy chains from transgenic mice, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 86 (Sept 1989), 6709-13. 1988-01-01T00:00:00+0000Funding secured for precursor of the Human Genome Project. US$10.7 million provided by Department of Energery and US$17.2 million by National Institutes of Health.1988-01-01T00:00:00+0000Steptoe was an obstetrtician and gynaecologist who co-pioneered in vitro fertilization, the technique that produced the first test tube baby in 1978.1988-03-21T00:00:00+0000This method, called FASTA, is published by William R Pearson and David J Lipman in Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 85/8 (April 1988), 2444-8. This is now a common tool for bioinformatics. It allos for the comparison and aligning of sequences. 1988-04-01T00:00:00+0000USPTO patent 4,736,866, transgenic mouse with activated oncogenes created by Philip Leder and Timonthy A Stewart. The mouse was developed as a model for furthering cancer research and the testing of new drugs. It was the first animal ever given patent protection in the USA. 1988-04-12T00:00:00+0000G Degiovanni et al, European Journal Immunology, 18 (1988+), 671-6; Knuth et al, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 86 (1989), 2804-08; Van den Eynde et al, International Journal of Cancer, 15 /44 (1989), 634-40. 1988-05-01T00:00:00+0000CE Rudd, JM Trevillyan, JD Dasgupta, LL Wong, SF Schlossman, 'The CD4 receptor is complexed in detergent lysates to a protein-tyrosine kinase (Pp58) from human T lymphocytes', Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 85 (1988), 5190-94.1988-07-01T00:00:00+0000 GJ Spangrude, S Heimfeld, IL Weissman, 'Purification and characterization of mouse hematopoietic stem cells', Science, 241 (1988), 58-62. 1988-07-01T00:00:00+00001988-07-14T00:00:00+0000T. Bestor, A. Laudano, R. Mattaliano, V. Ingram, 'Cloning and sequencing of a cDNA encoding DNA methyltransferase of mouse cells', Journal Molecular Biology, 203 (1988), 971–83. 1988-10-20T00:00:00+0000Gregory Winter at the Laboratory of Molecular Biology develops the technique as part of his strategy to create an artificial immune system for generating monoclonal antibodies. The technique is published in R Olandi, DH, Gussow, PT Jones and G Winter, 'Cloning immunoglobulin variable domains for expression by polymerase chain reaction', Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 86 (May 1989), 3833-7. 1988-11-01T00:00:00+0000Jasin, M, Berg, P, 'Homologous integration in mammalian cells without target gene selection', Genes Development, 2/11 (1988): 1353-63.1988-11-01T00:00:00+0000Mansour, S L, Thomas, K R, Capecchi, M R, 'Disruption of the proto-oncogene int-2 in mouse embryo-derived stem cells: a general strategy for targeting mutations to non-selectable genes', Nature, 336 (1988): 348–52.1988-11-01T00:00:00+0000P Dariavach, MG Mattei, P Golstein, MP Lefranc, 'Human Ig superfamily CTLA-4 gene: chromosomal localization and identity of protein sequence between murine and human CTLA-4 cytoplasmic domains', European Journal Immunology, 18 (1988), 1901-05.1988-12-01T00:00:00+0000SA Rosenberg et al, 'Use of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and interleukin-2 in the immunotherapy of patients with metastatic melanoma. A preliminary report', New England Journal of Medicine, 319 (1988), 1676-80.1988-12-22T00:00:00+00001989-01-01T00:00:00+0000Gregory Winter together with David Chiswell set up CAT to develop phage display technology for monoclonal antibodies1989-01-01T00:00:00+0000SJ Baker et al, 'Chromosome 17 deletions and p53 gene mutations in colorectal carcinomas', Science, 244 (1989), 17-21, 1989; D Eliyahu et al, 'Wild-type p53 can inhibit oncogene-mediated focus formation', PNAS, 86 (1989), 8763–7; CA Finlay et al, 'The p53 proto-oncogene can act as a suppressor of transformation', Cell, 57 (1989), 1083–93.1989-01-01T00:00:00+0000D Malkin et al, 'Germ line p53 mutations in a familial syndrome of breast cancer, sarcomas, and other neoplasms', Science, 250 (1990), 1233–8; S Srivastava et al, 'Germ-line transmission of a mutated p53 gene in a cancer-prone family with Li-Fraumeni syndrome', Nature, 348 (1990), 747–9.1989-01-01T00:00:00+0000
Date Event People Places Sciences
1988Campath-1H is created - the first clinically useful humanised monoclonal antibody.Winter, Waldmann, Reichmann, ClarkCambridge University, Laboratory of Molecular BiologyMonoclonal antibodies, Recombinant DNA, Campath
1988Patent application filed for a method to create transgenic mice for the production of human antibodiesBruggeman, Caskey, Neuberger, Surani, Teale, Waldmann, WilliamsLaboratory of Molecular Biology, Babraham Institute, Cambridge UniversityMonoclonal antibodies, gene cloning, transgenic animals
1988US Congress funds genome sequencing  DNA Sequencing, Genomics
21 Mar 1988Patrick Steptoe diedSteptoe Reproduction
Apr 1988Development of first rapid search computer programme to identify genes in a new sequencePearson, Lipman DNA Sequencing, Genomics
Apr 1988OncoMouse patent grantedLeder, StewartHarvard UniversityTransgenic animals
May 1988 - Oct 1989Cytotoxic T lymphocytes shown to recognise distinct surface markers on human melanomaWolfel, Knuth, Degiovanni, Van den Eynde, Hainaut, BoonLudwig Institute for Cancer ResearchImmunology, Cancer immunotherapy, Oncology
Jul 1988Biochemical initiators of T Cell activitation, CD4 and CD8-p56, discoveredRudd, Trevillyan, Dasupta, Wong, SchlossmanDana-Faber Cancer Institute, Harvard University, Tech UniversityImmunology, Cancer immunotherapy, Oncology
1 Jul 1988The first hematopoietic stem cells were isolated in miceSpangrude, Heimfeld, WeissmanStanford UniversityStem cells
1988 - 1989First evidence discovered of a physical link between oncoproteins and tumour suppressors  Immunology, Cancer immunotherapy, Oncology
20 Oct 1988Cloning of first mammalian enzyme (DNA methyltransferase, DNMT) that catalyses transfer of methyl group to DNA Bestor, Laudano, Mattaliano, IngramMassachusetts Institute of TechnologyDNA methylation, Epigenetics
Nov 1988Patent application filed for the the use of PCR to create a library of antibody fragmentsGussow, Jones, Olandi, WinterLaboratory of Molecular Biology, Istituto Nazionale dei TumoriMonoclonal antibodies, PCR
Nov 1988Gene targeting technique shown to be efficient in modifying DNA in mammalian cells which can be adapted for other systems. This is the first time genome modification appears possible. Jasin, BergStanford UniversityGene editing
Nov 1988Oncogene disrupted in mice using gene targeting technologyMansour, Thomas, CapecchiUniversity of UtahGene editing
Dec 1988Scientists report cloning the gene for the human cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen (CTLA-4)Dariavach, Mattei, Golstein, LefrancINSERM-CNRSImmune checkpoint inhibitors, Immunology, Cancer immunotherapy, Oncology
22 Dec 19889 out of 15 melanoma patients successfully treated with autologous tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes cultured with the cytokine IL-2RosenbergNational Cancer InstituteCancer immunotherapy, Adoptive cell therapy
Jan 1989PCR technique starts being used for DNA finger printing tests  PCR
1989Cambridge Antibody Technology (CAT) foundedWinter, ChiswellLaboratory of Molecular Biology, CATMonoclonal antibodies, Phage Display
1989p53 demonstrated to be a tumour suppressor geneBaker, Fearon, Nigro, Hamilton, Preisinger, Jessup, vanTuinen, Ledbetter, Barker, Nakamura, White, Vogelstein, Eliyahu, Michalovitz, Pinhasi-Kimhi, Oren, Finlay, Hinds, Levine Johns Hopkins University, Weizmann Institute, Princeton UniversityOncology, p53
1989Mutations in p53 found in germline of cancer-prone familiesMalkin, Srivastava, Zou, Pirollo, Blattner, ChangMassachusetts General Hospital, Uniformed Services UniversityOncology, p53

1988

Campath-1H is created - the first clinically useful humanised monoclonal antibody.

1988

Patent application filed for a method to create transgenic mice for the production of human antibodies

1988

US Congress funds genome sequencing

21 Mar 1988

Patrick Steptoe died

Apr 1988

Development of first rapid search computer programme to identify genes in a new sequence

Apr 1988

OncoMouse patent granted

May 1988 - Oct 1989

Cytotoxic T lymphocytes shown to recognise distinct surface markers on human melanoma

Jul 1988

Biochemical initiators of T Cell activitation, CD4 and CD8-p56, discovered

1 Jul 1988

The first hematopoietic stem cells were isolated in mice

1988 - 1989

First evidence discovered of a physical link between oncoproteins and tumour suppressors

20 Oct 1988

Cloning of first mammalian enzyme (DNA methyltransferase, DNMT) that catalyses transfer of methyl group to DNA

Nov 1988

Patent application filed for the the use of PCR to create a library of antibody fragments

Nov 1988

Gene targeting technique shown to be efficient in modifying DNA in mammalian cells which can be adapted for other systems. This is the first time genome modification appears possible.

Nov 1988

Oncogene disrupted in mice using gene targeting technology

Dec 1988

Scientists report cloning the gene for the human cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen (CTLA-4)

22 Dec 1988

9 out of 15 melanoma patients successfully treated with autologous tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes cultured with the cytokine IL-2

Jan 1989

PCR technique starts being used for DNA finger printing tests

1989

Cambridge Antibody Technology (CAT) founded

1989

p53 demonstrated to be a tumour suppressor gene

1989

Mutations in p53 found in germline of cancer-prone families