Timeline of key events in biotechnology

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CV Thompson, T Lindsten, JA Ledbetter, SL Kunkel, SA Young, SG Emerson, JM Leiden, CL June, 'CD28 activation pathway regulates the production of multiple T-cell-derived lymphokines/cytokines', Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A , 86 (1989),1333-7.1989-02-01T00:00:00+0000Study conducted by French Anderson in collaboration with Steven Rosenberg in 52 year old cancer patient as preliminary experiment to test gene therapy in children with severe combined immunodeficiency disorder. 1989-05-01T00:00:00+0000Beadle, an American geneticist, was jointly awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1958 for discovering the role of genes in regulating biochemical events within cells.1989-07-09T00:00:00+0000M Kobayashi, L Fitz, M Ryan, RM Hewick, SC Clark, S Chan, R Loudon, F Sherman, B Perussia, G Trinchieri, ' Identification and purification of natural killer cell stimulatory factor (NKSF), a cytokine with multiple biologic effects on human lymphocytes', Journal Expermental Medicine', 170 (1989), 827-45.1989-09-01T00:00:00+0000V. Greger, E. Passarge, W. Hopping, E. Messmer, B. Horsthemke, 'Epigenetic changes may contribute to the formation and spontaneous regression of retinoblastoma', Human Genetics, 83 (1989), 155–58. 1989-09-01T00:00:00+0000G Gross, T Waks, Z Eshhar, 'Expression of immunoglobulin-T-cell receptor chimeric molecules as functional receptors with antibody-type specificity (chimeric genes/antibody variable region)', Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 86 (1989), 10024-8.1989-12-01T00:00:00+0000G. Gross, T. Waks, Z. Eshhar, 'Expression of immunoglobulin-T-cell receptor chimeric molecules as functional receptors with antibody-type specificity', PNAS USA, 86 (1989), 10024–8.1989-12-01T00:00:00+0000JM Nigro et al, 'Mutations in the p53 gene occur in diverse human tumour types', Nature, 342 (1989), 705-08.1989-12-07T00:00:00+0000Gregory Winter together with CAT create the first phage monoclonal antibodies, laying the foundation for the generation of diverse libraries of randomly shaped human antibodies. With this scientists are no longer dependent on the natural immune system of animals or humans and the limitations this poses for the production of monoclonal antibodies. 1990-01-01T00:00:00+0000Discovered by Urban Lendahl.1990-01-01T00:00:00+00001990-01-01T00:00:00+0000The approval was given based on results from a clinical trial carried out by Harry Herr and Herbert Oettgen. The BCG vaccine stimulates an immune response that targets both the tuberculosis bacteria and bladder cancer cells. 1990-01-01T00:00:00+0000A. Kasid et al, 'Human gene transfer: characterization of human tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes as vehicles for retroviral-mediated gene transfer in man', PNAS USA, 87/1 (1990), 473-77.1990-01-01T00:00:00+0000Joint working group of the US Department of Energy and the National Institututes of Health present plan Understanding Our Genetic Inheritance: The US Human Genome Project.1990-02-01T00:00:00+0000F. Triebel, S. Jitsukawa, E. Baixeras, G. Roman-Roman, C. Genevee, E. Viegas-Pequinot, T. Hecend, 'LAG-3, a novel lymphocyte activation gene closely related to CD4', Journal Experimental Medicine, 171 (1990), 1393-1405. 1990-05-01T00:00:00+0000D Michalovitz, O Halevy, M Oren, 'Conditional inhibition of transformation and of cell proliferation by a temperature-sensitive mutant of p53', Cell, 62 (1990), 671–80; WE Mercer et al, 'Negative growth regulation in a glioblastoma tumor cell line that conditionally expresses human wild-type p53', PNAS 87/16 (1990), 6166-70.1990-08-01T00:00:00+0000S.A. Rosenberg et al, 'Gene Transfer into Humans — Immunotherapy of patients with advanced melanoma, using tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes modified by retroviral gene transduction', NEJM, 323 (1990), 570-78.1990-08-30T00:00:00+0000DeSilva treated by French Anderson in collaboration with Michael Blease1990-09-01T00:00:00+0000International scientific collaboration, initiated by the US Department of Energy, begun to determine the sequence of chemical base pairs which make up DNA, and to identify and map approximately 20,000 to 25,000 genes of the human genome. 1990-10-01T00:00:00+0000The link between the gene BRCA1 and breast cancer was identifed by a team at the University of Washington, led by Mary-Claire King.1990-12-21T00:00:00+0000
Date Event People Places Sciences
Feb 1989Scientists demonstrate the importance of CD28, a cell surface molecule found on T-cells, for the activation and survival of T cellsThompson, Lindsten, Ledbetter, Kunkel, Young, Emerson, Leiden, JuneHoward Hughes Medical InstituteImmunology, Cancer immunotherapy, Oncology
May 1989First human test demonstrated safety of retroviral vector for gene therapy and potential of laboratory produced tumor killing cells for cancer immunotherapyAnderson, RosenbergNational Institutes of HealthAdoptive cell therapy, Cancer immunotherapy, Gene therapy
9 Jul 1989George Wells Beadle diedBeadleCalifornia Institute of TechnologyGenetics
Sep 1989Giorgio Trinchieri and colleagues identified interleukin-12 (IL-12), a cytokine that helps regulate the body’s resistance to infections and cancerKobayashi, Fitz, Ryan, Hewick, Clark, Chan, Loudon, Sherman, Perussia, TrinchieriWistar InstituteImmunology, Cancer immunotherapy, Oncology
Sep 1989DNA methylation suggested to inactivate tumour suppressor genesGreger, Passarge, Hopping, Messmer, HorsthemkeInstitute of Human GeneticsDNA methylation, Epigenetics, Oncology
Dec 1989First use of genetically engineered T cells to redirect T cells to recognise and attack tumour cellsGross, Waks, EshharWeizmann InstituteGene therapy, Immunology, Cancer immunotherapy, Oncology
Dec 1989Concept of enhancing T cells using chimeric antigen receptors published for first timeGross, Waks, EshharWeizmann InstituteAdoptive cell therapy, Cancer immunotherapy, Gene therapy
7 Dec 1989Mutations in p53 gene found to play role in development of many common cancersVogelstein, NigroJohns Hopkins UniversityOncology, p53
1990Phage display monoclonal antibodies createdWinterLaboratory of Molecular Biology, CATMonoclonal antibodies, Phage Display
1990Discovery of the nesting gene, the most commonly used marker for neural stem cellsLendahlKarolinska InstitutetStem cells
1990Mouse marrow regenerating stem cells are completely separated from in vivo colony-forming cells for first time  Stem cells
1990US FDA approved BCG, a bacterial vaccine against tuberculosis, to treat early stage bladder cancer. It was the first FDA approved immunotherapyHerr, OettgenMemorial Sloan Kettering Cancer CenterImmunology, Cancer immunotherapy, Oncology, Virology
Jan 1990Gene therapy concept proven in first human trialsKasid, Morecki, Aebersold, Cornetta, Culver, Freeman, Director, Lotze, Blaese, AndersonNational Cancer InstituteAdoptive cell therapy, Cancer immunotherapy, Gene therapy
Feb 1990First pitch for US Human Genome Project  DNA Sequencing, Genomics
May 1990Discovery of lymphocyte activation gene 3 (LAG3)Triebel, Jitsukawa, Baixeras, Roman-Roman, Genevee, Viegas-Pequinot, Hecend Institut Gustave-RoussyImmune checkpoint inhibitors
Aug 1990p53 found to arrest cell cyleMichalovitz, Halevy, Oren, Mercer, Shields, Amin, Sauve, Appella, Romano, UllrichWeizmann Institute, Temple UniversityOncology, p53
30 Aug 1990Treatment with gene modified tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes shown to be promising immunotherapy for patients with advance melanomaRosenberg, Aebersold, Cornetta, Kasid, Morgan, Moen, Karson, Lotze, Yang, Topalian, Merino, Culver, Miller, Blaese, AndersonNational Cancer InstituteAdoptive cell therapy, Cancer immunotherapy, Gene therapy
Sep 1990Four year old Ashanti DeSilva becomes first patient successfully treated with gene therapy for severe combined immunodeficiency caused by defective ADA geneAnderson, Blease, DeSilvaNational Institutes of HealthGene therapy
Oct 1990Human Genome Project formally launched  DNA Sequencing, Genomics
Dec 1990BRCA1 gene linked with inherited predisposition to cancerKingUniversity of California Berkley

Feb 1989

Scientists demonstrate the importance of CD28, a cell surface molecule found on T-cells, for the activation and survival of T cells

May 1989

First human test demonstrated safety of retroviral vector for gene therapy and potential of laboratory produced tumor killing cells for cancer immunotherapy

9 Jul 1989

George Wells Beadle died

Sep 1989

Giorgio Trinchieri and colleagues identified interleukin-12 (IL-12), a cytokine that helps regulate the body’s resistance to infections and cancer

Sep 1989

DNA methylation suggested to inactivate tumour suppressor genes

Dec 1989

First use of genetically engineered T cells to redirect T cells to recognise and attack tumour cells

Dec 1989

Concept of enhancing T cells using chimeric antigen receptors published for first time

7 Dec 1989

Mutations in p53 gene found to play role in development of many common cancers

1990

Phage display monoclonal antibodies created

1990

Discovery of the nesting gene, the most commonly used marker for neural stem cells

1990

Mouse marrow regenerating stem cells are completely separated from in vivo colony-forming cells for first time

1990

US FDA approved BCG, a bacterial vaccine against tuberculosis, to treat early stage bladder cancer. It was the first FDA approved immunotherapy

Jan 1990

Gene therapy concept proven in first human trials

Jan 1990

First pitch for US Human Genome Project

May 1990

Discovery of lymphocyte activation gene 3 (LAG3)

Aug 1990

p53 found to arrest cell cyle

30 Aug 1990

Treatment with gene modified tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes shown to be promising immunotherapy for patients with advance melanoma

Sep 1990

Four year old Ashanti DeSilva becomes first patient successfully treated with gene therapy for severe combined immunodeficiency caused by defective ADA gene

Oct 1990

Human Genome Project formally launched

Oct 1990

BRCA1 gene linked with inherited predisposition to cancer