Timeline of key events in biotechnology

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1988-08-16T00:00:00+0000T. Bestor, A. Laudano, R. Mattaliano, V. Ingram, 'Cloning and sequencing of a cDNA encoding DNA methyltransferase of mouse cells', Journal Molecular Biology, 203 (1988), 971–83. 1988-10-20T00:00:00+0000Gregory Winter at the Laboratory of Molecular Biology develops the technique as part of his strategy to create an artificial immune system for generating monoclonal antibodies. The technique is published in R Olandi, DH, Gussow, PT Jones and G Winter, 'Cloning immunoglobulin variable domains for expression by polymerase chain reaction', Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 86 (May 1989), 3833-7. 1988-11-01T00:00:00+0000Jasin, M, Berg, P, 'Homologous integration in mammalian cells without target gene selection', Genes Development, 2/11 (1988): 1353-63.1988-11-01T00:00:00+0000Mansour, S L, Thomas, K R, Capecchi, M R, 'Disruption of the proto-oncogene int-2 in mouse embryo-derived stem cells: a general strategy for targeting mutations to non-selectable genes', Nature, 336 (1988): 348–52.1988-11-01T00:00:00+0000P Dariavach, MG Mattei, P Golstein, MP Lefranc, 'Human Ig superfamily CTLA-4 gene: chromosomal localization and identity of protein sequence between murine and human CTLA-4 cytoplasmic domains', European Journal Immunology, 18 (1988), 1901-05.1988-12-01T00:00:00+0000SA Rosenberg et al, 'Use of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and interleukin-2 in the immunotherapy of patients with metastatic melanoma. A preliminary report', New England Journal of Medicine, 319 (1988), 1676-80.1988-12-22T00:00:00+00001989-01-01T00:00:00+0000Gregory Winter together with David Chiswell set up CAT to develop phage display technology for monoclonal antibodies1989-01-01T00:00:00+0000SJ Baker et al, 'Chromosome 17 deletions and p53 gene mutations in colorectal carcinomas', Science, 244 (1989), 17-21, 1989; D Eliyahu et al, 'Wild-type p53 can inhibit oncogene-mediated focus formation', PNAS, 86 (1989), 8763–7; CA Finlay et al, 'The p53 proto-oncogene can act as a suppressor of transformation', Cell, 57 (1989), 1083–93.1989-01-01T00:00:00+0000D Malkin et al, 'Germ line p53 mutations in a familial syndrome of breast cancer, sarcomas, and other neoplasms', Science, 250 (1990), 1233–8; S Srivastava et al, 'Germ-line transmission of a mutated p53 gene in a cancer-prone family with Li-Fraumeni syndrome', Nature, 348 (1990), 747–9.1989-01-01T00:00:00+0000Recommends: 1) appointment of equal opportunity commissioners at all universities and research institutions; 2) establish job placement programmes for women scientists; 3) compensation for disadvantages due to childcare; introduce flexible working hours 1989-01-01T00:00:00+0000CV Thompson, T Lindsten, JA Ledbetter, SL Kunkel, SA Young, SG Emerson, JM Leiden, CL June, 'CD28 activation pathway regulates the production of multiple T-cell-derived lymphokines/cytokines', Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A , 86 (1989),1333-7.1989-02-01T00:00:00+0000Study conducted by French Anderson in collaboration with Steven Rosenberg in 52 year old cancer patient as preliminary experiment to test gene therapy in children with severe combined immunodeficiency disorder. 1989-05-01T00:00:00+0000Beadle, an American geneticist, was jointly awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1958 for discovering the role of genes in regulating biochemical events within cells.1989-07-09T00:00:00+0000M Kobayashi, L Fitz, M Ryan, RM Hewick, SC Clark, S Chan, R Loudon, F Sherman, B Perussia, G Trinchieri, ' Identification and purification of natural killer cell stimulatory factor (NKSF), a cytokine with multiple biologic effects on human lymphocytes', Journal Expermental Medicine', 170 (1989), 827-45.1989-09-01T00:00:00+0000V. Greger, E. Passarge, W. Hopping, E. Messmer, B. Horsthemke, 'Epigenetic changes may contribute to the formation and spontaneous regression of retinoblastoma', Human Genetics, 83 (1989), 155–58. 1989-09-01T00:00:00+0000G Gross, T Waks, Z Eshhar, 'Expression of immunoglobulin-T-cell receptor chimeric molecules as functional receptors with antibody-type specificity (chimeric genes/antibody variable region)', Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 86 (1989), 10024-8.1989-12-01T00:00:00+0000G. Gross, T. Waks, Z. Eshhar, 'Expression of immunoglobulin-T-cell receptor chimeric molecules as functional receptors with antibody-type specificity', PNAS USA, 86 (1989), 10024–8.1989-12-01T00:00:00+0000JM Nigro et al, 'Mutations in the p53 gene occur in diverse human tumour types', Nature, 342 (1989), 705-08.1989-12-07T00:00:00+0000
Date Event People Places Sciences
16 Aug 1988European Parliament's Resolution on Women and Research highlights under-representation of women in science and calls for Member States to develop measures to promote women Europe 
20 Oct 1988Cloning of first mammalian enzyme (DNA methyltransferase, DNMT) that catalyses transfer of methyl group to DNA Bestor, Laudano, Mattaliano, IngramMassachusetts Institute of TechnologyDNA methylation, Epigenetics
Nov 1988Patent application filed for the the use of PCR to create a library of antibody fragmentsGussow, Jones, Olandi, WinterLaboratory of Molecular Biology, Istituto Nazionale dei TumoriMonoclonal antibodies, PCR
Nov 1988Gene targeting technique shown to be efficient in modifying DNA in mammalian cells which can be adapted for other systems. This is the first time genome modification appears possible. Jasin, BergStanford UniversityGene editing
Nov 1988Oncogene disrupted in mice using gene targeting technologyMansour, Thomas, CapecchiUniversity of UtahGene editing
Dec 1988Scientists report cloning the gene for the human cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen (CTLA-4)Dariavach, Mattei, Golstein, LefrancINSERM-CNRSImmune checkpoint inhibitors, Immunology, Cancer immunotherapy, Oncology
22 Dec 19889 out of 15 melanoma patients successfully treated with autologous tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes cultured with the cytokine IL-2RosenbergNational Cancer InstituteCancer immunotherapy, Adoptive cell therapy
Jan 1989PCR technique starts being used for DNA finger printing tests  PCR
1989Cambridge Antibody Technology (CAT) foundedWinter, ChiswellLaboratory of Molecular Biology, CATMonoclonal antibodies, Phage Display
1989p53 demonstrated to be a tumour suppressor geneBaker, Fearon, Nigro, Hamilton, Preisinger, Jessup, vanTuinen, Ledbetter, Barker, Nakamura, White, Vogelstein, Eliyahu, Michalovitz, Pinhasi-Kimhi, Oren, Finlay, Hinds, Levine Johns Hopkins University, Weizmann Institute, Princeton UniversityOncology, p53
1989Mutations in p53 found in germline of cancer-prone familiesMalkin, Srivastava, Zou, Pirollo, Blattner, ChangMassachusetts General Hospital, Uniformed Services UniversityOncology, p53
1989First National Report in Germany on the Promotion of Women in Science    
Feb 1989Scientists demonstrate the importance of CD28, a cell surface molecule found on T-cells, for the activation and survival of T cellsThompson, Lindsten, Ledbetter, Kunkel, Young, Emerson, Leiden, JuneHoward Hughes Medical InstituteImmunology, Cancer immunotherapy, Oncology
May 1989First human test demonstrated safety of retroviral vector for gene therapy and potential of laboratory produced tumor killing cells for cancer immunotherapyAnderson, RosenbergNational Institutes of HealthAdoptive cell therapy, Cancer immunotherapy, Gene therapy
9 Jul 1989George Wells Beadle diedBeadleCalifornia Institute of TechnologyGenetics
Sep 1989Giorgio Trinchieri and colleagues identified interleukin-12 (IL-12), a cytokine that helps regulate the body’s resistance to infections and cancerKobayashi, Fitz, Ryan, Hewick, Clark, Chan, Loudon, Sherman, Perussia, TrinchieriWistar InstituteImmunology, Cancer immunotherapy, Oncology
Sep 1989DNA methylation suggested to inactivate tumour suppressor genesGreger, Passarge, Hopping, Messmer, HorsthemkeInstitute of Human GeneticsDNA methylation, Epigenetics, Oncology
Dec 1989First use of genetically engineered T cells to redirect T cells to recognise and attack tumour cellsGross, Waks, EshharWeizmann InstituteGene therapy, Immunology, Cancer immunotherapy, Oncology
Dec 1989Concept of enhancing T cells using chimeric antigen receptors published for first timeGross, Waks, EshharWeizmann InstituteAdoptive cell therapy, Cancer immunotherapy, Gene therapy
7 Dec 1989Mutations in p53 gene found to play role in development of many common cancersVogelstein, NigroJohns Hopkins UniversityOncology, p53

16 Aug 1988

European Parliament's Resolution on Women and Research highlights under-representation of women in science and calls for Member States to develop measures to promote women

20 Oct 1988

Cloning of first mammalian enzyme (DNA methyltransferase, DNMT) that catalyses transfer of methyl group to DNA

Nov 1988

Patent application filed for the the use of PCR to create a library of antibody fragments

Nov 1988

Gene targeting technique shown to be efficient in modifying DNA in mammalian cells which can be adapted for other systems. This is the first time genome modification appears possible.

Nov 1988

Oncogene disrupted in mice using gene targeting technology

Dec 1988

Scientists report cloning the gene for the human cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen (CTLA-4)

22 Dec 1988

9 out of 15 melanoma patients successfully treated with autologous tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes cultured with the cytokine IL-2

Jan 1989

PCR technique starts being used for DNA finger printing tests

1989

Cambridge Antibody Technology (CAT) founded

1989

p53 demonstrated to be a tumour suppressor gene

1989

Mutations in p53 found in germline of cancer-prone families

1989

First National Report in Germany on the Promotion of Women in Science

Feb 1989

Scientists demonstrate the importance of CD28, a cell surface molecule found on T-cells, for the activation and survival of T cells

May 1989

First human test demonstrated safety of retroviral vector for gene therapy and potential of laboratory produced tumor killing cells for cancer immunotherapy

9 Jul 1989

George Wells Beadle died

Sep 1989

Giorgio Trinchieri and colleagues identified interleukin-12 (IL-12), a cytokine that helps regulate the body’s resistance to infections and cancer

Sep 1989

DNA methylation suggested to inactivate tumour suppressor genes

Dec 1989

First use of genetically engineered T cells to redirect T cells to recognise and attack tumour cells

Dec 1989

Concept of enhancing T cells using chimeric antigen receptors published for first time

7 Dec 1989

Mutations in p53 gene found to play role in development of many common cancers