Timeline of key events in biotechnology

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Gregory Winter together with CAT create the first phage monoclonal antibodies, laying the foundation for the generation of diverse libraries of randomly shaped human antibodies. With this scientists are no longer dependent on the natural immune system of animals or humans and the limitations this poses for the production of monoclonal antibodies. 1990-01-01T00:00:00+0000Discovered by Urban Lendahl.1990-01-01T00:00:00+00001990-01-01T00:00:00+0000The approval was given based on results from a clinical trial carried out by Harry Herr and Herbert Oettgen. The BCG vaccine stimulates an immune response that targets both the tuberculosis bacteria and bladder cancer cells. 1990-01-01T00:00:00+0000A. Kasid et al, 'Human gene transfer: characterization of human tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes as vehicles for retroviral-mediated gene transfer in man', PNAS USA, 87/1 (1990), 473-77.1990-01-01T00:00:00+00001990-01-01T00:00:00+0000Joint working group of the US Department of Energy and the National Institututes of Health present plan Understanding Our Genetic Inheritance: The US Human Genome Project.1990-02-01T00:00:00+0000F. Triebel, S. Jitsukawa, E. Baixeras, G. Roman-Roman, C. Genevee, E. Viegas-Pequinot, T. Hecend, 'LAG-3, a novel lymphocyte activation gene closely related to CD4', Journal Experimental Medicine, 171 (1990), 1393-1405. 1990-05-01T00:00:00+0000D Michalovitz, O Halevy, M Oren, 'Conditional inhibition of transformation and of cell proliferation by a temperature-sensitive mutant of p53', Cell, 62 (1990), 671–80; WE Mercer et al, 'Negative growth regulation in a glioblastoma tumor cell line that conditionally expresses human wild-type p53', PNAS 87/16 (1990), 6166-70.1990-08-01T00:00:00+0000S.A. Rosenberg et al, 'Gene Transfer into Humans — Immunotherapy of patients with advanced melanoma, using tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes modified by retroviral gene transduction', NEJM, 323 (1990), 570-78.1990-08-30T00:00:00+0000DeSilva treated by French Anderson in collaboration with Michael Blease1990-09-01T00:00:00+0000International scientific collaboration, initiated by the US Department of Energy, begun to determine the sequence of chemical base pairs which make up DNA, and to identify and map approximately 20,000 to 25,000 genes of the human genome. 1990-10-01T00:00:00+0000The link between the gene BRCA1 and breast cancer was identifed by a team at the University of Washington, led by Mary-Claire King.1990-12-21T00:00:00+0000This is achieved by Richard Lerner and Carlos Barbas at the Scripps Research Institute with the backing of Stratagene, an American biotechnology specialising in antibody engineering.1991-01-01T00:00:00+0000J Bargonetti et al, Cell 65/6 (1991), 1083-91; S Kern et al, Science, 252 (1991), 1708-11; WS el-Deiry et al, Nature Genetics, 1 (1991), 145-9; WD Funk et al, Molecular Cell Biology, 12 (1992), 2866-71; G Farmer et al, Nature, 358 (1992), 8306. 1991-01-01T00:00:00+0000E Yonish-Rouach et al, 'Wild-type p53 induces apoptosis of myeloid leukaemic cells that is inhibited by interleukin-6', Nature 352 (1991), 345–7; P Shaw et al, 'Induction of apoptosis by wild-type p53 in a human colon tumor-derived cell line', PNAS, 89 (1992), 4495–9.1991-01-01T00:00:00+0000Luria shared the 1969 Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses.'1991-02-06T00:00:00+0000European Committee for Proprietary Medicinal Products recommends the approval of Centoxin (Nebacumab) , a drug originally developed by Henry Kaplan and Nelson Tang at Stanford University and prepared for market by Centocor. Based on this recommendation the drug was subsequently approved for market in The Netherlands, Britain, Germany and France between March and December 1991.1991-03-01T00:00:00+0000Heidelberger was one of the founders of immunochemistrty, a branch of biochemistry that investigates the mammalian immune system at the molecular level. He first made his mark in 1923 when he found with Oswald Avery that that the immune system could target bacterial sugars. The two scientists made the discovery while investigating a capsular substance that envelops pneumococcus and other species of bacteria. Their work helped determine that antibodies were proteins. It also paved the way to improving the production of more effective serum therapies for the prevention of bacterial infectious like pneumonia and meningitis.1991-06-25T00:00:00+0000This supplies blood cord from siblings to treat childhood Fanconi anaemia. 1992-01-01T00:00:00+0000
Date Event People Places Sciences
1990Phage display monoclonal antibodies createdWinterLaboratory of Molecular Biology, CATMonoclonal antibodies, Phage Display
1990Discovery of the nesting gene, the most commonly used marker for neural stem cellsLendahlKarolinska InstitutetStem cells
1990Mouse marrow regenerating stem cells are completely separated from in vivo colony-forming cells for first time  Stem cells
1990US FDA approved BCG, a bacterial vaccine against tuberculosis, to treat early stage bladder cancer. It was the first FDA approved immunotherapyHerr, OettgenMemorial Sloan Kettering Cancer CenterImmunology, Cancer immunotherapy, Oncology, Virology
Jan 1990Gene therapy concept proven in first human trialsKasid, Morecki, Aebersold, Cornetta, Culver, Freeman, Director, Lotze, Blaese, AndersonNational Cancer InstituteAdoptive cell therapy, Cancer immunotherapy, Gene therapy
1990Special funding programme launched by German Federal Government to increase number of women in top positions in science    
Feb 1990First pitch for US Human Genome Project  DNA Sequencing, Genomics
May 1990Discovery of lymphocyte activation gene 3 (LAG3)Triebel, Jitsukawa, Baixeras, Roman-Roman, Genevee, Viegas-Pequinot, Hecend Institut Gustave-RoussyImmune checkpoint inhibitors
Aug 1990p53 found to arrest cell cyleMichalovitz, Halevy, Oren, Mercer, Shields, Amin, Sauve, Appella, Romano, UllrichWeizmann Institute, Temple UniversityOncology, p53
30 Aug 1990Treatment with gene modified tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes shown to be promising immunotherapy for patients with advance melanomaRosenberg, Aebersold, Cornetta, Kasid, Morgan, Moen, Karson, Lotze, Yang, Topalian, Merino, Culver, Miller, Blaese, AndersonNational Cancer InstituteAdoptive cell therapy, Cancer immunotherapy, Gene therapy
Sep 1990Four year old Ashanti DeSilva becomes first patient successfully treated with gene therapy for severe combined immunodeficiency caused by defective ADA geneAnderson, Blease, DeSilvaNational Institutes of HealthGene therapy
Oct 1990Human Genome Project formally launched  DNA Sequencing, Genomics
Dec 1990BRCA1 gene linked with inherited predisposition to cancerKingUniversity of California Berkley
1991First display and selection of human antibodies phageBarbas, LernerScripps Research InstituteMonoclonal antibodies, Phage Display
1991 - 1992p53 found to be a transcription factorBargonetti, Friedman, Kern, Vogelstein, Prives, el-Deiry, Pietenpol, KinzleColumbia University, Johns Hopkins University, University of Texas Southwesternp53
1991p53 found to induce apoptosis, self destruction of a cellYonish-Rouach, Resnitzky, Lotem, Sachs, Kimchi, OrenWeizmann InstituteOncology, p53
6 Feb 1991Salvador E Luria diedLuriaMassachusetts Institute of TechnologyGenetics, Virology
Mar 1991Monoclonal antibody drug approved in Europe for the treatment of septic shockKaplan, TangStanford University Medical School, CentocorMonoclonal antibodies
25 Jun 1991Michael Heidelberger died in New York City, USAHeidelbergerRockefeller Institute, Columbia UniversityAntibodies, Immunology
1992First public bank set up for umbilical cord blood bank in New YorkRubinsteinNew York Blood CenterStem cells

1990

Phage display monoclonal antibodies created

1990

Discovery of the nesting gene, the most commonly used marker for neural stem cells

1990

Mouse marrow regenerating stem cells are completely separated from in vivo colony-forming cells for first time

1990

US FDA approved BCG, a bacterial vaccine against tuberculosis, to treat early stage bladder cancer. It was the first FDA approved immunotherapy

Jan 1990

Gene therapy concept proven in first human trials

1990

Special funding programme launched by German Federal Government to increase number of women in top positions in science

1990

First pitch for US Human Genome Project

May 1990

Discovery of lymphocyte activation gene 3 (LAG3)

Aug 1990

p53 found to arrest cell cyle

30 Aug 1990

Treatment with gene modified tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes shown to be promising immunotherapy for patients with advance melanoma

Sep 1990

Four year old Ashanti DeSilva becomes first patient successfully treated with gene therapy for severe combined immunodeficiency caused by defective ADA gene

Oct 1990

Human Genome Project formally launched

Oct 1990

BRCA1 gene linked with inherited predisposition to cancer

1991

First display and selection of human antibodies phage

1991 - 1992

p53 found to be a transcription factor

1991

p53 found to induce apoptosis, self destruction of a cell

6 Feb 1991

Salvador E Luria died

Mar 1991

Monoclonal antibody drug approved in Europe for the treatment of septic shock

25 Jun 1991

Michael Heidelberger died in New York City, USA

1992

First public bank set up for umbilical cord blood bank in New York