Timeline of key events in biotechnology

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This is achieved by Richard Lerner and Carlos Barbas at the Scripps Research Institute with the backing of Stratagene, an American biotechnology specialising in antibody engineering.1991-01-01T00:00:00+0000J Bargonetti et al, Cell 65/6 (1991), 1083-91; S Kern et al, Science, 252 (1991), 1708-11; WS el-Deiry et al, Nature Genetics, 1 (1991), 145-9; WD Funk et al, Molecular Cell Biology, 12 (1992), 2866-71; G Farmer et al, Nature, 358 (1992), 8306. 1991-01-01T00:00:00+0000E Yonish-Rouach et al, 'Wild-type p53 induces apoptosis of myeloid leukaemic cells that is inhibited by interleukin-6', Nature 352 (1991), 345–7; P Shaw et al, 'Induction of apoptosis by wild-type p53 in a human colon tumor-derived cell line', PNAS, 89 (1992), 4495–9.1991-01-01T00:00:00+0000Luria shared the 1969 Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses.'1991-02-06T00:00:00+0000European Committee for Proprietary Medicinal Products recommends the approval of Centoxin (Nebacumab) , a drug originally developed by Henry Kaplan and Nelson Tang at Stanford University and prepared for market by Centocor. Based on this recommendation the drug was subsequently approved for market in The Netherlands, Britain, Germany and France between March and December 1991.1991-03-01T00:00:00+0000Together with Forrest Kendall and Elvin Kabat, Heidelberg was instrumental in determining antibodies to be proteins. 1991-06-25T00:00:00+0000This supplies blood cord from siblings to treat childhood Fanconi anaemia. 1992-01-01T00:00:00+00001992-01-01T00:00:00+00001992-01-01T00:00:00+0000Procedure devised by Claudio Bordignon at Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan. 1992-01-01T00:00:00+0000Bradley, A, Ramirez-Solis, R, Zheng, H, Hasty, P, Davis, A, 'Genetic manipulation of the mouse via gene targeting in embryonic stem cells', Ciba Foundation Symposium 165 (1992): 256–69.1992-01-01T00:00:00+0000J Momand et al, 'The mdm-2 oncogene product forms a complex with the p53 protein and inhibits p53-mediated transactivation', Cell, 69 (1992), 1237–45.1992-01-01T00:00:00+0000LA Donehower, 'Mice deficient for p53 are developmentally normal but susceptible to spontaneous tumours', Nature, 356 (1992), 215–21.1992-01-01T00:00:00+0000LR Livingstone et al, 'Altered cell cycle arrest and gene amplification potential accompany loss of wild-type p53', Cell, 70 (1992), 923–35; Y Yin et al 'Wild-type p53 restores cell cycle control and inhibits gene amplification in cells with mutant p53 alleles', Cell, 70 (1992) 937–48.1992-01-01T00:00:00+0000US$1.5 billion of Centocor's market capitalisation disappears with news that the FDA requires more information before it will recommend approval of Centoxin.1992-02-20T00:00:00+0000M. Frommer, L.E. McDonald, D.S. Millar, C.M. Collis, F. Watt, G.W. Grigg, P.L. Molloy, C.L. Paul, 'A genomic sequencing protocol that yields a positive display of 5-methylcytosine residues in individual DNA strands', PNAS, 89/5 (1992), 1827-31.1992-03-01T00:00:00+0000Sheehan developed the first synthetic penicillin1992-03-21T00:00:00+0000Mitchell won the 1978 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for contributing to understanding biological energy transfer. 1992-04-10T00:00:00+0000Bovet won the 1957 Nobel Prize for Medicine for discovering 'synthetic compounds that inhibit the action of certain bodily substances, especially their action on the vascular system and the skeletal muscles.'1992-04-18T00:00:00+0000Mouse genetated with genes knocked out that produce the enzyme DNA methyltransfgerase involved in DNA methylation. E. Li, T.H. Bestor, R. Jaenisch, 'Targeted mutation of the DNA methyltransferase gene results in embryonic lethality', Cell, 69/6 (1992), 915-26.1992-06-12T00:00:00+0000
Date Event People Places Sciences
1991First display and selection of human antibodies phageBarbas, LernerScripps Research InstituteMonoclonal antibodies, Phage Display
1991 - 1992p53 found to be a transcription factorBargonetti, Friedman, Kern, Vogelstein, Prives, el-Deiry, Pietenpol, KinzleColumbia University, Johns Hopkins University, University of Texas Southwesternp53
1991p53 found to induce apoptosis, self destruction of a cellYonish-Rouach, Resnitzky, Lotem, Sachs, Kimchi, OrenWeizmann InstituteOncology, p53
6 Feb 1991Salvador E Luria diedLuriaMassachusetts Institute of TechnologyGenetics, Virology
Mar 1991Monoclonal antibody drug approved in Europe for the treatment of septic shockKaplan, TangStanford University Medical School, CentocorMonoclonal antibodies
25 Jun 1991Michael Heidelberger died in New York City, USAHeidelberger  
1992First public bank set up for umbilical cord blood bank in New YorkRubinsteinNew York Blood CenterStem cells
1992Neural stem cells identified in the adult human brain  Stem cells
1992GenBank is integrated into the NIH National Center for Biotechnology Information  DNA Sequencing
1992Stem cells used as vectors to deliver the genes needed to correct the genetic disorder SCIDBordignonVita-Salute San Raffaele UniversityGene therapy, Stem cells
1992Gene targeting technology in combination with embryonic stem cells shown to be powerful tool for creating specific genetic mutations in mice so as to study gene function and create animal models of human genetic diseaseBradley, Ramirez-Solis, Zheng, Hasty, DavisBaylor College of MedicineGene editing
1992MDM2, an oncogene product, found to negatively regulate p53Momand, Zambetti, Olson, George, LevinePrinceton UniversityOncology, p53
1992Mice genetically modified to be deficient in p53 shown to be prone to cancerDonehower, Harvey, Slagle, McArthur, Montgomery, Butel, BradleyBaylor CollegeOncology, p53
1992p53 shown to maintain genome stabilityLivingstone, White, Sprouse, Livanos, Jacks, Tlsty, Yin, Tainsky, Bischoff, Strong, WahlUniversity of North Carolina, MD Anderson Cancer Centrep53
Feb 1992Market interest in monoclonal antibody drugs plummeted with news that the FDA needed more information before it would approve Centoxin CentocorMonoclonal antibodies
1 Mar 1992Method devised to isolate methylated cytosine residues in individual DNA strands providing avenue to undertake DNA methylation genomic sequencing  DNA methylation, Epigenetics,DNA sequencing
21 Mar 1992John C Sheehan diedSheehanMassachusetts Institute of TechnologyAntibacterial agents
10 Apr 1992Peter D Mitchell diedMitchellGlynn Research LaboratoriesBiochemistry
18 Apr 1992Daniel Bovet diedBovetIstituto Superiore di Sanita Pharmacology
12 Jun 1992First transgenic mouse model created for studying link between DNA methylation and diseaseLi, Bestor, JaenischWhitehead Institute for Biomedical ResearchEpigenetics, Transgenic animals

1991

First display and selection of human antibodies phage

1991 - 1992

p53 found to be a transcription factor

1991

p53 found to induce apoptosis, self destruction of a cell

6 Feb 1991

Salvador E Luria died

Mar 1991

Monoclonal antibody drug approved in Europe for the treatment of septic shock

25 Jun 1991

Michael Heidelberger died in New York City, USA

1992

First public bank set up for umbilical cord blood bank in New York

1992

Neural stem cells identified in the adult human brain

1992

GenBank is integrated into the NIH National Center for Biotechnology Information

1992

Stem cells used as vectors to deliver the genes needed to correct the genetic disorder SCID

1992

Gene targeting technology in combination with embryonic stem cells shown to be powerful tool for creating specific genetic mutations in mice so as to study gene function and create animal models of human genetic disease

1992

MDM2, an oncogene product, found to negatively regulate p53

1992

Mice genetically modified to be deficient in p53 shown to be prone to cancer

1992

p53 shown to maintain genome stability

Feb 1992

Market interest in monoclonal antibody drugs plummeted with news that the FDA needed more information before it would approve Centoxin

1 Mar 1992

Method devised to isolate methylated cytosine residues in individual DNA strands providing avenue to undertake DNA methylation genomic sequencing

21 Mar 1992

John C Sheehan died

10 Apr 1992

Peter D Mitchell died

18 Apr 1992

Daniel Bovet died

12 Jun 1992

First transgenic mouse model created for studying link between DNA methylation and disease