Timeline of key events in biotechnology

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Joint working group of the US Department of Energy and the National Institututes of Health present plan Understanding Our Genetic Inheritance: The US Human Genome Project.1990-02-01T00:00:00+0000F. Triebel, S. Jitsukawa, E. Baixeras, G. Roman-Roman, C. Genevee, E. Viegas-Pequinot, T. Hecend, 'LAG-3, a novel lymphocyte activation gene closely related to CD4', Journal Experimental Medicine, 171 (1990), 1393-1405. 1990-05-01T00:00:00+0000D Michalovitz, O Halevy, M Oren, 'Conditional inhibition of transformation and of cell proliferation by a temperature-sensitive mutant of p53', Cell, 62 (1990), 671–80; WE Mercer et al, 'Negative growth regulation in a glioblastoma tumor cell line that conditionally expresses human wild-type p53', PNAS 87/16 (1990), 6166-70.1990-08-01T00:00:00+0000S.A. Rosenberg et al, 'Gene Transfer into Humans — Immunotherapy of patients with advanced melanoma, using tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes modified by retroviral gene transduction', NEJM, 323 (1990), 570-78.1990-08-30T00:00:00+0000DeSilva treated by French Anderson in collaboration with Michael Blease1990-09-01T00:00:00+0000International scientific collaboration, initiated by the US Department of Energy, begun to determine the sequence of chemical base pairs which make up DNA, and to identify and map approximately 20,000 to 25,000 genes of the human genome. 1990-10-01T00:00:00+0000The link between the gene BRCA1 and breast cancer was identifed by a team at the University of Washington, led by Mary-Claire King.1990-12-21T00:00:00+0000This is achieved by Richard Lerner and Carlos Barbas at the Scripps Research Institute with the backing of Stratagene, an American biotechnology specialising in antibody engineering.1991-01-01T00:00:00+0000J Bargonetti et al, Cell 65/6 (1991), 1083-91; S Kern et al, Science, 252 (1991), 1708-11; WS el-Deiry et al, Nature Genetics, 1 (1991), 145-9; WD Funk et al, Molecular Cell Biology, 12 (1992), 2866-71; G Farmer et al, Nature, 358 (1992), 8306. 1991-01-01T00:00:00+0000E Yonish-Rouach et al, 'Wild-type p53 induces apoptosis of myeloid leukaemic cells that is inhibited by interleukin-6', Nature 352 (1991), 345–7; P Shaw et al, 'Induction of apoptosis by wild-type p53 in a human colon tumor-derived cell line', PNAS, 89 (1992), 4495–9.1991-01-01T00:00:00+0000Luria shared the 1969 Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses.'1991-02-06T00:00:00+0000European Committee for Proprietary Medicinal Products recommends the approval of Centoxin (Nebacumab) , a drug originally developed by Henry Kaplan and Nelson Tang at Stanford University and prepared for market by Centocor. Based on this recommendation the drug was subsequently approved for market in The Netherlands, Britain, Germany and France between March and December 1991.1991-03-01T00:00:00+0000Together with Forrest Kendall and Elvin Kabat, Heidelberg was instrumental in determining antibodies to be proteins. 1991-06-25T00:00:00+0000This supplies blood cord from siblings to treat childhood Fanconi anaemia. 1992-01-01T00:00:00+00001992-01-01T00:00:00+00001992-01-01T00:00:00+0000Procedure devised by Claudio Bordignon at Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan. 1992-01-01T00:00:00+0000Bradley, A, Ramirez-Solis, R, Zheng, H, Hasty, P, Davis, A, 'Genetic manipulation of the mouse via gene targeting in embryonic stem cells', Ciba Foundation Symposium 165 (1992): 256–69.1992-01-01T00:00:00+0000J Momand et al, 'The mdm-2 oncogene product forms a complex with the p53 protein and inhibits p53-mediated transactivation', Cell, 69 (1992), 1237–45.1992-01-01T00:00:00+0000LA Donehower, 'Mice deficient for p53 are developmentally normal but susceptible to spontaneous tumours', Nature, 356 (1992), 215–21.1992-01-01T00:00:00+0000
Date Event People Places Sciences
Feb 1990First pitch for US Human Genome Project  DNA Sequencing, Genomics
May 1990Discovery of lymphocyte activation gene 3 (LAG3)Triebel, Jitsukawa, Baixeras, Roman-Roman, Genevee, Viegas-Pequinot, Hecend Institut Gustave-RoussyImmune checkpoint inhibitors
Aug 1990p53 found to arrest cell cyleMichalovitz, Halevy, Oren, Mercer, Shields, Amin, Sauve, Appella, Romano, UllrichWeizmann Institute, Temple UniversityOncology, p53
30 Aug 1990Treatment with gene modified tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes shown to be promising immunotherapy for patients with advance melanomaRosenberg, Aebersold, Cornetta, Kasid, Morgan, Moen, Karson, Lotze, Yang, Topalian, Merino, Culver, Miller, Blaese, AndersonNational Cancer InstituteAdoptive cell therapy, Cancer immunotherapy, Gene therapy
Sep 1990Four year old Ashanti DeSilva becomes first patient successfully treated with gene therapy for severe combined immunodeficiency caused by defective ADA geneAnderson, Blease, DeSilvaNational Institutes of HealthGene therapy
Oct 1990Human Genome Project formally launched  DNA Sequencing, Genomics
Dec 1990BRCA1 gene linked with inherited predisposition to cancerKingUniversity of California Berkley
1991First display and selection of human antibodies phageBarbas, LernerScripps Research InstituteMonoclonal antibodies, Phage Display
1991 - 1992p53 found to be a transcription factorBargonetti, Friedman, Kern, Vogelstein, Prives, el-Deiry, Pietenpol, KinzleColumbia University, Johns Hopkins University, University of Texas Southwesternp53
1991p53 found to induce apoptosis, self destruction of a cellYonish-Rouach, Resnitzky, Lotem, Sachs, Kimchi, OrenWeizmann InstituteOncology, p53
6 Feb 1991Salvador E Luria diedLuriaMassachusetts Institute of TechnologyGenetics, Virology
Mar 1991Monoclonal antibody drug approved in Europe for the treatment of septic shockKaplan, TangStanford University Medical School, CentocorMonoclonal antibodies
25 Jun 1991Michael Heidelberger died in New York City, USAHeidelberger  
1992First public bank set up for umbilical cord blood bank in New YorkRubinsteinNew York Blood CenterStem cells
1992Neural stem cells identified in the adult human brain  Stem cells
1992GenBank is integrated into the NIH National Center for Biotechnology Information  DNA Sequencing
1992Stem cells used as vectors to deliver the genes needed to correct the genetic disorder SCIDBordignonVita-Salute San Raffaele UniversityGene therapy, Stem cells
1992Gene targeting technology in combination with embryonic stem cells shown to be powerful tool for creating specific genetic mutations in mice so as to study gene function and create animal models of human genetic diseaseBradley, Ramirez-Solis, Zheng, Hasty, DavisBaylor College of MedicineGene editing
1992MDM2, an oncogene product, found to negatively regulate p53Momand, Zambetti, Olson, George, LevinePrinceton UniversityOncology, p53
1992Mice genetically modified to be deficient in p53 shown to be prone to cancerDonehower, Harvey, Slagle, McArthur, Montgomery, Butel, BradleyBaylor CollegeOncology, p53

1992

First pitch for US Human Genome Project

May 1990

Discovery of lymphocyte activation gene 3 (LAG3)

Aug 1990

p53 found to arrest cell cyle

30 Aug 1990

Treatment with gene modified tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes shown to be promising immunotherapy for patients with advance melanoma

Sep 1990

Four year old Ashanti DeSilva becomes first patient successfully treated with gene therapy for severe combined immunodeficiency caused by defective ADA gene

Oct 1990

Human Genome Project formally launched

Oct 1990

BRCA1 gene linked with inherited predisposition to cancer

1991

First display and selection of human antibodies phage

1991 - 1992

p53 found to be a transcription factor

1991

p53 found to induce apoptosis, self destruction of a cell

6 Feb 1991

Salvador E Luria died

Mar 1991

Monoclonal antibody drug approved in Europe for the treatment of septic shock

25 Jun 1991

Michael Heidelberger died in New York City, USA

1992

First public bank set up for umbilical cord blood bank in New York

1992

Neural stem cells identified in the adult human brain

1992

GenBank is integrated into the NIH National Center for Biotechnology Information

1992

Stem cells used as vectors to deliver the genes needed to correct the genetic disorder SCID

1992

Gene targeting technology in combination with embryonic stem cells shown to be powerful tool for creating specific genetic mutations in mice so as to study gene function and create animal models of human genetic disease

1992

MDM2, an oncogene product, found to negatively regulate p53

1992

Mice genetically modified to be deficient in p53 shown to be prone to cancer