Timeline of key events in biotechnology

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LR Livingstone et al, 'Altered cell cycle arrest and gene amplification potential accompany loss of wild-type p53', Cell, 70 (1992), 923–35; Y Yin et al 'Wild-type p53 restores cell cycle control and inhibits gene amplification in cells with mutant p53 alleles', Cell, 70 (1992) 937–48.1992-01-01T00:00:00+0000US$1.5 billion of Centocor's market capitalisation disappears with news that the FDA requires more information before it will recommend approval of Centoxin.1992-02-20T00:00:00+0000M. Frommer, L.E. McDonald, D.S. Millar, C.M. Collis, F. Watt, G.W. Grigg, P.L. Molloy, C.L. Paul, 'A genomic sequencing protocol that yields a positive display of 5-methylcytosine residues in individual DNA strands', PNAS, 89/5 (1992), 1827-31.1992-03-01T00:00:00+0000Sheehan developed the first synthetic penicillin1992-03-21T00:00:00+0000Mitchell won the 1978 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for contributing to understanding biological energy transfer. 1992-04-10T00:00:00+0000Bovet won the 1957 Nobel Prize for Medicine for discovering 'synthetic compounds that inhibit the action of certain bodily substances, especially their action on the vascular system and the skeletal muscles.'1992-04-18T00:00:00+0000Mouse genetated with genes knocked out that produce the enzyme DNA methyltransfgerase involved in DNA methylation. E. Li, T.H. Bestor, R. Jaenisch, 'Targeted mutation of the DNA methyltransferase gene results in embryonic lethality', Cell, 69/6 (1992), 915-26.1992-06-12T00:00:00+0000McClintock was the first to discover that genes could shift to different locations by themselves. 1992-09-02T00:00:00+0000W.F. Zapisek, G.M. Cronin, B.D. Lyn-Cook, L.A. Poirier, 'The onset of oncogene hypomethylation in the livers of rats fed methyl-deficient, amino acid-defined diets', Carcinogenesis, 13/10 (1992), 1869-72.1992-10-01T00:00:00+0000Y. Ishida, Y. Agata, T. Honjo, 'Induced expression of PD-1, a novel member of the immunoglobulin gene superfamily, upon programmed cell death', EMBO J, 11 (1992), 3887-95.1992-11-01T00:00:00+0000This is accomplished through the generation of embryonic stem cell-derived mice.1993-01-01T00:00:00+00001993-01-01T00:00:00+0000Published as ‘Realising our Potential: A Strategy for Science, Engineering and Technology’ (Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster 1993).1993-01-01T00:00:00+0000Z Eshhar, 'Specific activation and targeting of cytotoxic lymphocytes through chimeric single chains consisting of antibody-binding domains and the gamma or zeta subunits of the immunoglobulin and T-cell receptors', PNAS USA, 90/2 (1989), 720-24.1993-01-15T00:00:00+0000Interim trial data from trials show unexpectedly high mortality from Centoxin, leading to withdrawal of the drug from the European market. Reinforces general pessimism about the future for monoclonal antibody drugs. 1993-02-01T00:00:00+0000Holley shared the 1968 Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis.'1993-02-11T00:00:00+0000Participants come from European Commission, Member States and European Parliament. Key issues raised: 1) women do not have good access to decision-making in scientific research funding; 2) difficulties women face as result of inflexibility in career structures and lack of childcare; 3) need for positive action and integration of equal opportunities in science and technology.1993-02-15T00:00:00+0000G Dranoff, E Jaffee, A Lazenby, P Golumbek, H Levitsky, K Brose, V Jackson, H Hamada, D Pardoll, RC Mulligan, 'Vaccination with irradiated tumor cells engineered to secrete murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor stimulates potent, specific, and long-lasting anti-tumor immunity', Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 90 (1993), 3539–43.1993-04-15T00:00:00+0000WS el-Deiry et al, 'WAF1, a potential mediator of p53 tumor suppression', Cell, 75 (1993), 817–25.1993-09-01T00:00:00+0000Cetus was the first biotechnology company to be founded1993-10-13T00:00:00+0000
Date Event People Places Sciences
1992p53 shown to maintain genome stabilityLivingstone, White, Sprouse, Livanos, Jacks, Tlsty, Yin, Tainsky, Bischoff, Strong, WahlUniversity of North Carolina, MD Anderson Cancer Centrep53
Feb 1992Market interest in monoclonal antibody drugs plummeted with news that the FDA needed more information before it would approve Centoxin CentocorMonoclonal antibodies
1 Mar 1992Method devised to isolate methylated cytosine residues in individual DNA strands providing avenue to undertake DNA methylation genomic sequencing  DNA methylation, Epigenetics,DNA sequencing
21 Mar 1992John C Sheehan diedSheehanMassachusetts Institute of TechnologyAntibacterial agents
10 Apr 1992Peter D Mitchell diedMitchellGlynn Research LaboratoriesBiochemistry
18 Apr 1992Daniel Bovet diedBovetIstituto Superiore di Sanita Pharmacology
12 Jun 1992First transgenic mouse model created for studying link between DNA methylation and diseaseLi, Bestor, JaenischWhitehead Institute for Biomedical ResearchEpigenetics, Transgenic animals
2 Sep 1992Barbara McClintock diedMcClintockUniversity of MissouriGenetics
1 Oct 1992First experimental evidence showing links between diet and DNA methylation and its relationship with cancerZapisek, Cronin, Lyn-Cook, PoirierFDA, National Center for Toxicological ResearchDNA methylation, Epigenetics, Oncology
Nov 1992PD-1 (programmed cell death protein 1) discovered by team led by Tasuku HonjoHonjoKyoto UniversityImmune checkpoint inhibitors
1993Embryonic stem cells are proven to be pluripotent; having the ability to differentiate into different cell types  Stem cells
1993Wistar Institute patented Bcl-2, the first of a family of genes associated with different types of cancer Wistar InstituteOncology
1993UK Government review of science policy over previous 20 years recognised women as ‘biggest single most undervalued and … under-used human resource’   
15 Jan 1993Chimeric receptor genes added to T lymphocytes shown to enhance power of adoptive cellular therapy against tumoursEshhar, Waks, Gross, SchindlerWeizmann InstituteAdoptive cell therapy, Cancer immunotherapy, Gene therapy
Feb 1993Centoxin withdrawn from European market CentocorMonoclonal antibodies
11 Feb 1993Robert W Holley diedHolleyCornell UniversityGenetics
15 Feb 1993 - 16 Feb 1993International workshop held in Logue expresses concerns about lack of women in science    
15 Apr 1993Immune molecule, granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor or GM-CSF, discovered to strengthen immunity against tumours Dranoff, Jaffee, Lazenby, Golumbek, Levitsky, Brose, Jackson, Hamada, Pardoll, MulliganMassachusetts Institute of TechnologyImmunology, Cancer immunotherapy, Oncology
Sep 1993p21 shown to be a p53 target geneel-Deiry, Tokino, Velculescu, Levy, Parsons, Trent, Lin, Mercer, Kinzler, Vogelstein Johns Hopkins University, National Center for Human Genome Research, Thomas Jefferson UniversityOncology, p53
Oct 1993Cetus Corporation was sold to Chiron and its patent rights sold for US$300 million to Hoffman-La Roche Cetus Corporation, Chiron, Hoffman-La RochePCR

1992

p53 shown to maintain genome stability

Feb 1992

Market interest in monoclonal antibody drugs plummeted with news that the FDA needed more information before it would approve Centoxin

1 Mar 1992

Method devised to isolate methylated cytosine residues in individual DNA strands providing avenue to undertake DNA methylation genomic sequencing

21 Mar 1992

John C Sheehan died

10 Apr 1992

Peter D Mitchell died

18 Apr 1992

Daniel Bovet died

12 Jun 1992

First transgenic mouse model created for studying link between DNA methylation and disease

2 Sep 1992

Barbara McClintock died

1 Oct 1992

First experimental evidence showing links between diet and DNA methylation and its relationship with cancer

Nov 1992

PD-1 (programmed cell death protein 1) discovered by team led by Tasuku Honjo

1993

Embryonic stem cells are proven to be pluripotent; having the ability to differentiate into different cell types

1993

Wistar Institute patented Bcl-2, the first of a family of genes associated with different types of cancer

1993

UK Government review of science policy over previous 20 years recognised women as ‘biggest single most undervalued and … under-used human resource’

15 Jan 1993

Chimeric receptor genes added to T lymphocytes shown to enhance power of adoptive cellular therapy against tumours

Feb 1993

Centoxin withdrawn from European market

11 Feb 1993

Robert W Holley died

15 Feb 1993 - 16 Feb 1993

International workshop held in Logue expresses concerns about lack of women in science

15 Apr 1993

Immune molecule, granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor or GM-CSF, discovered to strengthen immunity against tumours

Sep 1993

p21 shown to be a p53 target gene

Oct 1993

Cetus Corporation was sold to Chiron and its patent rights sold for US$300 million to Hoffman-La Roche