This website provides a curated collection of resources about the people, places and technologies that have enabled biotechnology to transform our healthcare and the world we live in today

Timeline of key events

Timeline of key events in biotechnology

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Date Event People Places Sciences
1996Complete genome sequence of the first eukaryotic organism, the yeast S. cerevisiae, is published   Sequencing DNA, Genomics
1996First reports that blood stem cell might be able to give rise to cells other than those of the blood systemBlau, Lagasse, Lemischka, Morrison, Thiese, Krause, Gussoni, Bjornson Stem cells
1996Pyrosequencing is introduced for DNA sequencingRonaghi, NyrenRoyal Institute of TechnologySequencing DNA, Genomics
1996 - 2002Experiments with rats conducted by different research teams around the world confirm olifactory ensheathing cells help repair spinal cordSmale, Li, Imaizumi, Guntinas-Lichius, Nash, RuitenbergQueen's University, University College London, Yale University, University of Cologne, University of the Health Sciences, Netherlands Institute for Brain ResearchStem cells
Jan 1996First cloning of a mammalWilmutRoslin InstituteStem cells, Cloning, Transgenic animals
Feb 1996Scientists genetically engineer the first restriction-modification enzymes with tailor-made sequence specifities capable of editing a genome. Kim, Cha, ChandrasegaranJohns Hopkins UniversityGene editing, Zinc fingers, Restriction enzymes
22 Mar 1996Hypothesis put forward that T cells unable to attack tumours because they are blocked by the cytotoxic T lymphocite-associated antigen (CTLA-4). Lays the foundation for a new concept in immunotherapy of 'checkpoint blockade'Leach, Krummel, AllisonUniversity California BerkeleyImmunology, Immunotherapy, Oncology, mabs
06 Jun 1996George D Snell diedSnellJackson LaboratoryGenetics, Immunology
09 Jun 1996Daniel Mazia diedMaziaUniversity of California BerkeleyCell, Genetics
05 Jul 1996Dolly the sheep, the first cloned mammal, was bornWilmutRoslin InstituteStem cells, Cloning, Transgenic animals
01 Aug 1996Tadeus Reichstein diedReichsteinBasel UniversityBiochemistry, Endocrinology
Nov 1996Experiments demostrate antigen-specific CD4+ and T cells become tolerant during tumour growth in test tubes  Immunology, Immunotherapy, Oncology
1997FDA approved the first monoclonal antibody cancer drug for the American marketLevy, RastetterStanford University Medical School, Idec PharmaceuticalsImmunotherapy, Monoclonal antibodies
10 Jan 1997Alexander R Todd diedToddUniversity of ManchesterDNA
12 Jan 1997Charles Brenton Huggins diedHugginsUniversity of ChicagoOncology, Endocrinology
26 Feb 1997Max Sterne diedSterneOnderstepoort Veterinary Research InstituteVaccine
Mar 1997p53 shown to be linked to senescence, biological agingSerrano , Lin, McCurrach, Beach, Lowe Cold Spring Harbor LaboratoryOncology, p53
29 Mar 1997Ruth Sager diedSagerRockefeller UniversityGenetics
29 Mar 1997Death of Norman Wingate (Bill) PiriePirie Rothamsted Experimental StationRNA, Virology
12 Apr 1997George Wald diedWald  

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