This website provides a curated collection of resources about the people, places and technologies that have enabled biotechnology to transform our healthcare and the world we live in today

Timeline of key events

Timeline of key events in biotechnology

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Date Event People Places Sciences
01 Jan 1995Two teams, one led by James Alison and the other by Jeffrey Bleusteon, indepdently show CTLA04 can inhibit the activity of T cellsLeach, Krummel, AllisonUniversity of California Berkeley, University of California San FranciscoImmune checkpoint inhibitors
18 Jan 1995Adolf F J Butenandt diedButenandt Endocrinology
01 Mar 1995Georges Kohler diedKohlerLaboratory of Molecular BiologyMonoclonal antibodies
14 May 1995Christian B Anfinsen died AnfinsenNational Institutes of HealthRNA
23 Jun 1995Jonas Salk diedSalkUniversity of PittsburghVirology, Vaccine
Jul 1995Craig Venter's team at The Institute of Genomics Research (TIGR) published the first complete sequence of the 1.8 Mbp genome of a free-living organism (the bacterium Haemophilus influenzae)VenterThe Institute for Genomic ResearchSequencing DNA, Genomics
01 Aug 1995Identification of regulatory T cells (CD4+CD25+) and their role in protecting against autoimmunity  Immunology
Nov 1995FDA lifted special restrictions on biotechnology drugs   
1996Complete genome sequence of the first eukaryotic organism, the yeast S. cerevisiae, is published   Sequencing DNA, Genomics
1996First reports that blood stem cell might be able to give rise to cells other than those of the blood systemBlau, Lagasse, Lemischka, Morrison, Thiese, Krause, Gussoni, Bjornson Stem cells
1996Pyrosequencing is introduced for DNA sequencingRonaghi, NyrenRoyal Institute of TechnologySequencing DNA, Genomics
1996 - 2002Experiments with rats conducted by different research teams around the world confirm olifactory ensheathing cells help repair spinal cordSmale, Li, Imaizumi, Guntinas-Lichius, Nash, RuitenbergQueen's University, University College London, Yale University, University of Cologne, University of the Health Sciences, Netherlands Institute for Brain ResearchStem cells
Jan 1996First cloning of a mammalWilmutRoslin InstituteStem cells, Cloning, Transgenic animals
Feb 1996Scientists genetically engineer the first restriction-modification enzymes with tailor-made sequence specifities capable of editing a genome. Kim, Cha, ChandrasegaranJohns Hopkins UniversityGene editing, Zinc fingers, Restriction enzymes
22 Mar 1996Mice experiments published demonstrating that blocking the CTLA-4 molecule on immune cells can cure cancerLeach, Krummel, AllisonUniversity California BerkeleyImmune checkpoint inhibitors, Immunology, Immunotherapy, Oncology
06 Jun 1996George D Snell diedSnellJackson LaboratoryGenetics, Immunology
09 Jun 1996Daniel Mazia diedMaziaUniversity of California BerkeleyCell, Genetics
05 Jul 1996Dolly the sheep, the first cloned mammal, was bornWilmutRoslin InstituteStem cells, Cloning, Transgenic animals
01 Aug 1996Tadeus Reichstein diedReichsteinBasel UniversityBiochemistry, Endocrinology
Nov 1996Experiments demostrate antigen-specific CD4+ and T cells become tolerant during tumour growth in test tubes  Immunology, Immunotherapy, Oncology

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