Timeline of key events in biotechnology

Mouseover the event title for a more detailed description of the event (if available). To search for particular terms in the description of the event enter the term in the box below 'Event' on the table and press 'enter'. Alternatively use the dropdown lists to filter by Person, Place or Science. Click here to clear the filter.

1992-01-01T00:00:00+00001992-01-01T00:00:00+0000Procedure devised by Claudio Bordignon at Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan. 1992-01-01T00:00:00+0000Bradley, A, Ramirez-Solis, R, Zheng, H, Hasty, P, Davis, A, 'Genetic manipulation of the mouse via gene targeting in embryonic stem cells', Ciba Foundation Symposium 165 (1992): 256–69.1992-01-01T00:00:00+0000J Momand et al, 'The mdm-2 oncogene product forms a complex with the p53 protein and inhibits p53-mediated transactivation', Cell, 69 (1992), 1237–45.1992-01-01T00:00:00+0000LA Donehower, 'Mice deficient for p53 are developmentally normal but susceptible to spontaneous tumours', Nature, 356 (1992), 215–21.1992-01-01T00:00:00+0000LR Livingstone et al, 'Altered cell cycle arrest and gene amplification potential accompany loss of wild-type p53', Cell, 70 (1992), 923–35; Y Yin et al 'Wild-type p53 restores cell cycle control and inhibits gene amplification in cells with mutant p53 alleles', Cell, 70 (1992) 937–48.1992-01-01T00:00:00+0000Developed to treat Gram-negative sepsis, Centoxin originated from research conducted by Henry Kaplan and Nelson Teng based at Stanford University. It was licensed to Centocor, a small biotechnology company in Philadelphia. Following the FDA's request for more information, Centocor watched US$1.5 billion of its market capitalisation disappear. The news also had a devastating impact on other companies developing monoclonal antibody drugs. 1992-02-20T00:00:00+0000M. Frommer, L.E. McDonald, D.S. Millar, C.M. Collis, F. Watt, G.W. Grigg, P.L. Molloy, C.L. Paul, 'A genomic sequencing protocol that yields a positive display of 5-methylcytosine residues in individual DNA strands', PNAS, 89/5 (1992), 1827-31.1992-03-01T00:00:00+0000Sheehan was an American organic chemist. He is best known for having developed the first synthetic penicillin. It took him 9 years to develop the method. His breakthrough laid the foundation for the development of customised forms of antibiotics to treat specific bacteria. He is also associated with the development of ampicillin, a semi-synthetic penicillin that can be taken orally instead of by injection. 1992-03-21T00:00:00+0000Bovet was a Swiss-born Italian. He won the 1957 Nobel Prize for Medicine for discovering 'synthetic compounds that inhibit the action of certain bodily substances, especially their action on the vascular system and the skeletal muscles.' This was awarded on the back of his discovery of antihistamines in 1937. Antihistamines block the neurotransmitter histamine and are now widely used to treat allergies.1992-04-18T00:00:00+0000Mouse genetated with genes knocked out that produce the enzyme DNA methyltransfgerase involved in DNA methylation. E. Li, T.H. Bestor, R. Jaenisch, 'Targeted mutation of the DNA methyltransferase gene results in embryonic lethality', Cell, 69/6 (1992), 915-26.1992-06-12T00:00:00+0000McClintock was a pioneer in the field of cytogenetics, a branch of genetics concerned with how chromosomes affect cell behaviour. Based on her investigation of how chromosomes change in reproductiuon in maize she demonstrated in the late 1920s that genes can shift to different locations by themselves. In the 1940s and 1950s she showed that genes are responsible for turning physical characteristics on and off, a process called transposition. Initially scientists were sceptical of her findings so she stopped publishing her date in 1953. By the 1960s and 1970s attitudes towards her work changed as more scientists made similar findings. She was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1983 for her work.1992-09-02T00:00:00+0000W.F. Zapisek, G.M. Cronin, B.D. Lyn-Cook, L.A. Poirier, 'The onset of oncogene hypomethylation in the livers of rats fed methyl-deficient, amino acid-defined diets', Carcinogenesis, 13/10 (1992), 1869-72.1992-10-01T00:00:00+0000Y. Ishida, Y. Agata, T. Honjo, 'Induced expression of PD-1, a novel member of the immunoglobulin gene superfamily, upon programmed cell death', EMBO J, 11 (1992), 3887-95.1992-11-01T00:00:00+0000This is accomplished through the generation of embryonic stem cell-derived mice.1993-01-01T00:00:00+00001993-01-01T00:00:00+0000Published as ‘Realising our Potential: A Strategy for Science, Engineering and Technology’ (Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster 1993).1993-01-01T00:00:00+0000Z Eshhar, 'Specific activation and targeting of cytotoxic lymphocytes through chimeric single chains consisting of antibody-binding domains and the gamma or zeta subunits of the immunoglobulin and T-cell receptors', PNAS USA, 90/2 (1989), 720-24.1993-01-15T00:00:00+0000Interim trial data from trials show unexpectedly high mortality from Centoxin, leading to withdrawal of the drug from the European market. Reinforces general pessimism about the future for monoclonal antibody drugs. 1993-02-01T00:00:00+0000
Date Event People Places Sciences
1992Neural stem cells identified in the adult human brain  Stem cells
1992GenBank is integrated into the NIH National Center for Biotechnology Information  DNA Sequencing
1992Stem cells used as vectors to deliver the genes needed to correct the genetic disorder SCIDBordignonVita-Salute San Raffaele UniversityGene therapy, Stem cells
1992Gene targeting technology in combination with embryonic stem cells shown to be powerful tool for creating specific genetic mutations in mice so as to study gene function and create animal models of human genetic diseaseBradley, Ramirez-Solis, Zheng, Hasty, DavisBaylor College of MedicineGene editing
1992MDM2, an oncogene product, found to negatively regulate p53Momand, Zambetti, Olson, George, LevinePrinceton UniversityOncology, p53
1992Mice genetically modified to be deficient in p53 shown to be prone to cancerDonehower, Harvey, Slagle, McArthur, Montgomery, Butel, BradleyBaylor CollegeOncology, p53
1992p53 shown to maintain genome stabilityLivingstone, White, Sprouse, Livanos, Jacks, Tlsty, Yin, Tainsky, Bischoff, Strong, WahlUniversity of North Carolina, MD Anderson Cancer Centrep53
Feb 1992Monoclonal antibodies market crashed following FDA's call for more information for Centocor's drug, CentoxinSchoemaker, Koprowski, MilsteinCentocor, WistarMonoclonal antibodies
1 Mar 1992Method devised to isolate methylated cytosine residues in individual DNA strands providing avenue to undertake DNA methylation genomic sequencing  DNA methylation, Epigenetics,DNA sequencing
21 Mar 1992John C Sheehan diedSheehanMassachusetts Institute of TechnologyAntibacterial agents
18 Apr 1992Daniel Bovet diedBovetIstituto Superiore di Sanita Pharmacology
12 Jun 1992First transgenic mouse model created for studying link between DNA methylation and diseaseLi, Bestor, JaenischWhitehead Institute for Biomedical ResearchEpigenetics, Transgenic animals
2 Sep 1992Barbara McClintock diedMcClintockUniversity of MissouriGenetics
1 Oct 1992First experimental evidence showing links between diet and DNA methylation and its relationship with cancerZapisek, Cronin, Lyn-Cook, PoirierFDA, National Center for Toxicological ResearchDNA methylation, Epigenetics, Oncology
Nov 1992PD-1 (programmed cell death protein 1) discovered by team led by Tasuku HonjoHonjoKyoto UniversityImmune checkpoint inhibitors
1993Embryonic stem cells are proven to be pluripotent; having the ability to differentiate into different cell types  Stem cells
1993Wistar Institute patented Bcl-2, the first of a family of genes associated with different types of cancer Wistar InstituteOncology
1993UK Government review of science policy over previous 20 years recognised women as ‘biggest single most undervalued and … under-used human resource’   
15 Jan 1993Chimeric receptor genes added to T lymphocytes shown to enhance power of adoptive cellular therapy against tumoursEshhar, Waks, Gross, SchindlerWeizmann InstituteAdoptive cell therapy, Cancer immunotherapy, Gene therapy
Feb 1993Centoxin withdrawn from European market CentocorMonoclonal antibodies

1992

Neural stem cells identified in the adult human brain

1992

GenBank is integrated into the NIH National Center for Biotechnology Information

1992

Stem cells used as vectors to deliver the genes needed to correct the genetic disorder SCID

1992

Gene targeting technology in combination with embryonic stem cells shown to be powerful tool for creating specific genetic mutations in mice so as to study gene function and create animal models of human genetic disease

1992

MDM2, an oncogene product, found to negatively regulate p53

1992

Mice genetically modified to be deficient in p53 shown to be prone to cancer

1992

p53 shown to maintain genome stability

Feb 1992

Monoclonal antibodies market crashed following FDA's call for more information for Centocor's drug, Centoxin

1 Mar 1992

Method devised to isolate methylated cytosine residues in individual DNA strands providing avenue to undertake DNA methylation genomic sequencing

21 Mar 1992

John C Sheehan died

18 Apr 1992

Daniel Bovet died

12 Jun 1992

First transgenic mouse model created for studying link between DNA methylation and disease

2 Sep 1992

Barbara McClintock died

1 Oct 1992

First experimental evidence showing links between diet and DNA methylation and its relationship with cancer

Nov 1992

PD-1 (programmed cell death protein 1) discovered by team led by Tasuku Honjo

1993

Embryonic stem cells are proven to be pluripotent; having the ability to differentiate into different cell types

1993

Wistar Institute patented Bcl-2, the first of a family of genes associated with different types of cancer

1993

UK Government review of science policy over previous 20 years recognised women as ‘biggest single most undervalued and … under-used human resource’

15 Jan 1993

Chimeric receptor genes added to T lymphocytes shown to enhance power of adoptive cellular therapy against tumours

Feb 1993

Centoxin withdrawn from European market