Timeline of key events in biotechnology

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A. Ramon-cueto, M. Nieto-Sampedro, Regeneration into the spinal cord of transected dorsal root axons is promoted by ensheathing glia transplants, Exp Neurol, 27/2 (1994), 232–44.1994-06-01T00:00:00+0000Y Cho, S Gorina, PD Jeffrey, NP Pavletich, 'Crystal structure of a p53 tumor suppressor-DNA complex: understanding tumorigenic mutations', Science, 265 (1994), 346–55.1994-07-01T00:00:00+0000Dorothy Hodgkin, was a British biochemist who developed protein crystallography and X-ray crystallography which was used to confirm the structure of penicillin, for which she won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1964.1994-07-27T00:00:00+0000Hodgkin won the 1964 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for her contributions to the development of protein crystallography. She used the technique to determine the structure of many important biochemicals such as penicillin, vitamin B12 and insulin. 1994-07-29T00:00:00+0000Synge shared the 1952 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for the invention of partition chromatography, a techique used to separate amino acids in the study of proteins, carbohydrates and DNA.1994-08-18T00:00:00+0000An American chemist, Pauling helped pioneer quantum chemistry and mechanics. He also co-authored the first paper that suggested sickle-cell anaemia was a genetic disease, which introduced the concept of 'molecular disease'. 1994-08-19T00:00:00+0000A French microbiologist, Lwoff is best known for discovering genetic control enzymes and virus synthesis. He showed that bacteria can pass viruses on to subsequent bacterial generations following initial infection. Lwoff also discovered that vitamins help promote growth in microbes and can serve as co-enzymes. 1994-09-30T00:00:00+0000Jerne shared the 1984 Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'theories concerning the specificity in development and control of the immune system' and laying the foundation for the production of monoclonal antibodies.1994-10-07T00:00:00+0000Wyckoff pioneered x-ray crystallography of bacteria.1994-11-03T00:00:00+0000ReoPro (abciximab), developed by Centocor, approved for use during and after coronary artery procedures like angioplasty. A chimeric antibody (Abciximab) created by Barry Koller to study platelet behaviour, the antibody was found to be more effective than aspirin in prevent platelets from sticking together and causing thrombus (blood clot) formation within the coronary artery. Today the drug is the most commonly used treatment for angioplasty patients, making the procedure safer for use during heart attacks and as a preventative measure. 1994-12-01T00:00:00+0000Abciximab (ReoPro) approved by the FDA and European regulatory authorities to prevent blot clots during coronary artery procedures like angioplasty. The monoclonal antibody was originally developed by Barry Coller at State University of New York and commercially developed by Centocor. The drug showed for the first time that monoclonal antibodies could be used for the treatment of acute disease conditions. 1994-12-01T00:00:00+0000Rouet, P, Smih, F, Jasin, J, 'Introduction of double-strand breaks into genome of mouse cells by expression of a rare-cutting endonuclease', Molecular and Cellular Biology, 14/12 (1994): 8096-106.1994-12-01T00:00:00+0000German regulatory authorities approve Panorex as an adjuvant therapy, that is a drug given in addition to primary or main treatment, for postoperative colorectal cancer. The drug originated from resesearch undertaken by Hilary Koprowski and his colleagues at the Wistar Institute. 1995-01-01T00:00:00+00001995-01-01T00:00:00+0000German regulatory authorities approve edrecolomab (Panorex) as an adjuvant treatment for post-operative colorectal cancer. The monoclonal antibody, originally known as 17-1A, was developed at the Wistar Institute and commercially developed for market by Centocor. 1995-01-01T00:00:00+0000Developed by William Wunner at the Wistar Institute1995-01-01T00:00:00+0000E. R. Kearney, T. L. Walunas, R. W. Karr, P. A. Morton, D. Y. Loh, J. A. Bluestone, M. K. Jenkins, 'Antigen-dependent clonal expansion of a trace population of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells in vivo is dependent on CD28 costimulation and inhibited by CTLA-4', Journal of Immunology, 155/3 (1995), 1032-36; M.F. Krummel, J.P. Allison, 'CD28 and CTLA-4 have opposing effects on the response of T cells to stimulation', J Exp Med, 182/2 (1995), 459-6. 1995-01-01T00:00:00+00001995-01-01T00:00:00+0000Butenandt won the 1939 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for his discovery of sex hormones.1995-01-18T00:00:00+0000Kohler co-pioneered the first monoclonal antibodies which today are a major component in diagnostics and blockbuster drugs.1995-03-01T00:00:00+0000
Date Event People Places Sciences
1994Experiments in adult rats indicate olifactory ensheathing cells could regenerate injured dorsal root axons in spinal cordRamon-Cueto, Nieto-SampedroInstituto CajalStem cells
Jul 1994DNA structure of p53-DNA elucidatedCho, Gorina, Jeffrey, PavletichMemorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer CenterOncology, p53
27 Jul 1994Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin diedHodgkinShipston-on-Stour, Warwickshire, UKX-ray crystallography
29 Jul 1994Dorothy M Crowfoot Hodgkin diedHodgkinOxford UniversityBiochemistry, X ray crystallography
18 Aug 1994Richard Laurence Millington Synge diedSyngeRowett Research InstituteAnalytical chemistry
19 Aug 1994Linus C Pauling diedPaulingCalifornia Institute of TechnologyGenetics
30 Sep 1994Andre Michel Lwoff diedLwoffPasteur InstituteMicrobiology, Virology
7 Oct 1994Niels Kaj Jerne diedJerneBasel Institute for ImmunologyImmunology, Monoclonal antibodies
3 Nov 1994Ralph W G Wyckoff diedWyckoffRockefeller UniversityBacteriology, Virology
Dec 1994Second monoclonal antibody drug approvedCollerStony Brook University, CentocorMonoclonal antibodies
1994First chimeric monoclonal antibody therapeutic approved for marketCollerCentocor, State University of New YorkMonoclonal antibodies, Recombinant DNA
Dec 1994Breaks made in a double-strand of DNA in a mouse chromosome for the first time using a rare-cutting endonuclease, I-Scel. The method lays the foundation for a new technique for targeted genome modification using double-stranded breaks instead of plasmids.Rouet, Smih, JasinSloan-Kettering Institute, Cornell UniversityGene editing
1995First monoclonal antibody drug for cancer approved in EuropeKoprowski Monoclonal antibodies
1995First derivation of primate embryonic stem cell lines   Stem cells
1995First monoclonal antibody therapeutic for cancer approved for marketKoprowskiWistar Institute, CentocorMonoclonal antibodies
1995US licensed first wildlife rabies vaccine Wistar InstituteVaccine, Virology
1 Jan 1995Two teams, one led by James Alison and the other by Jeffrey Bluestone, independently show CTLA-4 can inhibit the activity of T cellsAllison, Bluestone, Leach, KrummelUniversity of California Berkeley, University of California San FranciscoImmune checkpoint inhibitors
1995Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard, Eric Wieschaus and Edward B Lewis jointly awarded Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for illuminating the genetic control of embryonic developmentNusslein-Volhard, Wieschaus, Lewis Genetics, Embryology
18 Jan 1995Adolf F J Butenandt diedButenandt Endocrinology
1 Mar 1995Georges Kohler diedKohlerLaboratory of Molecular BiologyMonoclonal antibodies

1994

Experiments in adult rats indicate olifactory ensheathing cells could regenerate injured dorsal root axons in spinal cord

Jul 1994

DNA structure of p53-DNA elucidated

27 Jul 1994

Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin died

29 Jul 1994

Dorothy M Crowfoot Hodgkin died

18 Aug 1994

Richard Laurence Millington Synge died

19 Aug 1994

Linus C Pauling died

30 Sep 1994

Andre Michel Lwoff died

7 Oct 1994

Niels Kaj Jerne died

3 Nov 1994

Ralph W G Wyckoff died

Dec 1994

Second monoclonal antibody drug approved

1994

First chimeric monoclonal antibody therapeutic approved for market

Dec 1994

Breaks made in a double-strand of DNA in a mouse chromosome for the first time using a rare-cutting endonuclease, I-Scel. The method lays the foundation for a new technique for targeted genome modification using double-stranded breaks instead of plasmids.

1995

First monoclonal antibody drug for cancer approved in Europe

1995

First derivation of primate embryonic stem cell lines

1995

First monoclonal antibody therapeutic for cancer approved for market

1995

US licensed first wildlife rabies vaccine

1 Jan 1995

Two teams, one led by James Alison and the other by Jeffrey Bluestone, independently show CTLA-4 can inhibit the activity of T cells

1995

Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard, Eric Wieschaus and Edward B Lewis jointly awarded Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for illuminating the genetic control of embryonic development

18 Jan 1995

Adolf F J Butenandt died

1 Mar 1995

Georges Kohler died