Timeline of key events in biotechnology

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Holley shared the 1968 Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis.'1993-02-11T00:00:00+0000Participants come from European Commission, Member States and European Parliament. Key issues raised: 1) women do not have good access to decision-making in scientific research funding; 2) difficulties women face as result of inflexibility in career structures and lack of childcare; 3) need for positive action and integration of equal opportunities in science and technology.1993-02-15T00:00:00+0000G Dranoff, E Jaffee, A Lazenby, P Golumbek, H Levitsky, K Brose, V Jackson, H Hamada, D Pardoll, RC Mulligan, 'Vaccination with irradiated tumor cells engineered to secrete murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor stimulates potent, specific, and long-lasting anti-tumor immunity', Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 90 (1993), 3539–43.1993-04-15T00:00:00+0000WS el-Deiry et al, 'WAF1, a potential mediator of p53 tumor suppression', Cell, 75 (1993), 817–25.1993-09-01T00:00:00+0000Cetus was the first biotechnology company to be founded1993-10-13T00:00:00+0000FDA publishes Application of Current Statutory Authorities to Human Somatic Cell Therapy Products and Gene Therapy Products.1993-10-14T00:00:00+0000A Spanish biochemist, Ochoa helped outline the mechanisms involved in the synthesis of DNA and RNA. This was helped by his discovery of an enzyme in bacteria that allowed him to synthesize ribonucleic acid or RNA.1993-11-01T00:00:00+0000The drug, a genetically engineered enzyme, was developed by the Genentech researcher Steven Shak. It was the first new treatment for cystic fibrosis in 30 years. The enzyme was engineered to dissolve mucus plugs in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients.1993-12-30T00:00:00+00001994-01-01T00:00:00+00001994-01-01T00:00:00+0000Three groups of scientists separately report the successful generation of different strains of transgenic mice for the generation of human monoclonal antibodies. Two of the teams are based in biotechnology companies: GenPharm (led by Nils Lonsberg), Cell Gensys (led by Larry Green) , and the other involved a collaboration (led by Marian Bruggemann and Michael Neuberger) between scientists at the Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Braham Institute and the University of Cologne.1994-01-01T00:00:00+0000Recommends 1) Government provide more childcare services and help with costs and facilitate schemes to encourage women to return to sciences after having a family; 2) Government and employers should set targets of at least 25% women in public appointments and senior position in SET by 2000; 3) Encourage greater media coverage of women’s contributions to SET. ‘The rising tide: A report on women and science, engineering and technology’, (London: HMSO). 1994-01-01T00:00:00+0000Howard shared the 1975 Nobel Prize for Medicine for work on the interactions between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell. 1994-02-09T00:00:00+0000A Bendelac et al, Science, 263 (1994), 1774-78; A Bendelac et al, Science, 268 (1995), 863-5. 1994-03-25T00:00:00+0000Sperry was an American neuropsychologist and neurobiologst. He is best known for having shown that the two hemispheres of the brain function independently of one another and have completely different functions, a phenomenon he called the 'split brain'. This he determined based on experiments in 1950s and 1960s. In the first set of experiments he severed the corpus callosum, the large bundle of neurons that connects the two parts of the brain, in cats and monkeys. Later he studied humans who had had their corpus callosum severed as part of their treatment for epilepsy. He was jointly awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1981 for 'discoveries concerning the functional specialization of the cerebral hemispheres.'1994-04-17T00:00:00+0000A. Ramon-cueto, M. Nieto-Sampedro, Regeneration into the spinal cord of transected dorsal root axons is promoted by ensheathing glia transplants, Exp Neurol, 27/2 (1994), 232–44.1994-06-01T00:00:00+0000Study conducted by 3 tenured women. At time there were only 15 tenured women in 6 departments in MIT School of Science versus 194 men. 1994-06-01T00:00:00+0000Y Cho, S Gorina, PD Jeffrey, NP Pavletich, 'Crystal structure of a p53 tumor suppressor-DNA complex: understanding tumorigenic mutations', Science, 265 (1994), 346–55.1994-07-01T00:00:00+0000Dorothy Hodgkin, was a British chemist. She pioneered protein crystallography and X-ray crystallography, a technique to determine the three dimensional structure of protein crystals. This she used to confirm the structure of penicillin, in 1945, for which she won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1964. She was the third woman to win the Nobel Prize. In addition to penicillin, Hodgkin published the first structure of a steroid and deciphered the structure of vitamin B12 and insulin. Her x-ray crystallography technique is now an essential tool for structural biology.1994-07-29T00:00:00+0000Synge shared the 1952 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for the invention of partition chromatography, a techique used to separate amino acids in the study of proteins, carbohydrates and DNA.1994-08-18T00:00:00+0000
Date Event People Places Sciences
11 Feb 1993Robert W Holley diedHolleyCornell UniversityGenetics
15 Feb 1993 - 16 Feb 1993International workshop held in Logue expresses concerns about lack of women in science    
15 Apr 1993Immune molecule, granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor or GM-CSF, discovered to strengthen immunity against tumours Dranoff, Jaffee, Lazenby, Golumbek, Levitsky, Brose, Jackson, Hamada, Pardoll, MulliganMassachusetts Institute of TechnologyImmunology, Cancer immunotherapy, Oncology
Sep 1993p21 shown to be a p53 target geneel-Deiry, Tokino, Velculescu, Levy, Parsons, Trent, Lin, Mercer, Kinzler, Vogelstein Johns Hopkins University, National Center for Human Genome Research, Thomas Jefferson UniversityOncology, p53
Oct 1993Cetus Corporation was sold to Chiron and its patent rights sold for US$300 million to Hoffman-La Roche Cetus Corporation, Chiron, Hoffman-La RochePCR
Oct 1993FDA lays out regulations governing gene therapy  Gene therapy
1 Nov 1993Severo Ochoa diedOchoaNew York UniversityGenetics, DNA
Dec 1993Recombinant human deoxyribonuclease approved by FDA for cystic fibrosis GenentechRecombinant DNA
1994First separation of cancer stem cells from the majority of cells in a cancer   Stem cells
1994Patients with damaged corneas successfully treated with corneal stem cells   Stem cells
1994First transgenic mice strains reported for producing human monoclonal antibodiesBruggemann, Green, Lonsberg, NeubergerCell Genesys, GenPharm, Laboratory of Molecular BiologyMonoclonal antibodies, Transgenic animals, Gene cloning
1994UK Committee on Women in Science, Engineering and Technology publishes report highlighting few women reach positions of seniority in science    
9 Feb 1994Howard M Temin diedTeminUniversity of WisconsinGenetics, Virology, Oncology
1994 - 1995Identification and characterisation of the natural killer T cell, a lymphocyte able to bind and kill certain tumour and virus-infected cellsBendelacUniversity of ChicagoImmunology, Cancer immunotherapy, Oncology
17 Apr 1994Roger W Sperry diedSperryCalifornia Institute of TechnologyNeuroscience
1994Experiments in adult rats indicate olifactory ensheathing cells could regenerate injured dorsal root axons in spinal cordRamon-Cueto, Nieto-SampedroInstituto CajalStem cells
Jun 1994Informal poll of MIT women scientists with tenure reveals serious concerns about status and treatment of women in School of Science Massachusetts Institute of Technology 
Jul 1994DNA structure of p53-DNA elucidatedCho, Gorina, Jeffrey, PavletichMemorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer CenterOncology, p53
29 Jul 1994Dorothy M Crowfoot Hodgkin diedHodgkinOxford UniversityBiochemistry, X ray crystallography
18 Aug 1994Richard Laurence Millington Synge diedSyngeRowett Research InstituteAnalytical chemistry

11 Feb 1993

Robert W Holley died

15 Feb 1993 - 16 Feb 1993

International workshop held in Logue expresses concerns about lack of women in science

15 Apr 1993

Immune molecule, granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor or GM-CSF, discovered to strengthen immunity against tumours

Sep 1993

p21 shown to be a p53 target gene

Oct 1993

Cetus Corporation was sold to Chiron and its patent rights sold for US$300 million to Hoffman-La Roche

Oct 1993

FDA lays out regulations governing gene therapy

1 Nov 1993

Severo Ochoa died

Dec 1993

Recombinant human deoxyribonuclease approved by FDA for cystic fibrosis

1994

First separation of cancer stem cells from the majority of cells in a cancer

1994

Patients with damaged corneas successfully treated with corneal stem cells

1994

First transgenic mice strains reported for producing human monoclonal antibodies

1994

UK Committee on Women in Science, Engineering and Technology publishes report highlighting few women reach positions of seniority in science

9 Feb 1994

Howard M Temin died

1994 - 1995

Identification and characterisation of the natural killer T cell, a lymphocyte able to bind and kill certain tumour and virus-infected cells

17 Apr 1994

Roger W Sperry died

1994

Experiments in adult rats indicate olifactory ensheathing cells could regenerate injured dorsal root axons in spinal cord

Jun 1994

Informal poll of MIT women scientists with tenure reveals serious concerns about status and treatment of women in School of Science

Jul 1994

DNA structure of p53-DNA elucidated

29 Jul 1994

Dorothy M Crowfoot Hodgkin died

18 Aug 1994

Richard Laurence Millington Synge died