Timeline of key events in biotechnology

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Rouet, P, Smih, F, Jasin, J, 'Introduction of double-strand breaks into genome of mouse cells by expression of a rare-cutting endonuclease', Molecular and Cellular Biology, 14/12 (1994): 8096-106.1994-12-01T00:00:00+0000German regulatory authorities approve Panorex as an adjuvant therapy, that is a drug given in addition to primary or main treatment, for postoperative colorectal cancer. The drug originated from resesearch undertaken by Hilary Koprowski and his colleagues at the Wistar Institute. 1995-01-01T00:00:00+00001995-01-01T00:00:00+0000German regulatory authorities approve edrecolomab (Panorex) as an adjuvant treatment for post-operative colorectal cancer. The monoclonal antibody, originally known as 17-1A, was developed at the Wistar Institute and commercially developed for market by Centocor. 1995-01-01T00:00:00+0000Developed by William Wunner at the Wistar Institute1995-01-01T00:00:00+0000E. R. Kearney, T. L. Walunas, R. W. Karr, P. A. Morton, D. Y. Loh, J. A. Bluestone, M. K. Jenkins, 'Antigen-dependent clonal expansion of a trace population of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells in vivo is dependent on CD28 costimulation and inhibited by CTLA-4', Journal of Immunology, 155/3 (1995), 1032-36; M.F. Krummel, J.P. Allison, 'CD28 and CTLA-4 have opposing effects on the response of T cells to stimulation', J Exp Med, 182/2 (1995), 459-6. 1995-01-01T00:00:00+00001995-01-01T00:00:00+0000Butenandt won the 1939 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for his discovery of sex hormones.1995-01-18T00:00:00+0000Kohler co-pioneered the first monoclonal antibodies which today are a major component in diagnostics and blockbuster drugs.1995-03-01T00:00:00+0000P.W. Laird, L. Jackson-Grusby, A. Fazeli, S. L. Dickinson, W. E. Jung, E. Li, R.A. Weinberg, R. Jaenisch, 'Suppression of intestinal neoplasia by DNA hypomethylation', Cell, 81 (1995),197-205, April 21, 1995,1995-04-21T00:00:00+0000Anfinsen won the 1972 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for his work 'on ribonuclease, especially concerning the connection between the amino acid sequence and the biologically active conformation.'1995-05-14T00:00:00+0000A medical reseacher and virologist, Salk developed the first successful polio vaccine.1995-06-23T00:00:00+00001995-07-28T00:00:00+0000S Sakaguchi, N Sakaguchi, M Asano, M Itoh, M Toda, 'Immunologic self-tolerance maintained by activated T cells expressing IL-2 receptor alpha-chains (CD25)', Journal Immunology, 155 (1995), 1151-64. 1995-08-01T00:00:00+0000The move by the FDA brought biotechnology drugs into mainsteam drug regulation. 1995-11-10T00:00:00+00001996-01-01T00:00:00+0000The belief that adult stem cells, especially the blood stem cell, can give rise to cells such as brain, liver and cardiac gives rise to notion that adult stem cells could be used like embryonic counterparts for regenerative therapies, helping in degenerative diseases of the brain and heart. This marks a paradigm shift as it goes against dogma from decades of research and clinical success with the blood stem cell. 1996-01-01T00:00:00+0000Mostafa Ronaghi and Pal Nyren at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm develop pyrosequencing which allows for shotgun sequencing without cloning in E coli or any host cell. The marchinery and reagents involved in the method was first commercialised by Pyrosequencing AB.1996-01-01T00:00:00+0000Research conducted by KA Smale et al at Queen's University (Canada), Y. Li et al at University College London, T Imaizumi et al at Yale Univbersity School of Medicine, Guntinas-Lichius et al at the University of Cologne, H H Nash et al the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, M J Ruitenberg et al at the Netherlands Institute for Brain Research.1996-01-01T00:00:00+0000Dolly the sheep was born as a result of the cloning of an adult cell. This was achieved by transferring the nucleus of an adult sheep's cell to the nucleus of an unfertilised egg cell. It took 277 attempts to achieve success. Dolly was the first mammal to be cloned.1996-01-07T00:00:00+0000
Date Event People Places Sciences
Dec 1994Breaks made in a double-strand of DNA in a mouse chromosome for the first time using a rare-cutting endonuclease, I-Scel. The method lays the foundation for a new technique for targeted genome modification using double-stranded breaks instead of plasmids.Rouet, Smih, JasinSloan-Kettering Institute, Cornell UniversityGene editing
1995First monoclonal antibody drug for cancer approved in EuropeKoprowski Monoclonal antibodies
1995First derivation of primate embryonic stem cell lines   Stem cells
1995First monoclonal antibody therapeutic for cancer approved for marketKoprowskiWistar Institute, CentocorMonoclonal antibodies
1995US licensed first wildlife rabies vaccine Wistar InstituteVaccine, Virology
1 Jan 1995Two teams, one led by James Alison and the other by Jeffrey Bluestone, independently show CTLA-4 can inhibit the activity of T cellsAllison, Bluestone, Leach, KrummelUniversity of California Berkeley, University of California San FranciscoImmune checkpoint inhibitors
1995Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard, Eric Wieschaus and Edward B Lewis jointly awarded Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for illuminating the genetic control of embryonic developmentNusslein-Volhard, Wieschaus, Lewis Genetics, Embryology
18 Jan 1995Adolf F J Butenandt diedButenandt Endocrinology
1 Mar 1995Georges Kohler diedKohlerLaboratory of Molecular BiologyMonoclonal antibodies
21 Apr 1995First evidence published to demonstrate reduced DNA methylation contributes to formation of tumoursLaird, Jackson-Grusby, Fazeli, Dickinson, Jung, Li, Weinberg, JaenischMassachusetts Institute of Technology, Massachusetts General HospitalDNA methylation, Epigenetics, Oncology
14 May 1995Christian B Anfinsen died AnfinsenNational Institutes of HealthRNA
23 Jun 1995Jonas Salk diedSalkUniversity of PittsburghVirology, Vaccine
Jul 1995Craig Venter's team at The Institute of Genomics Research (TIGR) published the first complete sequence of the 1.8 Mbp genome of a free-living organism (the bacterium Haemophilus influenzae)VenterThe Institute for Genomic ResearchDNA Sequencing, Genomics
1 Aug 1995Identification of regulatory T cells (CD4+CD25+) and their role in protecting against autoimmunity  Immunology
Nov 1995FDA lifted special restrictions on biotechnology drugs   
1996Complete genome sequence of the first eukaryotic organism, the yeast S. cerevisiae, is published   DNA Sequencing, Genomics
1996First reports that blood stem cell might be able to give rise to cells other than those of the blood systemBlau, Lagasse, Lemischka, Morrison, Thiese, Krause, Gussoni, Bjornson Stem cells
1996Pyrosequencing is introduced for DNA sequencingRonaghi, NyrenRoyal Institute of TechnologyDNA Sequencing, Genomics
1996 - 2002Experiments with rats conducted by different research teams around the world confirm olifactory ensheathing cells help repair spinal cordSmale, Li, Imaizumi, Guntinas-Lichius, Nash, RuitenbergQueen's University, University College London, Yale University, University of Cologne, University of the Health Sciences, Netherlands Institute for Brain ResearchStem cells
Jan 1996Dolly the sheep was cloned by Professor Ian Wilmut's team at the Roslin Institute in EdinburghWilmutRoslin InstituteStem cells, Cloning, Transgenic animals

Dec 1994

Breaks made in a double-strand of DNA in a mouse chromosome for the first time using a rare-cutting endonuclease, I-Scel. The method lays the foundation for a new technique for targeted genome modification using double-stranded breaks instead of plasmids.

1995

First monoclonal antibody drug for cancer approved in Europe

1995

First derivation of primate embryonic stem cell lines

1995

First monoclonal antibody therapeutic for cancer approved for market

1995

US licensed first wildlife rabies vaccine

1 Jan 1995

Two teams, one led by James Alison and the other by Jeffrey Bluestone, independently show CTLA-4 can inhibit the activity of T cells

1995

Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard, Eric Wieschaus and Edward B Lewis jointly awarded Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for illuminating the genetic control of embryonic development

18 Jan 1995

Adolf F J Butenandt died

1 Mar 1995

Georges Kohler died

21 Apr 1995

First evidence published to demonstrate reduced DNA methylation contributes to formation of tumours

14 May 1995

Christian B Anfinsen died

23 Jun 1995

Jonas Salk died

Jul 1995

Craig Venter's team at The Institute of Genomics Research (TIGR) published the first complete sequence of the 1.8 Mbp genome of a free-living organism (the bacterium Haemophilus influenzae)

1 Aug 1995

Identification of regulatory T cells (CD4+CD25+) and their role in protecting against autoimmunity

Nov 1995

FDA lifted special restrictions on biotechnology drugs

1996

Complete genome sequence of the first eukaryotic organism, the yeast S. cerevisiae, is published

1996

First reports that blood stem cell might be able to give rise to cells other than those of the blood system

1996

Pyrosequencing is introduced for DNA sequencing

1996 - 2002

Experiments with rats conducted by different research teams around the world confirm olifactory ensheathing cells help repair spinal cord

Jan 1996

Dolly the sheep was cloned by Professor Ian Wilmut's team at the Roslin Institute in Edinburgh