Timeline of key events in biotechnology

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P.W. Laird, L. Jackson-Grusby, A. Fazeli, S. L. Dickinson, W. E. Jung, E. Li, R.A. Weinberg, R. Jaenisch, 'Suppression of intestinal neoplasia by DNA hypomethylation', Cell, 81 (1995),197-205, April 21, 1995,1995-04-21T00:00:00+0000Anfinsen won the 1972 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for his work 'on ribonuclease, especially concerning the connection between the amino acid sequence and the biologically active conformation.'1995-05-14T00:00:00+0000A medical reseacher and virologist, Salk developed the first successful polio vaccine.1995-06-23T00:00:00+00001995-07-28T00:00:00+0000S Sakaguchi, N Sakaguchi, M Asano, M Itoh, M Toda, 'Immunologic self-tolerance maintained by activated T cells expressing IL-2 receptor alpha-chains (CD25)', Journal Immunology, 155 (1995), 1151-64. 1995-08-01T00:00:00+0000The move by the FDA brought biotechnology drugs into mainsteam drug regulation. 1995-11-10T00:00:00+00001996-01-01T00:00:00+0000The belief that adult stem cells, especially the blood stem cell, can give rise to cells such as brain, liver and cardiac gives rise to notion that adult stem cells could be used like embryonic counterparts for regenerative therapies, helping in degenerative diseases of the brain and heart. This marks a paradigm shift as it goes against dogma from decades of research and clinical success with the blood stem cell. 1996-01-01T00:00:00+0000Mostafa Ronaghi and Pal Nyren at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm develop pyrosequencing which allows for shotgun sequencing without cloning in E coli or any host cell. The marchinery and reagents involved in the method was first commercialised by Pyrosequencing AB.1996-01-01T00:00:00+0000Research conducted by KA Smale et al at Queen's University (Canada), Y. Li et al at University College London, T Imaizumi et al at Yale Univbersity School of Medicine, Guntinas-Lichius et al at the University of Cologne, H H Nash et al the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, M J Ruitenberg et al at the Netherlands Institute for Brain Research.1996-01-01T00:00:00+0000Dolly the sheep was born as a result of the cloning of an adult cell. This was achieved by transferring the nucleus of an adult sheep's cell to the nucleus of an unfertilised egg cell. It took 277 attempts to achieve success.1996-01-07T00:00:00+0000The new restriction enzymes are called Zinc finger nucleases (originally called chimeric restriction enzymes). They are produced as part of an effort to generate restriction-modification enzymes with longer recognition sites without having to screen bacteria and microorganisms. Kim, Y G, Cha, J, Chandrasegaran, S, 'Hybrid restriction enzymes: Zinc finger fusions to Fok I cleavage domain', PNAS USA 93 (1996): 1156–60. 1996-02-01T00:00:00+0000DR Leach, MF Krummel, JP Allison, 'Enchancement of antitumor immunity by CTLA-4 blockade', Science, 271/5256 (1996), 1734-36.1996-03-22T00:00:00+0000An American geneticist, Snell shared the 1980 Nobel Prize in Medicine for disoveries relating to the genetic factors innvolved in the ability to transplant tissue from one organism. 1996-06-06T00:00:00+0000Mazia helped identify the cell structure responsible for mitosis, the process when a eukaryotic cell divides chromosomes into two identical daughter cells.1996-06-09T00:00:00+0000Dolly the sheep was created by cloning an adult cell. This was done by transferring the nucleus of an adult sheep's cell to the nucleus of an unfertilised egg cell. It took 277 attempts to achieve success.1996-07-05T00:00:00+0000Reichstein was a chemist who shared the 1950 Nobel Prize for Medicine for discoveries concerning the 'hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects'.1996-08-01T00:00:00+0000B Bogen, 'Peripheral T cell tolerance as a tumor escape mechanism', European Journal Immunology, 26 (1996), 2671-79.1996-11-01T00:00:00+0000Ritxuan (rituiximab) is approved for the treatment of non-Hodgkin Lymphoma. The drug arose out of Ronald Levy's research for three decades to find a way of harnessing the power of the body's own immune system to fight cancer. 1997-01-01T00:00:00+0000Lord Todd won the 1957 Nobel Prize for Chemistry 'for work on nucleotides and nucleotide co-enzymes.'1997-01-10T00:00:00+0000
Date Event People Places Sciences
21 Apr 1995First evidence published to demonstrate reduced DNA methylation contributes to formation of tumoursLaird, Jackson-Grusby, Fazeli, Dickinson, Jung, Li, Weinberg, JaenischMassachusetts Institute of Technology, Massachusetts General HospitalDNA methylation, Epigenetics, Oncology
14 May 1995Christian B Anfinsen died AnfinsenNational Institutes of HealthRNA
23 Jun 1995Jonas Salk diedSalkUniversity of PittsburghVirology, Vaccine
Jul 1995Craig Venter's team at The Institute of Genomics Research (TIGR) published the first complete sequence of the 1.8 Mbp genome of a free-living organism (the bacterium Haemophilus influenzae)VenterThe Institute for Genomic ResearchDNA Sequencing, Genomics
1 Aug 1995Identification of regulatory T cells (CD4+CD25+) and their role in protecting against autoimmunity  Immunology
Nov 1995FDA lifted special restrictions on biotechnology drugs   
1996Complete genome sequence of the first eukaryotic organism, the yeast S. cerevisiae, is published   DNA Sequencing, Genomics
1996First reports that blood stem cell might be able to give rise to cells other than those of the blood systemBlau, Lagasse, Lemischka, Morrison, Thiese, Krause, Gussoni, Bjornson Stem cells
1996Pyrosequencing is introduced for DNA sequencingRonaghi, NyrenRoyal Institute of TechnologyDNA Sequencing, Genomics
1996 - 2002Experiments with rats conducted by different research teams around the world confirm olifactory ensheathing cells help repair spinal cordSmale, Li, Imaizumi, Guntinas-Lichius, Nash, RuitenbergQueen's University, University College London, Yale University, University of Cologne, University of the Health Sciences, Netherlands Institute for Brain ResearchStem cells
Jan 1996First cloning of a mammalWilmutRoslin InstituteStem cells, Cloning, Transgenic animals
Feb 1996Scientists genetically engineer the first restriction-modification enzymes with tailor-made sequence specifities capable of editing a genome. Kim, Cha, ChandrasegaranJohns Hopkins UniversityGene editing, Zinc fingers, Restriction enzymes
22 Mar 1996Mice experiments published demonstrating that blocking the CTLA-4 molecule on immune cells can cure cancerLeach, Krummel, AllisonUniversity California BerkeleyImmune checkpoint inhibitors, Immunology, Cancer immunotherapy, Oncology
6 Jun 1996George D Snell diedSnellJackson LaboratoryGenetics, Immunology
9 Jun 1996Daniel Mazia diedMaziaUniversity of California BerkeleyCell, Genetics
5 Jul 1996Dolly the sheep, the first cloned mammal, was bornWilmutRoslin InstituteStem cells, Cloning, Transgenic animals
1 Aug 1996Tadeus Reichstein diedReichsteinBasel UniversityBiochemistry, Endocrinology
Nov 1996Experiments demostrate antigen-specific CD4+ and T cells become tolerant during tumour growth in test tubes  Immunology, Cancer immunotherapy, Oncology
1997FDA approved the first monoclonal antibody cancer drug for the American marketLevy, RastetterStanford University Medical School, Idec PharmaceuticalsCancer immunotherapy, Monoclonal antibodies
10 Jan 1997Alexander R Todd diedToddUniversity of ManchesterDNA

21 Apr 1995

First evidence published to demonstrate reduced DNA methylation contributes to formation of tumours

14 May 1995

Christian B Anfinsen died

23 Jun 1995

Jonas Salk died

Jul 1995

Craig Venter's team at The Institute of Genomics Research (TIGR) published the first complete sequence of the 1.8 Mbp genome of a free-living organism (the bacterium Haemophilus influenzae)

1 Aug 1995

Identification of regulatory T cells (CD4+CD25+) and their role in protecting against autoimmunity

Nov 1995

FDA lifted special restrictions on biotechnology drugs

1996

Complete genome sequence of the first eukaryotic organism, the yeast S. cerevisiae, is published

1996

First reports that blood stem cell might be able to give rise to cells other than those of the blood system

1996

Pyrosequencing is introduced for DNA sequencing

1996 - 2002

Experiments with rats conducted by different research teams around the world confirm olifactory ensheathing cells help repair spinal cord

Jan 1996

First cloning of a mammal

Feb 1996

Scientists genetically engineer the first restriction-modification enzymes with tailor-made sequence specifities capable of editing a genome.

22 Mar 1996

Mice experiments published demonstrating that blocking the CTLA-4 molecule on immune cells can cure cancer

6 Jun 1996

George D Snell died

9 Jun 1996

Daniel Mazia died

5 Jul 1996

Dolly the sheep, the first cloned mammal, was born

1 Aug 1996

Tadeus Reichstein died

Nov 1996

Experiments demostrate antigen-specific CD4+ and T cells become tolerant during tumour growth in test tubes

1997

FDA approved the first monoclonal antibody cancer drug for the American market

10 Jan 1997

Alexander R Todd died