This website provides a curated collection of resources about the people, places and technologies that have enabled biotechnology to transform our healthcare and the world we live in today

Timeline of key events

Timeline of key events in biotechnology

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Date Event People Places Sciences
Aug 1998FDA and European regulatory authorities approved the first monoclonal antibody drug for an autoimmune diseaseVilcek, Le, Feldmann, MainiNew York University, Centocor, Kennedy Institute of RheumatologyMonoclonal antibodies
Oct 1998First human embryonic stem cell line derived Thomson, Itskovitz-Eldor, Shapiro, Waknitz, Swiergiel, Marshall, JonesUniversity of Wisconsin-MadisonStem cells
07 Dec 1998Martin Rodbell diedRodbellNational Institute of Environmental Health SciencesCell
Dec 1998Complete genome sequence of the first multicellular organism, the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans, is published Sanger Institute, Washington UniversityDNA Sequencing, Genomics
20 Dec 1998Alan Lloyd Hodgkin diedHodgkinCambridge UniversityNeuroscience
1999First human chromosome sequence published  DNA Sequencing, Genomics
1999Adult neural stem cells identified as capable of forming new neural stem cellsFrisenKarolinska InstitutetStem cells
1999Discovery of small interfering RNA (siRNA), very small stretches of double-stranded RNA, interfere with genesBaulcombe, Hamilton John Innes CentreRNA interference
21 Feb 1999Gertrude B Elion diedElionWellcome Research LaboratoriesPharmacology
10 Apr 1999Heinz Ludwig Fraenkel-Conrat diedFraenkel-Conrat University of California BerkeleyGenetics, Virology
Jul 1999Disposable bioreactor developed Schering-Plough 
20 Jul 1999DNA methylation of CpG islands shown to be linked to colorectal cancerToyota, Ahuja, Ohe-Toyota, Herman, Baylin, IssaJohns Hopkins UniversityDNA methylation, Epigenetics, Oncology
Nov 1999First evidence from mammals that epigenetic changes can be passed down generations Morgan, Sutherland, Martin, WhitelawUniversity of SydneyEpigenetics
16 Nov 1999Daniel Nathans diedNathans Johns Hopkins University Restriction enzymes, Recombinant DNA
06 Dec 1999Robert Swanson died in Hillsborough, California, USASwanson  
1999 - 2002Multi-centre trials with gene therapy using stem cells to treat children with SCIDBordignon Gene therapy
2000Complete sequences of the genomes of the fruit fly Drosophila and the first plant, Arabidopsis, are published  DNA Sequencing, Genomics
2000Adult stem cells recognised as having potential to generate variety of cells for other organsFrisenKarolinska InstitutetStem cells
2000Retinal stem cells identified in mice   Stem cells
2000Two French boys suffering from SCID reported to be cured using gene therapy  Gene therapy

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