Timeline of key events in biotechnology

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The new restriction enzymes are called Zinc finger nucleases (originally called chimeric restriction enzymes). They are produced as part of an effort to generate restriction-modification enzymes with longer recognition sites without having to screen bacteria and microorganisms. Kim, Y G, Cha, J, Chandrasegaran, S, 'Hybrid restriction enzymes: Zinc finger fusions to Fok I cleavage domain', PNAS USA 93 (1996): 1156–60. 1996-02-01T00:00:00+0000DR Leach, MF Krummel, JP Allison, 'Enchancement of antitumor immunity by CTLA-4 blockade', Science, 271/5256 (1996), 1734-36.1996-03-22T00:00:00+0000An American geneticist, Snell shared the 1980 Nobel Prize in Medicine for disoveries relating to the genetic factors innvolved in the ability to transplant tissue from one organism. 1996-06-06T00:00:00+0000Mazia helped identify the cell structure responsible for mitosis, the process when a eukaryotic cell divides chromosomes into two identical daughter cells.1996-06-09T00:00:00+0000Dolly the sheep was created by cloning an adult cell. This was done by transferring the nucleus of an adult sheep's cell to the nucleus of an unfertilised egg cell. It took 277 attempts to achieve success.1996-07-05T00:00:00+0000Reichstein was a chemist who shared the 1950 Nobel Prize for Medicine for discoveries concerning the 'hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects'.1996-08-01T00:00:00+0000B Bogen, 'Peripheral T cell tolerance as a tumor escape mechanism', European Journal Immunology, 26 (1996), 2671-79.1996-11-01T00:00:00+0000Ritxuan (rituiximab) is approved for the treatment of non-Hodgkin Lymphoma. The drug arose out of Ronald Levy's research for three decades to find a way of harnessing the power of the body's own immune system to fight cancer. 1997-01-01T00:00:00+0000Lord Todd won the 1957 Nobel Prize for Chemistry 'for work on nucleotides and nucleotide co-enzymes.'1997-01-10T00:00:00+0000Huggins shared the 1966 Nobel Prize for discoveries relating to hormonal treatment of prostrate cancer.1997-01-12T00:00:00+0000Sterne pioneered a vaccine against anthrax which effectively wiped out the disease. He used Pasteur's methods to develop the vaccine. 1997-02-26T00:00:00+0000M Serrano et al, 'Oncogenic ras provokes premature cell senescence associated with accumulation of p53 and p16INK4a', Cell, 88 (1997), 593–602.1997-03-01T00:00:00+0000Sager discovered the transmission of genetic traits through chloroplast DNA. This was the first example of genetics not involving the cell nucleus. 1997-03-29T00:00:00+0000Pirie helped determine that the genetic component of viruses was RNA. Before this viruses were thought to be made up completely of proteins. 1997-03-29T00:00:00+0000Wald was an American biochemist who discovered vitamin A is essential for vision. He also demonstrated how reina cells absorb light. 1997-04-12T00:00:00+0000Eccles shared the 1963 Nobel Prize for Medicine for discoveries relating to peripheral and central portions of the nerve cell membrane.1997-05-02T00:00:00+0000Porter was a Canadian biologist who developed electron microscope techniques to get high resolution images of cells and tissues. He also developed a roller-flask for culturing cells and co-invented an instrument for getting ultra-thin slices of tissue for microscopy. 1997-05-02T00:00:00+0000Hershey shared the 1969 Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses.'1997-05-22T00:00:00+0000Swedish anslysis revealed inherent discrimination in peer review process against women applications in biomedical field. C. Wenneras and A Wold, 'Nepotism and sexism in peer-review', Nature, 387 (1997) 341-3. 1997-05-22T00:00:00+0000Kendrew shared the 1962 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for eliucidating the structures of globular proteins.1997-08-23T00:00:00+0000
Date Event People Places Sciences
Feb 1996Scientists genetically engineer the first restriction-modification enzymes with tailor-made sequence specifities capable of editing a genome. Kim, Cha, ChandrasegaranJohns Hopkins UniversityGene editing, Zinc fingers, Restriction enzymes
22 Mar 1996Mice experiments published demonstrating that blocking the CTLA-4 molecule on immune cells can cure cancerLeach, Krummel, AllisonUniversity California BerkeleyImmune checkpoint inhibitors, Immunology, Cancer immunotherapy, Oncology
6 Jun 1996George D Snell diedSnellJackson LaboratoryGenetics, Immunology
9 Jun 1996Daniel Mazia diedMaziaUniversity of California BerkeleyCell, Genetics
5 Jul 1996Dolly the sheep, the first cloned mammal, was bornWilmutRoslin InstituteStem cells, Cloning, Transgenic animals
1 Aug 1996Tadeus Reichstein diedReichsteinBasel UniversityBiochemistry, Endocrinology
Nov 1996Experiments demostrate antigen-specific CD4+ and T cells become tolerant during tumour growth in test tubes  Immunology, Cancer immunotherapy, Oncology
1997FDA approved the first monoclonal antibody cancer drug for the American marketLevy, RastetterStanford University Medical School, Idec PharmaceuticalsCancer immunotherapy, Monoclonal antibodies
10 Jan 1997Alexander R Todd diedToddUniversity of ManchesterDNA
12 Jan 1997Charles Brenton Huggins diedHugginsUniversity of ChicagoOncology, Endocrinology
26 Feb 1997Max Sterne diedSterneOnderstepoort Veterinary Research InstituteVaccine
Mar 1997p53 shown to be linked to senescence, biological agingSerrano , Lin, McCurrach, Beach, Lowe Cold Spring Harbor LaboratoryOncology, p53
29 Mar 1997Ruth Sager diedSagerRockefeller UniversityGenetics
29 Mar 1997Death of Norman Wingate (Bill) PiriePirie Rothamsted Experimental StationRNA, Virology
12 Apr 1997George Wald diedWald  
2 May 1997John C Eccles diedEcclesAustralian National UniversityNeuroscience
2 May 1997Keith Roberts Porter diedPorter University of ColoradoCell
22 May 1997Alfred D Hershey diedHersheyCarnegie Institution of WashingtonGenetics, Virology
22 May 1997Wake-up call for many life sciences funding agencies of inherent discrimination against women applicants as result of analysis of Swedish Medical Research Council's grant selection scheme Wenneras, Wold,  
23 Aug 1997John C Kendrew diedKendrewLaboratory of Molecular BiologyBiochemistry

Feb 1996

Scientists genetically engineer the first restriction-modification enzymes with tailor-made sequence specifities capable of editing a genome.

22 Mar 1996

Mice experiments published demonstrating that blocking the CTLA-4 molecule on immune cells can cure cancer

6 Jun 1996

George D Snell died

9 Jun 1996

Daniel Mazia died

5 Jul 1996

Dolly the sheep, the first cloned mammal, was born

1 Aug 1996

Tadeus Reichstein died

Nov 1996

Experiments demostrate antigen-specific CD4+ and T cells become tolerant during tumour growth in test tubes

1997

FDA approved the first monoclonal antibody cancer drug for the American market

10 Jan 1997

Alexander R Todd died

12 Jan 1997

Charles Brenton Huggins died

26 Feb 1997

Max Sterne died

Mar 1997

p53 shown to be linked to senescence, biological aging

29 Mar 1997

Ruth Sager died

29 Mar 1997

Death of Norman Wingate (Bill) Pirie

12 Apr 1997

George Wald died

2 May 1997

John C Eccles died

2 May 1997

Keith Roberts Porter died

22 May 1997

Alfred D Hershey died

22 May 1997

Wake-up call for many life sciences funding agencies of inherent discrimination against women applicants as result of analysis of Swedish Medical Research Council's grant selection scheme

23 Aug 1997

John C Kendrew died