This website provides a curated collection of resources about the people, places and technologies that have enabled biotechnology to transform our healthcare and the world we live in today

Timeline of key events

Timeline of key events in biotechnology

To search for particular terms in the description of the event enter the term in the box below 'Event' on the table and press 'enter'. Alternatively use the dropdown lists to filter by Person, Place or Science. Click here to clear the filter.

Date Event People Places Sciences
Mar 2002Dutch scientists coin the term CRISPR-Cas9. Strands for clustered regularly interspaced short palindrome repeats in a DNA sequence and its associated genes.Jansen, Embden, Gaastra, SchoulsUtrecht UniversityCRISPR, Gene editing
Mar 2002Canadian Institutes of Health Research unveils guidelines on stem cell research  Stem cells, gene cloning
Mar 2002Cesar Milstein diedMilsteinCambridge, England 
Apr 2002Identification of new enzyme for silencing certain genes, opening new avenues for cancer treatmentsRauscherWistar InstituteGenetics
Jul 2002First use of zinc fingers to disrupt genes in the fruit fly DrosophilaBibikova, Golic, Golic, CarrollUniversity of UtahGene editing, Zinc fingers
Jul 2002Poliovirus synthesised Stony Brook UniversitySequencing DNA
28 Jul 2002Archer J P Martin diedMartinNational Institute for Medical ResearchAnalytical chemistry
07 Aug 2002Scientists identified segment of insect-derived antimicrobial peptide called pyrrhocoricin necessary for killing off bacteria opening up possible avenue for developing new antibioticsOtvosWistar InstituteAntimicrobial resistance
20 Aug 2002Link identified between genes responsible for neurofibromatosis, a common neurological disorder, and a protein thought to play role in Alzheimer's diseaseShiekhattarWistar InstituteNeuroscience, Genetics
14 Sep 2002Regulatory T cells discovered to restrain cytolytic T cells attacking cancer via messanger chemical called TGF-betaHerlyn, SomasundaramWistar InstituteImmunology, Immunotherapy, Oncology
17 Sep 2002Cancer cells shown to be capable of hijacking PD-1 protein to evade destruction by immune systemIwai , Ishida, Tanaka, Okazaki, Honjo, MinatoJapan Science and Technology CorporationImmune checkpoint inhibitors, Immunotherapy, Oncology
Oct 2002Genomic sequence of the principal malaria parasite and vector reported  Sequencing DNA
Dec 2002First monoclonal antibody made using phage display approved for market CAT, BASF, AbbottMonoclonal antibodies, Phage display
2003Cancer stem cells isolated in human brain tumours Singh Stem cells
2003First human trial of gene therapy using modified lentivirus as a vector  Gene therapy
Jan 2003Rare human breast cancer stem cells identified Al-Hajj Stem cells
14 Feb 2003Dolly the sheep, the first cloned mammal diedWilmutRoslin InstituteStem cells, Cloning, Transgenic animals
2003Genetic switch identified that controls the development of T cells, an important immune cell that controls against autoimmunity and excess inflammationFontenot, Gavin, RudenskyHoward Hughes Medical Institute, University of WashingtonImmunology, Immunotherapy
Apr 2003The sequence of the first human genome was published  Sequencing DNA, Genomics
20 Apr 2003Bernard Katz diedKatzUniversity College LondonNeuroscience

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