Timeline of key events in biotechnology

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Benesch was a biochemist who co-discovered how haemoglobin transports oxygen during respiration. 2000-03-25T00:00:00+0000T. Nogtomi, H. Okayama, H. Masubuchi, T. Yonekawa, K. Wantabe, N. Amino, T. Hase, 'Loop-mediated isothermal amplification', Nucleic Acids Research, 28/12 (2000), e63.2000-06-15T00:00:00+0000U.S. President Bill Clinton and the British Prime Minister Tony Blair announced the completion of a rough draft of the human genome. 2000-06-26T00:00:00+0000Smith, J, Bibikova, M, Whitby, F G, Reddy, A R, Chandrasegaran, S, Carroll, D, 'Requirements for double-strand cleavage by chimeric restriction enzymes with zinc finger DNA-recognition domains', Nucleic Acids Research, 28 (2000), 3361–9. 2000-09-01T00:00:00+0000G.J. Freeman, A.J. Long, Y. Iwai, et al, 'Engagement of the PD-1 immunoinhibitory receptor by a novel B7 family member leads to negative regulation of lymphocyte activation', J Exp Med, 192/7 (2000), 1027–34.2000-10-01T00:00:00+0000A Canadian biochemist, Michael Smith helped develop site-direct mutagenesis, a technique that allows for a mutation to be created at a specific defined site in a DNA molecule. This technique is pivotal to genetic and protein research and engineering. 2000-10-04T00:00:00+0000Bloch shared the 1964 Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of the cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism.'2000-10-15T00:00:00+0000Map published for the genome of the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana. The sequenced genome contains 25,498 genes encoding proteins from 11,000 families.2000-12-14T00:00:00+0000This is the first collaborative stem cell research network2001-01-01T00:00:00+00002001-01-01T00:00:00+00002001-01-01T00:00:00+0000A consortium including scientists from Celera Genomics and 13 other organizations publishes the first consensus sequence of human genome. It is shown to have a 2.91 billioon base pair sequence. 2001-02-16T00:00:00+0000Research conducted by a team lead by Martha Jordan and published in Nature Immunology2001-03-28T00:00:00+0000Experiments conducted by Thomas Tuschl and colleagues show SiRNA can be successfully introduced into mammalian cells. S M Elbashir, et al., 'Duplexes of 21-nucleotide RNAs mediate RNA interference in cultured mammalian cells', Nature, 411 (20010) 494-8.2001-05-24T00:00:00+0000The creation of new embryonic stem cell lines is banned.2001-08-09T00:00:00+0000Barnard was a South African cardiac surgeon who performed the first successful human to human heart transplant.2001-09-02T00:00:00+0000Advanced Cell Technology, a private lab, created a six-cell embryo by removing DNA from a human egg and injecting it with the DNA of a skin cell. The aim was to produce genetically matched replacement cells for patients with a wide range of diseases.2001-10-01T00:00:00+00002002-01-01T00:00:00+0000The ISCF is set up to foster international collaboration and promote global good practices and accelerating progress in biomedical science.2002-01-01T00:00:00+0000The multipotent cells are a specialised cell type produced from pluripotent stem cells. The purified multipotent marrow stem cells are shown capable of being used as single injected cells for extended marrow regeneration in vivo.2002-01-01T00:00:00+0000
Date Event People Places Sciences
25 Mar 2000Ruth Erica (Leroi) Benesch diedBeneschColumbia UnivesityBiochemistry
15 Jun 2000New simpler and cheaper PCR method published opening possibility for use in middle to low-income countriesNogtomi, Okayama, Masubuchi, Yonekawa, Wantabe, AminoUniversity of Tokyo, Osaka University, Eiken Chemical CoDiagnostics, PCR
Jun 2000Human genome draft sequence announced  DNA Sequencing, Genomics
1 Sep 2000 Experiments show zinc finger nucleases can create double-stranded DNA breaks in cellsSmith, Bibikova, Whitby, Reddy, Chandrasegaran, Carroll Johns Hopkins University, University of Utah, Pondicherry UniversityGene editing, Zinc fingers
Oct 2000PD-1 protein shown to be important mechanism in dampening down the immune responseFreeman, Long, IwaiDana-Farber Cancer InstituteImmune checkpoint inhibitors
4 Oct 2000Michael Smith died University of British ColumbiaRecombinant DNA, Monoclonal antibodies
15 Oct 2000Konrad Bloch diedBlochHarvard UniversityBiochemistry
Dec 2000First plant DNA sequenced  DNA Sequencing, Genomics
2001The Stem Cell Network is formed   Stem cells
2001Dermal stem cells identified in adult skin tissue   Stem cells
2001Pharmion licenses azacitidine from Pharmacia and Upjohn to Pharmacia's azacityidine technology, patents and clinical data  Epigenetics
Feb 2001First consensus sequence of human genome published CeleraDNA Sequencing
Mar 2001Mechanism uncovered for the way the immune system generates regulatory T-cellsJordanWistar InstituteImmunology
May 2001RNAi demonstrated to be useful genetic toolElbashir, Harborth, Lendecker, Yalcin, Weber, TuschlMax-Planck-Institute for Biophysical ChemistryRNA interference
Aug 2001US places restricitions on embryonic stem cell research  Stem cells
2 Sep 2001Christiaan Barnard diedBarnardUniversity of Cape TownTransplantation
Oct 2001Human embryo cloned to make stem cells Advanced Cell TechnologyStem cells, gene cloning
2002Complete genome sequence of the first mammalian model organism, the mouse, is published   DNA Sequencing
2002International Society for Stem Cell Research (ISCF) established  Stem cells
2002First complete purification of multipotent marrow stem cells from mice  Stem cells

25 Mar 2000

Ruth Erica (Leroi) Benesch died

15 Jun 2000

New simpler and cheaper PCR method published opening possibility for use in middle to low-income countries

Jun 2000

Human genome draft sequence announced

1 Sep 2000

Experiments show zinc finger nucleases can create double-stranded DNA breaks in cells

Oct 2000

PD-1 protein shown to be important mechanism in dampening down the immune response

4 Oct 2000

Michael Smith died

15 Oct 2000

Konrad Bloch died

Dec 2000

First plant DNA sequenced

2001

The Stem Cell Network is formed

2001

Dermal stem cells identified in adult skin tissue

2001

Pharmion licenses azacitidine from Pharmacia and Upjohn to Pharmacia's azacityidine technology, patents and clinical data

Feb 2001

First consensus sequence of human genome published

Mar 2001

Mechanism uncovered for the way the immune system generates regulatory T-cells

May 2001

RNAi demonstrated to be useful genetic tool

May 2001

US places restricitions on embryonic stem cell research

2 Sep 2001

Christiaan Barnard died

Oct 2001

Human embryo cloned to make stem cells

2002

Complete genome sequence of the first mammalian model organism, the mouse, is published

2002

International Society for Stem Cell Research (ISCF) established

2002

First complete purification of multipotent marrow stem cells from mice