Rockefeller University: Timeline of key events

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Greengard shared the 2000 Nobel Prize for Medicine for research on how neurotransmitters function in the nervous system.1925-12-11T00:00:00+0000 Zinder discovered how hereditary information is transferred from one organism to another. The process is known as genetic transduction.1928-11-07T00:00:00+0000Edelman shared the 1972 Nobel Prize for Medicine for discoveries concerning the chemical structure of antibodies. 1929-07-01T00:00:00+0000The physician-geneticists Oswald Avery, Canadian-born, Colin MacLeod, Canadian-born, and Maclyn McCarty, American-born, announce an experiment demonstrating that a harmless bacteria, Streptococcus pneumoniae, can be made virulent by using DNA isolated from a virulent strain. 1944-02-01T00:00:00+0000Carrel, awarded 1912 Nobel Prize for Medicine in recognition of 'his work on vascular structure and the transplantation of blood vessels and organs'.1944-11-05T00:00:00+0000R.D. Hotchkiss, 'The quantative separation of purines, pyrimidines, and nucleosides by paper chromatography', J Biol Chem, 175/1 (1948), 315-32. 1948-03-10T00:00:00+0000Henry Kunkel, an American immunologist, while studying the blood of patients with myeloma (a type of cancer that develops from plasma cells in the bone marrow) unexpectedly discovers myeloma proteins to resemble normal antibodies.1951-01-01T00:00:00+0000Avery was a Canadian-American physician who helped discover the genetic information in genes and chromosomes is made up of DNA.1955-02-02T00:00:00+0000MacKinnon shared the 2003 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for his research on ion channels, proteins that control the flow of ions across the cell membrane and regulate cell volume.1956-02-19T00:00:00+0000Independently Rodney Porter, a British scientist, and Gerald Edelman, an American biologist, determine the structure of antibodies to consist of heavy and light protein chains, which join together to form three sections yielding a molecule shaped like the letter Y.1962-01-01T00:00:00+0000Gasser shared the 1944 Nobel Prize for Medicine for discovering different fibers in nerves that conduct electrochemical pulses at different rates. This laid the foundation for the theory that one type of fiber conducts pain signals and others conduct motor control signals. 1963-05-11T00:00:00+0000Stanley was an American biochemist who shared the 1946 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for the 'preparation of enzymes and virus proteins in a pure form.'1971-06-15T00:00:00+0000An American pathologist, Rous was the first to show how viruses could cause cancer. This was based on his work with tumours in chickens. 1972-02-16T00:00:00+0000Tatum shared the 1958 Nobel Prize for Medicine for discovering how genes regulate biochemical events in cells. 1975-11-05T00:00:00+0000Stein shared the 1972 Nobel Prize for contributing to understanding the 'connection between chemical structure and catalytic activity of the active centre of the ribonuclease molecule.'1980-02-02T00:00:00+0000Wyckoff pioneered x-ray crystallography of bacteria.1994-11-03T00:00:00+0000Sager discovered the transmission of genetic traits through chloroplast DNA. This was the first example of genetics not involving the cell nucleus. 1997-03-29T00:00:00+0000An American immunologist, Chase discovered that white blood cells trigger the immune response in the body confronting a foreign invader. He laid the foundation for the discovery of lymphocyte cells and B and T cells.2004-01-05T00:00:00+0000Palade helped determine cell function and organization. He and colleagues demonstrated that all plant cells and some animal and bacteria cells have a vacuole, an enclosed compartment in the cell membrane, which contains enzymes essential to maintaining the cell's health. 2008-10-07T00:00:00+0000Zinder discovered how hereditary information is transferred from one organism to another. The process is known as genetic transduction.2012-02-03T00:00:00+0000
Date Event People Places Sciences
11 Dec 1925Paul Greengard was born in New York NY, USAGreengardRockefeller UniversityNeuroscience
7 Nov 1928Norton David Zinder was born New York City, USAZinderRockefeller UniversityGenetics
1 Jul 1929Gerald M Edelman was born in New York NY, USAEdelmanRockefeller UniversityAntibodies
1 Feb 1944DNA identified as a heritary agentAveryRockefeller UniversityDNA
5 Nov 1944Alexis Carrel diedCarrelRockefeller UniversityTransplantation
Mar 1948Hotchkiss discovered the first naturally modifed DNA nucleotide, cytosine, in a chromatography of calf thymus DNAHotchkissRockefeller InstituteEpigenetics
1951Myeloma cells found to resemble normal antibodiesKunkelRockefeller UniversityAntibodies
2 Feb 1955Oswald Theodore Avery diedAveryRockefeller UniversityDNA
19 Feb 1956Roderick MacKinnon was born in Burlington MA, USAMackinnonRockefeller UniversityBiochemistry
1962Antibodies discovered to have structure like a 'Y'Porter, EdelmanNational Institute for Medical Research, Rockefeller University Antibodies
11 May 1963Herbert Spencer Gasser diedGasserRockefeller Institute 
15 Jun 1971Wendell M Stanley diedStanleyRockefeller UniversityBiochemistry
16 Feb 1972Peyton Rous diedRousRockefeller UniversityVirology, Oncology
5 Nov 1975Edward Lawrie Tatum diedTatumRockefeller UniversityGenetics
2 Feb 1980William H Stein diedSteinRockefeller UniversityRNA
3 Nov 1994Ralph W G Wyckoff diedWyckoffRockefeller UniversityBacteriology, Virology
29 Mar 1997Ruth Sager diedSagerRockefeller UniversityGenetics
5 Jan 2004Merrill W Chase diedChaseRockefeller University 
7 Oct 2008George Emil Palade diedPaladeRockefeller UniversityCell
3 Feb 2012Norton David Zinder diedZinderRockefeller UniversityGenetics

11 Dec 1925

Paul Greengard was born in New York NY, USA

7 Nov 1928

Norton David Zinder was born New York City, USA

1 Jul 1929

Gerald M Edelman was born in New York NY, USA

1 Feb 1944

DNA identified as a heritary agent

5 Nov 1944

Alexis Carrel died

Mar 1948

Hotchkiss discovered the first naturally modifed DNA nucleotide, cytosine, in a chromatography of calf thymus DNA

1951

Myeloma cells found to resemble normal antibodies

2 Feb 1955

Oswald Theodore Avery died

19 Feb 1956

Roderick MacKinnon was born in Burlington MA, USA

1962

Antibodies discovered to have structure like a 'Y'

11 May 1963

Herbert Spencer Gasser died

15 Jun 1971

Wendell M Stanley died

16 Feb 1972

Peyton Rous died

5 Nov 1975

Edward Lawrie Tatum died

2 Feb 1980

William H Stein died

3 Nov 1994

Ralph W G Wyckoff died

29 Mar 1997

Ruth Sager died

5 Jan 2004

Merrill W Chase died

7 Oct 2008

George Emil Palade died

3 Feb 2012

Norton David Zinder died