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Timeline of key events

CRISPR-Cas9: Timeline of key events

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Date Event People Places Sciences
Aug 2013CRISPR-Cas used to engineer a rat's genome  CRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
Aug 2013CRISPR-Cas used to engineer plant genomes including rice, wheat, Arabidopsis, tobacco and Sorghum  CRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
Aug 2013Improvements made to the specificity of CRISPR-Cas system  CRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
Mar 2014First patent awarded for CRISPR-Cas9 technology to be used for a wide range of applicationsZhangBroad Institute, Massachusetts Institute of TechnologyCRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
Mar 2015Scientists suggest the use of CRISPR/Cas9 in conjunction with stem cells to provide human organs from transgenic pigsFeng, Dai, Mou, Cooper, Shi, Cai Shenzhen University, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Guangxi UniversityCRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
26 Mar 2015US scientists call for a voluntary worldwide moratorium on the use of genome editing tools to modify human reproductive cellsLamphier, Urnov CRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
Apr 2015National Institutes of Health declares it will not fund any use of genome editing technologies in human embryos  CRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
22 Apr 2015UK Nuffield Council on Bioethics launched a new working group to look into institutional, national and international policies and provisions relevant to genome editing  CRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
May 2015Chinese scientists, led by Junjiu Huang, publish first experiments modifying the genome of human embryos with CRISPR-Cas9 technique, prompting bioethical debate over use of technology Huang, Liang, Xu, ZhangSun Yat-sen UniversityCRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
Sep 2015UK Medical Research Council and other leading UK research councils declared support for using CRISPR-Cas9 and other genome editing techniques in preclinical research  CRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
11 Sep 2015Hinxton Group issues a statement indicating that most of the ethical and moral questions raised about genome editing so have have been debated before.   CRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
15 Sep 2015UK Nuffield Council on Bioethics held its first workshop to identify and define ethical questions relating to developments in genome editing research  CRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
18 Sep 2015UK scientists seek license to genetically modify human embryos to study the role played by genes in the first few days of human fertilisationNaikanCrick InstituteCRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
25 Sep 2015New protein, Cpf1, found which could simplify genome editing. Zhang, Zetsche, Gootenberg, Abudayyeh, SlaymakerBroad Institute, Massachusetts Institute of TechnologyCRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
05 Oct 2015US Scientists report use of CRISPR to modify 60 genes in pig embryos in first step to create pig organs suitable for use in humansChurchHarvard UniversityCRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing, Transgenic animals
06 Oct 2015UNESCO’s International Bioethic Committee called for ban on genetic editing of human germline   CRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
16 Nov 2015US Scientists publish a technique for overwriting changes made by CRISPR/Cas 9DiCarlo, Chavez, Dietz, Esvelt, ChurchHarvard University, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich CRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
23 Nov 2015US scientists report successful use of CRISPR/Cas9 to genetically modify mosquitoes to make them poor hosts for malaria parasiteGantz, Jasinskiene, Tatarenkova, Fazekas, Macias, Bier, JamesUniversity California San Diego, University of California IrvineCRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
01 Dec 2015 - December 3, 2015 International Summit on Human Gene Editing met to discuss the scientific, medical, ethical, and governance issues associated with recent advances in human gene-editing researchBaltimore, Doudna, Church, ZhangUS National Academies of Science, Engineering and Medicine, US National Academy of Medicine, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Royal SocietyCRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
31 Dec 2015CRISPR successfully used to improve muscle function in mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, opening way to use CRISPR to correct genetic mutatiuons in affected tissues of sick patientsNelson, Gersbach, Hakim, Ousterout, ThakoreDuke University, University of Missouri, University of North Carolina, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Harvard UniversityCRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing, Gene therapy

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