Genetics: Timeline of key events

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Archibald Garrod, an English physician, suggests that genetic defects cause the loss of enzymes and hereditary metabolic diseases, providing the first premise for gene therapy. 1902-01-01T00:00:00+0000McClintock was the first to discover that genes could shift to different locations by themselves. 1902-06-16T00:00:00+0000Beadle was jointly awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1958 for discovering the role of genes in regulating biochemical events within cells.1903-10-22T00:00:00+0000Snell shared the 1980 Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunological reactions'.1903-12-19T00:00:00+0000Flemming was the first to describe the behaviour of chromosomes during cell division, a process he called mitosis, and is credited as the founder of cytogenetics. 1905-08-04T00:00:00+0000A biochemist, Ochoa shared the 1959 Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid.'1905-09-24T00:00:00+0000A German biophysicist, Delbruck helped discover how viruses replicate their genetic structure, showing that bacterial resistance from viruses is due to random mutation and not the result of adaptive changes. 1906-09-04T00:00:00+0000Hershey shared the 1969 Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses.'1908-12-04T00:00:00+0000Tatum shared the 1958 Nobel Prize for Medicine for the 'discovery that genes act by regulating definite chemical events.'1909-12-14T00:00:00+0000Thomas Hunt Morgan, American evolutionary biologist, links the inheritance of a specific trait with a particular chromosome in fruit flies (Drosophila). 1910-01-01T00:00:00+0000van Beneden was a Belgian cytologist who woked out how chromosomes divide during cell meiosis and that all cells have the same number of chromosomes in each species.1910-04-28T00:00:00+0000Fraenkel-Conrat was a biochemist who discovered that RNA was pivotal to the genetic control of viral reproduction. 1910-04-29T00:00:00+0000Galton is best known as an early pioneer of Eugenics1911-01-17T00:00:00+0000Stevens was an American biologist who was one of the first scientists to describe the importance of the Y chromosome for determining the sex of some species, and to recognise that females have two X chromosomes. 1912-05-04T00:00:00+0000Luria shared the 1969 Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses.'1912-08-13T00:00:00+0000Mazia helped identify the cell structure responsible for mitosis, which is process eukaryotic cells use to divide chromosomes into two identical daughter cells.1912-12-18T00:00:00+0000Dulbecco shared the 1975 Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'discoveries concerning the interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell.'1914-02-22T00:00:00+0000Crick shared the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1962 for 'discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material.'1916-06-08T00:00:00+0000Wilkins shared the 1962 Nobel Prize for Medicine for work in determining structure of DNA1916-12-15T00:00:00+0000Sager discovered the transmission of genetic traits through chloroplast DNA. This was the first example of genetics not involving the cell nucleus. 1918-02-07T00:00:00+0000
Date Event People Places Sciences
1902 - 1908Metabolic disease explained by genetic defectsGarrodOxford UniversityGenetics
16 Jun 1902Barbara McClintock was born in Hartford CT, USAMcClintockUniversity of MissouriGenetics
22 Oct 1903George Wells Beadle was born in Wahoo NE, USABeadleCalifornia Institute of TechnologyGenetics
19 Dec 1903George D Snell was born in Bradford MA, USASnellJackson LaboratoryGenetics, Immunology
4 Aug 1905Walther Flemming diedFlemmingUniversity of KielCell, Genetics
24 Sep 1905Severo Ochoa was born in Luarca, SpainOchoaNew York UniversityGenetics, DNA
4 Sep 1906Max Delbruck was born in Berlin, GermanyDelbruckCalifornia Institute of TechnologyGenetics, Virology
4 Dec 1908Alfred D Hershey was born in Owosso, MI, USAHersheyCarnegie Institution of WashingtonGenetics, Virology
14 Dec 1909Edward Lawrie Tatum was born in Boulder CO, USATatumRockefeller UniversityGenetics
1910Chromosomes linked with hereditary traitsMorganColumbia UniversityGenetics
28 Apr 1910Edouard van Beneden diedvan Beneden University of LiegeCell, Genetics
29 Apr 1910Heinz Ludwig Fraenkel-Conrat was bornFraenkel-Conrat University of California BerkeleyGenetics, Virology
17 Jan 1911Francis Galton diedGalton Genetics
4 May 1912Nettie Maria Stevens diedStevensBryn Mawr CollegeGenetics
13 Aug 1912Salvador E Luria was born in Torino, ItalyLuriaMassachusetts Institute of TechnologyGenetics, Virology
18 Dec 1912Daniel Mazia was born Scranton, PA, USAMaziaUniversity of California BerkeleyCell, Genetics
22 Feb 1914Renato Dulbecco was born in Catanzaro, ItalyDulbeccoImperial Cancer Research Fund LaboratoryGenetics, Virology, Oncology
8 Jun 1916Francis H C Crick was born in Northampton, United KingdomCrickLaboratory of Molecular BiologyDNA, Genetics
15 Dec 1916Maurice H F Wilkins was born in Pongaroa, New ZealandWilkinsKing's College LondonDNA, Genetics
7 Feb 1918Ruth Sager was born in Brookline, Massachusetts, USASagerRockefeller UniversityGenetics

1902 - 1908

Metabolic disease explained by genetic defects

16 Jun 1902

Barbara McClintock was born in Hartford CT, USA

22 Oct 1903

George Wells Beadle was born in Wahoo NE, USA

19 Dec 1903

George D Snell was born in Bradford MA, USA

4 Aug 1905

Walther Flemming died

24 Sep 1905

Severo Ochoa was born in Luarca, Spain

4 Sep 1906

Max Delbruck was born in Berlin, Germany

4 Dec 1908

Alfred D Hershey was born in Owosso, MI, USA

14 Dec 1909

Edward Lawrie Tatum was born in Boulder CO, USA

1910

Chromosomes linked with hereditary traits

28 Apr 1910

Edouard van Beneden died

29 Apr 1910

Heinz Ludwig Fraenkel-Conrat was born

17 Jan 1911

Francis Galton died

4 May 1912

Nettie Maria Stevens died

13 Aug 1912

Salvador E Luria was born in Torino, Italy

18 Dec 1912

Daniel Mazia was born Scranton, PA, USA

22 Feb 1914

Renato Dulbecco was born in Catanzaro, Italy

8 Jun 1916

Francis H C Crick was born in Northampton, United Kingdom

15 Dec 1916

Maurice H F Wilkins was born in Pongaroa, New Zealand

7 Feb 1918

Ruth Sager was born in Brookline, Massachusetts, USA