Vaccine: Timeline of key events

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The vaccine, RA27/3 had been developed by a team headed by Stanley Plotkin.1969-01-01T00:00:00+0000Stanley was an American biochemist and virologist. In 1935 he managed to crystalise the tobacco virus, the causative agent of plant disease. This was a major breakthrough because prior to this no scientists had succeeded in finding out what viruses were. His work laid the foundation for other scientists, using x-ray diffraction, to work out the precise molecular structures and reproduction process of several viruses. During World War II he managed to purify several of the most common influenza viruses and developed a vaccine that was partly effective. In 1946 he shared the Nobel Prize for Chemistry for the 'preparation of enzymes and virus proteins in a pure form.' 1971-06-15T00:00:00+0000Theiler won the 1951 Nobel Prize for Medicine for helping to develop a vaccine against yellow fever. 1972-08-11T00:00:00+0000The vaccine was developed by Stanley Plotkin, Hilary Koprowski and Tadeusz Wiktor at the Wistar Institute1980-01-01T00:00:00+0000An American microbiologist, Enders shared the 1954 Nobel Prize for helping to develop a technique to grow the poliomyeltitis virus, paving the way to a vaccine against polio. 1985-09-08T00:00:00+0000FDA grants a BLA to Merck & Co. for Recombivax HB, the first recombinant vaccine for hepatitis B. It is seen as a breakthrough because it carries no risk of infecting healthy people,1986-07-23T00:00:00+0000Developed by William Wunner at the Wistar Institute1995-01-01T00:00:00+0000A medical researcher and virologist, Salk pioneered the first safe and effective polio vaccine. Introduced in 1955, Salk's vaccine helped curb one of the most frightening public health diseases in the world. Over 1,800,000 school children took part in the trial to test his vaccine. His vaccine used killed vaccine rather than weakened forms of the strain of polio used by Sabin to develop another vaccine against the disease. Salk refused to patent his vaccine and made his technique as widely available as possible. His polio vaccine is now on the World Health Organisation's List of Essential Medicine. 1995-06-23T00:00:00+0000Sterne pioneered a vaccine against anthrax in 1935 which effectively wiped out the disease. He used Pasteur's methods to develop the vaccine while based at Onderstepoort Veterinary Research Institute, north of Pretoria, in South Africa. His method remains the mainstay for the production of anthrax vaccines for livestock today. In addition to the vaccine he developed bacterial culture methods for both anthrax and botulism and his work laid the foundation for a number of highly successful veterinary and animal vaccines. 1997-02-26T00:00:00+0000The vaccine RotaTeq took 25 years to develop. It was developed by Stanley Plotkin, H Fred Clark and Paul Offit.2006-01-01T00:00:00+0000Published in 'Nature Medicine', the system deloys glycoprotein D fused with genes from target antigens to increase the immune response. The work was led by Hildegund C.J. Ertl.2008-01-31T00:00:00+0000Vaccine developed by David Weiner together with collaborators at Inovio Pharmaceuticals, Inc., GeneOne Life Science, Inc., National Microbiology Laboratory at the Public Health Agency of Canada, and the University of Pennsylvania.2016-06-23T00:00:00+0000
Date Event People Places Sciences
1969 - 1970First license approved in US and Europe for vaccine against rubella (German measles)PlotkinWistar InstituteVaccine, Virology
15 Jun 1971Wendell M Stanley diedStanleyRockefeller InstituteBiochemistry, Virology, Vaccine
11 Aug 1972Max Theiler diedTheiler Vaccine
1980US licensed first rabies vaccine for human useKoprowski, Plotkin, WiktorWistar InstituteVaccine, Virology
8 Sep 1985John F Enders diedEndersChildren's Hospital BostonVirology, Vaccine
Jul 1986First recombinant vaccine licensed Merck & CoRecombinant DNA, Vaccine
1995US licensed first wildlife rabies vaccine Wistar InstituteVaccine, Virology
23 Jun 1995Jonas Salk diedSalkUniversity of PittsburghVirology, Vaccine
26 Feb 1997Max Sterne diedSterneOnderstepoort Veterinary Research InstituteVaccine
2006Vaccine approved for preventing rotavirus, a major kiler of children Plotkin, Clark, OffitWistar InstituteVaccine, Virology
31 Jan 2008New vaccine delivery system unveiled for preventing viral diseasesErtlWistar InstituteVaccines, Virology
23 Jun 2016FDA approved first clinical trial for zika virus vaccineWeinerWistar Institute, University of Pennsylvania, Inovio Pharmaceuticals, GeneOne Life Science, Public Health Agency of CanadaVaccines, Virology

1969 - 1970

First license approved in US and Europe for vaccine against rubella (German measles)

15 Jun 1971

Wendell M Stanley died

11 Aug 1972

Max Theiler died


US licensed first rabies vaccine for human use

8 Sep 1985

John F Enders died

8 Sep 1985

First recombinant vaccine licensed


US licensed first wildlife rabies vaccine

23 Jun 1995

Jonas Salk died

26 Feb 1997

Max Sterne died


Vaccine approved for preventing rotavirus, a major kiler of children

31 Jan 2008

New vaccine delivery system unveiled for preventing viral diseases

23 Jun 2016

FDA approved first clinical trial for zika virus vaccine