CRISPR-Cas9: Timeline of key events

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Ishino Y, Shinagawa H, Makino K, Amemura M, Nakata A (December 1987). "Nucleotide sequence of the iap gene, responsible for alkaline phosphatase isozyme conversion in Escherichia coli, and identification of the gene product". Journal of Bacteriology 169 (12): 5429–5433; Takase, I, Ishino, F, Wachi, M, et al, 'Genes encoding two lipoproteins in the leuS-dacA region of the Escherichia coli chromosome', Journal of Bacteriology, 169/12 (1987): 5692-99.1987-12-01T00:00:00+0000Mojica F J, Diez-Villasenor C, Soria E, Juez G, 'Biological significance of a family of regularly spaced repeats in the genomes of Archaea, Bacteria and mitochondria', Molecular Microbiology 36/1 (April 2000): 244–6.2000-01-18T00:00:00+0000The term was coined by a group of Dutch scientists and Francisco Mojica. R Jansen, J D Embden, W Gaastra, L M, Schouls, 'Identification of genes that are associated with DNA repeats in prokaryotes', Molecular Microbiolology 43/6 (2002): 1565-75.2002-03-01T00:00:00+0000A Bolotin, B Quinquis, A Sorokin, S D Ehrlich, 'Clustered regularly interspaced short palindrome repeats (CRISPRs) have spacers of extrachromosomal origin', Microbiology, 151/Pt 8 (2005): 2551-6.2005-08-01T00:00:00+0000D H Haft, J Selengut, E F Mongodin, K E Nelson, 'A Guild of 45 CRISPR-Associated (Cas) Protein Families and Multiple CRISPR/Cas Subtypes Exist in Prokaryotic Genomes', PLoS Computational Biology, 1/6 (2005): e60. 2005-11-11T00:00:00+0000R Barrangou, C Fremaux, H Deveau, et al, 'CRISPR provides acquired resistance against viruses in prokaryotes', Science, 315/5819 (2007): 1709-12.2007-03-23T00:00:00+00002008-01-01T00:00:00+0000H Deveau, R Barrangou, J E Garneau, J Labonte et al, 'Phage Response to CRISPR-Encoded Resistance in Streptococcus thermophilus', Journal of Bacteriology, 190/4 (2008): 1390-1400.2008-02-01T00:00:00+0000S J J Brouns, M J Matthijs, M Lundgren, E R Westra et al, 'Small CRISPR RNAs guide antiviral defense in Prokaryotes', Science, 321/5891 (2008): 960-64.2008-08-15T00:00:00+0000J Carte, R Wang, H Li, R M and M P Terns, 'Cas6 is an endoribonuclease that generates guide RNAs for invader defense in prokaryotes', Genes Development, 22/24 (2008): 3489–96.2008-12-01T00:00:00+00002011-01-01T00:00:00+0000These are highly active Steptococcus thermophilus cultures.2012-04-02T00:00:00+0000The patent was submitted by Jennifer Doudna, at the University of California Berkeley, and Emmanuell Charpentier, at the Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research in Germany. The application was for a patent to cover the use of CRISPR-Cas9 for genome editing in vitro.2012-05-25T00:00:00+0000M Jinek, K Chylinski, I Fonfara, M Hauer, J A Doudna, E Charpentier, 'A programmable dual-RNA-guided DNA endonuclease in adaptive bacterial immunity', Science, 337/6096 (2012): 816-21.2012-08-17T00:00:00+0000Submitted by Feng Zhang at MIT. Covers method for using CRISPR-Cas9 for genome editing in eukaryotic cells. 2012-12-12T00:00:00+00002013-01-01T00:00:00+00002013-01-01T00:00:00+00002013-02-01T00:00:00+00002013-03-01T00:00:00+00002013-04-01T00:00:00+0000
Date Event People Places Sciences
Dec 1987Discovery of CRISPR mechanismAmemura, Ishino, Makino, Nakata, Shinagawa, Takase, WachiOsaka UniversityCRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
18 Jan 2000More clustered repeats of DNA identified in other bacteria and archaea, termed Short Regularly Spaced Repeats (SRSR)Mojica, Diez-Villasenor, Soria, Juez University of Alicante, University Miguel HernandezCRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
Mar 2002Term CRISPR-Cas9 published for first time. Used to denote clustered regularly interspaced short palindrome repeats in a DNA sequence and its associated genes.Mojica, Jansen, Embden, Gaastra, SchoulsUtrecht UniversityCRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
Aug 2005French scientists suggest CRISPR spacer sequences provide cell immunity against phage infection and are a means of degrading DNABolotin, Quinquis, Sorokin, EhrlichInstitut National de la Recherche AgronomiqueCRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
Nov 2005American researchers identified new familes of Cas genes which appeared to help in protecting bacteria against invading virusesHaft, Selengut, Mongodin, NelsonThe Institute for Genomic ResearchCRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
Mar 2007Experiments conducted by microbiologists based at the food manufacturing company Danisco, demonstrate for the first time the role of CRISPR together with Cas9 genes in protecting bacteria against virusesBarrangou, Horvath, Fremaux, Deveau, Danisco USA IncCRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
2008DNA, not RNA, demonstrated to be the molecular target of most CRISPR-Cas systems  CRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
Feb 2008Scientists coin the term 'protospacer' to denote viral sequence that corresponds to a 'spacer' in the CRISPR-Cas9 system  CRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
Aug 2008Scientists characterised the RNA processing pathway in CRISPR systemWageningen University, University of Sheffield, National Institutes of HealthCRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
Dec 2008Scientists published the RNA gene silencing pathway involved in the CRISPR-Cas mechanism  University of Georgia, Florida State UniversityCRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
2011Classification of the CRISPR-Cas system is proposed  CRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
Apr 2012DuPont commercialises the first bacterial cultures based on the CRISPR-Cas 9 technology for the production of pizza cheese DupontCRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
May 2012First patent application submitted for CRISPR-Cas 9 technologyDoudna, CharpentierUniversity of California Berkeley, University of ViennaCRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
Aug 2012A group of scientists based at Howard Hughes Medical Institute published a radically new gene editing method that harnessed the CRISPR-Cas9 system Jinek, Chylinski, Fonfara, Hauer, Doudna, CharpentierUniversity of California BerkeleyCRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
Dec 2012Fast track application for CRISPR-Cas 9 technology submitted to US patent office. ZhangBroad Institute, Massachusetts Institute of TechnologyCRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
Jan 2013CRISPR-Cas is used in human genome editing  CRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
Jan 2013CRISPR-Cas is used to edit the genome of a zebrafish  CRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
Feb 2013CRISPR-Cas is used to programme repression and activation of gene transcription   CRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
Mar 2013CRISPR-Cas is used in genome editing of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a yeast species used in wine making, baking and brewing  CRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
Apr 2013Scientists show that CRISPR-Cas mediated gene regulation contributes to the regulation of endogenous bacterial genesWeiss CRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing

Dec 1987

Discovery of CRISPR mechanism

18 Jan 2000

More clustered repeats of DNA identified in other bacteria and archaea, termed Short Regularly Spaced Repeats (SRSR)

Mar 2002

Term CRISPR-Cas9 published for first time. Used to denote clustered regularly interspaced short palindrome repeats in a DNA sequence and its associated genes.

Aug 2005

French scientists suggest CRISPR spacer sequences provide cell immunity against phage infection and are a means of degrading DNA

Nov 2005

American researchers identified new familes of Cas genes which appeared to help in protecting bacteria against invading viruses

Mar 2007

Experiments conducted by microbiologists based at the food manufacturing company Danisco, demonstrate for the first time the role of CRISPR together with Cas9 genes in protecting bacteria against viruses

2008

DNA, not RNA, demonstrated to be the molecular target of most CRISPR-Cas systems

Feb 2008

Scientists coin the term 'protospacer' to denote viral sequence that corresponds to a 'spacer' in the CRISPR-Cas9 system

Aug 2008

Scientists characterised the RNA processing pathway in CRISPR system

Dec 2008

Scientists published the RNA gene silencing pathway involved in the CRISPR-Cas mechanism

2011

Classification of the CRISPR-Cas system is proposed

Apr 2012

DuPont commercialises the first bacterial cultures based on the CRISPR-Cas 9 technology for the production of pizza cheese

May 2012

First patent application submitted for CRISPR-Cas 9 technology

Aug 2012

A group of scientists based at Howard Hughes Medical Institute published a radically new gene editing method that harnessed the CRISPR-Cas9 system

Dec 2012

Fast track application for CRISPR-Cas 9 technology submitted to US patent office.

Jan 2013

CRISPR-Cas is used in human genome editing

Jan 2013

CRISPR-Cas is used to edit the genome of a zebrafish

Feb 2013

CRISPR-Cas is used to programme repression and activation of gene transcription

Mar 2013

CRISPR-Cas is used in genome editing of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a yeast species used in wine making, baking and brewing

Apr 2013

Scientists show that CRISPR-Cas mediated gene regulation contributes to the regulation of endogenous bacterial genes