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Timeline of key events

CRISPR-Cas9: Timeline of key events

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Date Event People Places Sciences
Dec 1987Discovery of CRISPR mechanismAmemura, Ishino, Makino, Nakata, Shinagawa, Takase, WachiOsaka UniversityCRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
18 Jan 2000More clustered repeats of DNA identified in other bacteria and archaea, termed Short Regularly Spaced Repeats (SRSR)Mojica, Diez-Villasenor, Soria, Juez University of Alicante, University Miguel HernandezCRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
Mar 2002Dutch scientists coin the term CRISPR-Cas9. Strands for clustered regularly interspaced short palindrome repeats in a DNA sequence and its associated genes.Jansen, Embden, Gaastra, SchoulsUtrecht UniversityCRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
Aug 2005French scientists suggest CRISPR spacer sequences provide cell immunity against phage infection and are a means of degrading DNABolotin, Quinquis, Sorokin, EhrlichInstitut National de la Recherche AgronomiqueCRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
Nov 2005American researchers identified new familes of Cas genes which appeared to help in protecting bacteria against invading virusesHaft, Selengut, Mongodin, NelsonThe Institute for Genomic ResearchCRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
Mar 2007Experiments conducted by microbiologists based at the food manufacturing company Danisco, demonstrate for the first time the role of CRISPR together with Cas9 genes in protecting bacteria against virusesBarrangou, Horvath, Fremaux, Deveau, Danisco USA IncCRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
2008DNA, not RNA, demonstrated to be the molecular target of most CRISPR-Cas systems  CRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
Feb 2008Scientists coin the term 'protospacer' to denote viral sequence that corresponds to a 'spacer' in the CRISPR-Cas9 system  CRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
Aug 2008Scientists characterised the RNA processing pathway in CRISPR systemWageningen University, University of Sheffield, National Institutes of HealthCRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
Dec 2008Scientists published the RNA gene silencing pathway involved in the CRISPR-Cas mechanism  University of Georgia, Florida State UniversityCRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
2011Classification of the CRISPR-Cas system is proposed  CRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
Apr 2012DuPont commercialises the first bacterial cultures based on the CRISPR-Cas 9 technology for the production of pizza cheese DupontCRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
May 2012First patent application submitted for CRISPR-Cas 9 technologyDoudna, CharpentierUniversity of California Berkeley, University of ViennaCRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
Aug 2012A group of scientists based at Howard Hughes Medical Institute publish a new method that harnesses the CRISPR-Cas9 system for genome editingJinek, Chylinski, Fonfara, Hauer, Doudna, CharpentierUniversity of California BerkeleyCRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
Dec 2012Fast track application for CRISPR-Cas 9 technology submitted to US patent office. ZhangBroad Institute, Massachusetts Institute of TechnologyCRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
Jan 2013CRISPR-Cas is used in human genome editing  CRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
Jan 2013CRISPR-Cas is used to edit the genome of a zebrafish  CRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
Feb 2013CRISPR-Cas is used to programme repression and activation of gene transcription   CRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
Mar 2013CRISPR-Cas is used in genome editing of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a yeast species used in wine making, baking and brewing  CRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
Apr 2013Scientists show that CRISPR-Cas mediated gene regulation contributes to the regulation of endogenous bacterial genesWeiss CRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing

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