Antimicrobial resistance

This presentation sets out the key facts and issues around AMR set out in this exhibition. The presentation is available here in pdf format. Individual slides are available below in jpg format. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Creative Commons license

Antimicrobial resistance, or AMR, is a mechanism by which a microorganism (like bacteria, viruses, and some parasites) can withstand the destructive effects of an antimicrobial drug (e.g. antibiotics, antivirals, antimalarials, etc.).
The major causes of AMR include overuse and misuse of antibiotics - such as using antibiotics for viral infections like colds and flu.
AMR is a rising threat to the world. Today AMR causes 700,000 deaths.
The AMR burden will be felt most in Asia an African countries where Infectious diseases (like malaria, tuberculosis and HIV) are widespread and sanitation is poor.
A timeline of drug development and AMR: early developments.
A timeline of drug development and AMR: the 1940s to the 1960s.
A timeline of drug development and AMR: recent developments.
Evolving knowledge about bacteria and AMR: the early years.
Evolving knowledge about bacteria and AMR: the 1940s and the 1950s.
Evolving knowledge about bacteria and AMR: recent developments.
Early methods to identify bacteria: microscopes.
Early methods to identify bacteria: Serotyping (1920s)  where bacteria mixed on glass slide with serum containing antibodies taken from immunised animals and inspected to see if cells clump together
Early methods to identify bacteria: Phage typing (1920s): bacteria are identified by seeing if specific viruses (phages) kill them.
Antibiotics susceptibility tests (ASTs) The Fleming agar diffusion test (1929). Bacteria grown in agar and penicillin placed in a ditch. Darker areas show where the drug had no impact.
The Kirby-Bauer agar diffusion test (1959): Paper disks containing different antibiotics placed on bacteria growing in agar. Clear zones around the discs show where bacteria killed.
Molecular diagnostics: In the 1970s new tools for amplifying and sequencing DNA were developed. New diagnostic tools can identify bacteria and antibiotic resistance determinants.
Diagnostics are key: Quick, cheap and simple diagnostics are key to slowing down AMR. Most diagnostics today are done in a laboratory away from point of care. Turnaround of results can take days, too long to inform clinical decisions. They require extensive training to interrupt results.
new portable, affordable, molecular diagnostic kit developed by Cambridge University scientists. Powered by solar battery. Can be performed anywhere in the world. Results provided in 2-6 hours.
Some of the many scientists behind the AMR story.
Some of the many scientists behind the AMR story.

Respond to or comment on this page on our feeds on Facebook, Instagram or Twitter.