Timeline of key events in the development of Campath

The drug dramatically improves the patient's condition.1991-01-01T00:00:00+0000BTG starts negotiations to license Campath to a commercial partner.1993-01-01T00:00:00+0000Waldmann takes up a position in the William Dunn School of Pathology, 1994-01-01T00:00:00+0000The move is prompted by Waldmann's Oxford University appointment.1994-01-01T00:00:00+0000Coles joins as a doctoral student.1994-01-01T00:00:00+0000This is due to the company being reabsorbed into its parent company and disappointing results from trials conducted with Campath-1H for RA.1994-10-01T00:00:00+0000Roy Calne, Peter Friend and Waldman's team launch a small trial with 31 kidney transplant patients to see if Campath-1H can help in reducing immunosuppressant drugs. 1997-01-01T00:00:00+0000Wellcome transfers its manufacturing expertise on Campath to Boehringer Ingelheim. 1997-01-01T00:00:00+0000LeukoSite is granted the license by BTG to develop Campath-1H for CLL and other disease indications.1997-04-01T00:00:00+0000The two companies enter a drug development partnership. 1997-05-01T00:00:00+0000Leukosite raises US$17 million.1997-08-01T00:00:00+0000Analysis of 29 MS patients given MS indicate Campath-1H might be more effective if given earlier in the course of the disease.1998-01-01T00:00:00+0000The trial is to test Campath-1H for treating B-CLL. 1998-04-01T00:00:00+0000Results collected from 93 patients indicates Campath-1H to be a promising treatment for B-CLL.1999-06-01T00:00:00+0000The alliance is for the marketing of Campath-1H.1999-08-01T00:00:00+0000Millennium Pharmaceuticals pays US$750 million in stock.1999-12-01T00:00:00+0000An application is submitted. 1999-12-01T00:00:00+0000Known as the CAM 307 trial, the study compareds Campath-1H with chlorambucil, a standard first-line treatment for the disease.2001-01-01T00:00:00+0000The approval is for Campath-1H to be used as a third-line treatment of B-CLL.2001-05-01T00:00:00+0000Campath-1H is approved for the European market as a third-line treatment of B-CLL. 2001-07-01T00:00:00+0000Results from 58 MS patients indicate Campath-1H more effective in those who are less advanced in their disease.2002-01-01T00:00:00+0000This comes about after a meeting between Jeff Bulchalter, chief executive officer of Ilex Oncology and Compston.2002-01-01T00:00:00+0000Known as CAMMS223, this randomised control trial, which compares Campath-1H with interferon beta-1a, indicates Campath-1H is an effective treatment for MS.2002-01-01T00:00:00+0000Genzyme pays US1 billion for the acquisition.2004-04-01T00:00:00+0000The resulting company is Bayer Schering Pharma.2006-01-01T00:00:00+0000Positive results reported from 1,779 patients.2007-01-01T00:00:00+00002007-09-01T00:00:00+00002007-12-01T00:00:00+0000Genzyme gains the worldwide rights to Campath-1H from Bayer Schering Pharma.2009-01-01T00:00:00+0000Campath-1H shown to help lower the amount of immunosuppressant drugs taken by organ transplant patients. 2011-01-01T00:00:00+0000Granted by European regulatory authorities.2013-09-17T00:00:00+0000Alemtuzumab was originally developed by Herman Waldmann as a laboratory tool to investigate immune tolerance. It soon became the first humanised monoclonal antibody drug. Initially alemtuzumab proved effective for helping prevent graft-versus host disease in transplant patients. It subsequently went on to be approved as a treatment for leukaemia and then many years later it was shown to be effective against multiple sclerosis. 2013-09-17T00:00:00+0000US patients start campaign to reverse FDA decision2013-12-27T00:00:00+0000Known as Lemtrada, alemtuzumab was originally developed by Herman Waldmann as a tool for the investigation of immune tolerance. The drug, which is the oldest humanised monoclonal antibody, is now used for many different diseases. Alastair Compston was the clinician who pioneered the use of the antibody for the treatment of multiple sclerosis. The first patient treated for multiple sclerosis with the drug happened in 1991. For more on the long history of the drug see our exhibition about the development of Campath. 2014-11-25T00:00:00+0000
Date Event People Places
1991The first MS patient is given Campath-1HWaldmann, hale, CompstonCambridge University
1993The rights to Campath are assigned to the British Technology Group (BTG).WaldmannCambridge University
1 Jan 1994Waldmann moves to Oxford University.WaldmannOxford University
1994The TAC relocates to Oxford.Hale, WaldmannOxford University
1994Alasdair Coles joins Compston's teamColesCambridge University
October 1994Wellcome Biotech abandons development of Campath-1H.Wellcome Biotech
1997Small scale tests launched with Campath-1H for organ transplant patients.Waldmann, Calne, FriendCambridge University
1997LeukoSite enters a manufacturing agreement for Campath-1H with Boehringer Ingelheim.Leukosite, Boehringer Ingelheim
April 1997Christopher Mirabelli, Chief Executive Officer of LeukoSite, agrees to take over the commercial development of Campath-1H.MirabelliLeukoSite
May 1997LeukoSite partners with Ilex Oncology.LeukoSite, Ilex Oncology
1 Aug 1997Leukosite makes its first initial public offering.Leukosite
1998Analysis of 29 MS patients given MS indicate Campath-1H might be more effective if given earlier in the course of the disease.Compston, Coles, Waldmann, HaleCambridge University
1 Apr 1998Leukosite and Ilex Oncology launch their first joint clinical trial of Campath-1H.Leukosite, Ilex Oncology
1 Jun 1999Results collected from 93 patients indicates Campath-1H to be a promising treatment for B-CLL.LeukoSite, Ilex Oncology
August 1999LeukoSite and Ilex Oncology partner with Schering AG.Leukosite, Ilex Oncology, Schering AG
1 Dec 1999Millennium Pharmaceuticals acquires LeukoSite.Millennium Pharmaceuticals, Leukosite
1 Dec 1999Regulatory approval is sought for Campath-1H for the treatment of B-CLL.Millennium Pharmaceuticals, Ilex Oncology
2001 - 2004Trial to establish efficacy of Campath-1H as first-line treatment for B-CLL.Genzyme
1 May 2001FDA approved Campath-1H 
1 Jul 2001European approval granted for Campath-1H 
2002Results from 58 MS patients indicate Campath-1H more effective in those who are less advanced in their disease.Compston, ColesCambridge University
2002Ilex Oncology agrees to raise funds to sponsor clinical trials for Campath-1H in MS patients.Compston, BuchalterIlex Oncology, Cambridge University
2002 - 2004Phase II trial tests Campath-1H for relapsing-remitting MS.Compston, ColesCambridge University, Ilex Oncology
1 Apr 2004Genzyme acquires Ilex Oncology.Genzyme, Ilex Oncology
2006Schering AG merges with BayerBayer, Schering AG
2007 - 2011Two phase III randomised control trials conducted with Campath-1H in patients with early MSCompston, ColesCambridge University, Ilex Oncology, Genzyme
September 2007FDA approved Campath-1H as first-line treatment for B-CLL 
December 2007Campath-1H granted European regulatory approval as first-line treatment for B-CLL. 
2009Genzyme buys rights to Campath-1H.Bayer Schering Pharma, Genzyme
2011Positive results from trials using Campath-1H for organ transplant patientsWaldmann, CalneCambridge University
September 2013Campath-1H gains marketing approval for the treatment of MS.Waldmann, Compston, ColesCambridge University
17 Sep 2013European Commission approved Alemtuzumab (Lemtrada) for MS treatmentCompston, Coles, WaldmannCambridge University, Sanofi
December 2013FDA rejected approval of Lembrada for MS treatmentSanofi
25 Nov 2014FDA approved alemtuzumab for relapsing MS who failed to respond to alternative treatmentsWaldmann, CompstonAddenbrookes Hospital, Sanofi

1991

The first MS patient is given Campath-1H

1993

The rights to Campath are assigned to the British Technology Group (BTG).

1993

Waldmann moves to Oxford University.

1994

The TAC relocates to Oxford.

1994

Alasdair Coles joins Compston's team

Oct 1994

Wellcome Biotech abandons development of Campath-1H.

1997

Small scale tests launched with Campath-1H for organ transplant patients.

1997

LeukoSite enters a manufacturing agreement for Campath-1H with Boehringer Ingelheim.

Apr 1997

Christopher Mirabelli, Chief Executive Officer of LeukoSite, agrees to take over the commercial development of Campath-1H.

May 1997

LeukoSite partners with Ilex Oncology.

May 1997

Leukosite makes its first initial public offering.

1998

Analysis of 29 MS patients given MS indicate Campath-1H might be more effective if given earlier in the course of the disease.

1998

Leukosite and Ilex Oncology launch their first joint clinical trial of Campath-1H.

1998

Results collected from 93 patients indicates Campath-1H to be a promising treatment for B-CLL.

Aug 1999

LeukoSite and Ilex Oncology partner with Schering AG.

Aug 1999

Millennium Pharmaceuticals acquires LeukoSite.

Aug 1999

Regulatory approval is sought for Campath-1H for the treatment of B-CLL.

2001 - 2004

Trial to establish efficacy of Campath-1H as first-line treatment for B-CLL.

2001

FDA approved Campath-1H

2001

European approval granted for Campath-1H

2002

Results from 58 MS patients indicate Campath-1H more effective in those who are less advanced in their disease.

2002

Ilex Oncology agrees to raise funds to sponsor clinical trials for Campath-1H in MS patients.

2002 - 2004

Phase II trial tests Campath-1H for relapsing-remitting MS.

2002

Genzyme acquires Ilex Oncology.

2006

Schering AG merges with Bayer

2007 - 2011

Two phase III randomised control trials conducted with Campath-1H in patients with early MS

Sep 2007

FDA approved Campath-1H as first-line treatment for B-CLL

Dec 2007

Campath-1H granted European regulatory approval as first-line treatment for B-CLL.

2009

Genzyme buys rights to Campath-1H.

2011

Positive results from trials using Campath-1H for organ transplant patients

Sep 2013

Campath-1H gains marketing approval for the treatment of MS.

17 Sep 2013

European Commission approved Alemtuzumab (Lemtrada) for MS treatment

Dec 2013

FDA rejected approval of Lembrada for MS treatment

25 Nov 2014

FDA approved alemtuzumab for relapsing MS who failed to respond to alternative treatments

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