Cloning

Cloning: timeline of key events

Ruddle helped pioneer human gene mapping and established many of the techniques and a framework for setting up the Human Genome Project. He generated, with Jon W. Gordon and George Scango the first successful transgenic mouse. This heralded the development of genetically modified animals as research models to investigate the function of genes and genetic cause of disease. Ruddle also discovered, with William McGinnis, the first human homeobox genes, important regulators of gene development. 1929-08-19T00:00:00+0000Stahl is a molecular biologist and geneticist who helped to elucidate how DNA is replicated. Together with Matthew Medelsohn, Stahl showed that the double-stranded helix molecule of DNA separates into two strands and that each of these strands serve as a template for the production of a new strand of DNA. They did this in 1958. Following this work, Stahl did extensive work on bacteriophages, viruses that infect bacteria, and their genetic recombination. In 1964 he established that DNA in T4 bacteriophages is circular rather than linear. Eight years later he and his wife, Mary, found a DNA sequence in the lambda bacteriophage necessary to initiate genetic recombination. This laid the foundation for genetic engineering. 1929-10-08T00:00:00+0000Baltimore shared the 1975 Nobel Prize for his work on the interaction between tumor viruses and the genetic material of the cell. He also spearheaded efforts for the scientific governance of recombinant DNA and genome editing technologies. 1938-03-07T00:00:00+0000The cloning, achieved by Beverly Griffin with Tomas Lindahl, was announced to a meeting at Cold Spring Harbor1979-01-01T00:00:00+00001981-01-01T00:00:00+0000The work, led by Beverly Griffin, opened up the possibility of sequencing the virus. It was published in J R Arrand, L. Rymo, J E Walsh, E Bjorck, T Lindahl and B E Griffin, ‘Molecular cloning of the complete Epstein-Barr virus genome as a set of overlapping restriction endonuclease fragments’, Nucleic Acids Research, 9/13 (1981), 2999-2014.1981-07-10T00:00:00+0000 Illmensee’s 1981 announcement of cloning mice is believed to be fraudulent1984-01-01T00:00:00+0000The suggestion involves the insertion of gene segments from a human antibody into the DNA of early mouse embryos. It is put forward by scientists at Columbia University, this idea is published in FW. Alt, TK. Blackwell, GD. Yancopoulos, 'Immunoglobulin genes in transgenic mice', Trends Genetics, 1 (1985), 231–6.1985-01-01T00:00:00+0000This patent is filed on the basis of work reported in M Brüggeman, HM Caskey, C Teale, H Waldmann, Williams, Surani, and MS Neuberger, A repertoire of monoclonal antibodies with human heavy chains from transgenic mice, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 86 (Sept 1989), 6709-13. 1988-01-01T00:00:00+0000Three groups of scientists separately report the successful generation of different strains of transgenic mice for the generation of human monoclonal antibodies. Two of the teams are based in biotechnology companies: GenPharm (led by Nils Lonsberg), Cell Gensys (led by Larry Green) , and the other involved a collaboration (led by Marian Bruggemann and Michael Neuberger) between scientists at the Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Braham Institute and the University of Cologne.1994-01-01T00:00:00+0000Dolly the sheep was created by cloning an adult cell. This was done by transferring the nucleus of an adult sheep's cell to the nucleus of an unfertilised egg cell. It took 277 attempts to achieve success. The work was carried out by Keith Campbell, Ian Wilmut and colleagues at the Rosilin Institute, PPL Therapeutics and the Ministry of Agriculture. 1996-07-05T00:00:00+0000The sheep, Polly, was produced by the same scientists who cloned Dolly the sheep. Polly was one of six cloned lambs which had human genes inserted. The gene that was transferred was linked to then human blood clotting factor IX. Such genetic engineering was done to demonstrate the potential of such recombinant DNA technology combined with animal cloning. It was done in the hope that one day transgenic animals might provide pharmacological and therapeutic proteins and transplant organs to treat human diseases. The work was published in AE Schnieke; et al, 'Human factor IX transgenic sheep produced by transfer of nuclei from transfected fetal fibroblasts', Science, 278/5346 (1997), 2130–33.1997-07-09T00:00:00+0000Advanced Cell Technology, a private lab, created a six-cell embryo by removing DNA from a human egg and injecting it with the DNA of a skin cell. The aim was to produce genetically matched replacement cells for patients with a wide range of diseases.2001-10-01T00:00:00+0000Guidelines included a ban on public funding of research that could lead to cloning, as well as a ban on creating embryos simply for research purposes. It also banned payments to obtain embryos for research.2002-03-04T00:00:00+0000Dolly the sheep was created by cloning an adult cell. This was done by transferring the nucleus of an adult sheep's cell to the nucleus of an unfertilised egg cell. It took 277 attempts to achieve success.2003-02-14T00:00:00+0000A team lead by Robert Lanza at Advanced Cell Technology, a biotechnology company in Worcester, Massacusettes, announced the creation of a six-cell embryo by removing DNA from a human egg and injecting it with the DNA of a skin cell. The aim was to produce genetically matched replacement cells for patients with a wide range of diseases. The work was published in Y. Chung et al, 'Embryonic and extraembryonic stem cell lines derived from single mouse blastomeres', Nature, 439 (2006), 216–19.2006-01-12T00:00:00+0000Ruddle helped pioneer human gene mapping and established many of the techniques and a framework for setting up the Human Genome Project. He also generated, with Jon W. Gordon and George Scango the first successful transgenic mouse. This heralded the development of genetically modified animals as research models to investigate the function of genes and genetic cause of disease. Ruddle also discovered, with William McGinnis, the first human homeobox genes, important regulators of gene development. 2013-03-10T00:00:00+0000Z. Liu et al, 'Cloning of macaque monkeys by somatic cell nuclear transfer', Cell (2018), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2018.01.020 2018-01-24T00:00:00+0000
Date Event People Places
19 Aug 1929Frank Ruddle was born in West New York, New JerseyRuddleYale University
8 Oct 1929Franklin W Stahl was born in Boston, Massachusetts, USAStahl California Institute of Technology, University of Missouri, University of Oregon
7 Mar 1938David Baltimore was born in New York CityBaltimoreNew York City
1979First DNA fragments of Epstein Barr Virus cloned Griffin, LindahlImperial Cancer Research Fund Laboratories, University of Gothenberg
January 1981First cloning of mice claimedIllmensee, HoppeUniversity of Geneva, Jackson laboratory
10 Jul 1981Complete library of overlapping DNA fragments of Epstein Barr Virus clonedGriffin, Arrand, Walsh, Bjorck, RymoImperial Cancer Research Fund Laboratories, University of Gothenberg
1984First mouse clone claim challengedUniversity of Geneva
January 1985Idea put forward for the creation of transgenic mice to produce human antibodiesAlt, Blackwell, YancopoulosColumbia University
1988Patent application filed for a method to create transgenic mice for the production of human antibodiesBruggeman, Caskey, Neuberger, Surani, Teale, Waldmann, WilliamsLaboratory of Molecular Biology, Babraham Institute, Cambridge University
1994First transgenic mice strains reported for producing human monoclonal antibodiesBruggemann, S.Green, Lonsberg, NeubergerCell Genesys, GenPharm, Laboratory of Molecular Biology
5 Jul 1996Dolly the sheep, the first cloned mammal, was bornWilmut, CampbellRoslin Institute
9 Jul 1997Birth of first sheep cloned with human genesSchnieke, Kind, Ritchie, Mycock, Scott, Wilmutt, Colman, CampbellPPL Therapeutics, Roslin Institute
October 2001Human embryo cloned to make stem cellsAdvanced Cell Technology
4 Mar 2002Canadian Institutes of Health Research unveiled guidelines for stem cell research 
14 Feb 2003Dolly the sheep, the first cloned mammal, diedWilmutRoslin Institute
12 Jan 2006First successful cloning of human embryo to make stem cellsLanza, Chung, Klimanskaya, Becker, Marh, Lu, Johnson, MeisnerAdvanced Cell Technology
10 Mar 2013Frank Ruddle died in New Haven, ConnecticutRuddleYale University
24 Jan 2018Chinese scientists cloned the first monkeys by somatic cell nuclear transferLiu, Cai, Wang, Nie, Zhang, Xu, Xiatong, Zhang, Lu, Poo, SunChinese Academy of Sciences

19 Aug 1929

Frank Ruddle was born in West New York, New Jersey

8 Oct 1929

Franklin W Stahl was born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA

7 Mar 1938

David Baltimore was born in New York City

1979

First DNA fragments of Epstein Barr Virus cloned

Jan 1981

First cloning of mice claimed

10 Jul 1981

Complete library of overlapping DNA fragments of Epstein Barr Virus cloned

1984

First mouse clone claim challenged

Jan 1985

Idea put forward for the creation of transgenic mice to produce human antibodies

1988

Patent application filed for a method to create transgenic mice for the production of human antibodies

1994

First transgenic mice strains reported for producing human monoclonal antibodies

5 Jul 1996

Dolly the sheep, the first cloned mammal, was born

9 Jul 1997

Birth of first sheep cloned with human genes

Oct 2001

Human embryo cloned to make stem cells

4 Mar 2002

Canadian Institutes of Health Research unveiled guidelines for stem cell research

14 Feb 2003

Dolly the sheep, the first cloned mammal, died

12 Jan 2006

First successful cloning of human embryo to make stem cells

10 Mar 2013

Frank Ruddle died in New Haven, Connecticut

24 Jan 2018

Chinese scientists cloned the first monkeys by somatic cell nuclear transfer

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