Timeline of key events in biotechnology

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The drug was developed by Genentech using the antibody drug conjugate technology it licensed from Seattle Genetics. The drug was to be used in combination with bendamustine plus Rituxan for relapsed and refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. 2017-02-01T00:00:00+0000LD Landegger et al, 'A synthetic AAV vector enables safe and efficient gene transfer to the mammalian inner ear', Nature Biotechnology, 6 Feb 2017, doi:10.1038/nbt.37812017-02-06T00:00:00+0000Mansfield was an English physicist who was the inventor and principal architect of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the body scanning technology that revolutionised diagnostic medicine. Originally Mansfield devised the technology to study crystal structures but it did not generate enough gradients so he turned to biological samples. The first live demonstration of the technology on human anatomy was carried out in 1976 on the finger of Mansfield's PhD student. Mansfield was awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 2003.2017-02-09T00:00:00+0000PA Muraro, M Pasquini, HL Atkins, et al, 'Long-term Outcomes After Autologous Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Multiple Sclerosis', JAMA Neurolology, 20 Feb 2018, doi:10.1001/jamaneurol.2016.58672017-02-20T00:00:00+0000While granting permission the Academies urged caution. NAS and NAM, Human Genome Editing: Science, Ethics and Governance, February 20172017-02-24T00:00:00+0000Announcement based on study of 221 patients with metastatic melanoma, approximately half of whom were treated with a PD1 checkpoint inhibitor drug. The research was conducted by researchers led by Jennifer Wargo at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. V. Gopalakrishnan et al, ASCO-SITC Clinical Immuno-Oncology Symposium. Abstract 02. Presented February 24, 2017. 2017-02-24T00:00:00+0000Patient treated with lentiviral vector-mediated addition of a gene into autologous hematopoietic stem cells. JA Ribell, S Hacien-Bey-Abina, E. OPayen, A. Magnani, et al, 'Gene therapy in a patient with sickle cell disease', NEJM, 376 (2017), 848-55.2017-03-02T00:00:00+0000S. Ellys Harrison, B. Sozen, N. Christodoulou, C. Kyprianou, M. Zernicka-Goetz, 'Assembly of embryonic and extra-embryonic stem cells to mimic embryogenesis in vitro', Science, DOI: 10.1126/science.aal1810 2017-03-03T00:00:00+0000M. Mandai et al, 'Autologous Induced Stem-Cell–Derived Retinal Cells for Macular Degeneration', NEJM, 376 (2017), 1038-46.2017-03-16T00:00:00+0000The women went blind as a result of the treatment. A.E. Kuriyan et al, 'Vision Loss after Intravitreal Injection of Autologous “Stem Cells” for AMD', NEJM, 376 (2017), 1047-53. 2017-03-16T00:00:00+0000Evidence collected from randomised, doublice-blind, placebo controled study of 27,000 patients in 49 countries between Feb 2013 and June 2015. MS Sabatine, et al, 'Evolocumab and Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Cardiovascular Disease', NEJM, 2017, DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1615664.2017-03-17T00:00:00+0000Developed by EMD Serono, avelumab was the first FDA approved product to treat metastatic Merckel cell carcinoma. Approval was given on the basis of basis of a clinical trial of 88 patient, 33% of whom experienced a complete or partial shrinkage of their tumours. In patients who responded, 86% had a response that last 6 months, and 45% had a response that lasted more than 12 months. The drug is being developed through an alliance between Merck KGaA and Pfizer. 2017-03-23T00:00:00+0000Aimed at treating a rare-inherited disorder that can cause severe pancreatitis, the drug (Glybera) made too little profit for its maker, uniQure, to justify continuing to market it. 2017-04-01T00:00:00+0000J. S. Gootenberg, O.O. Abudayyeh, J. W. Lee, et al, 'Nucleic acid detection with CRISPR-Cas13a/C2c2', Science, 13 April 2017, eaam9321, DOI: 10.1126/science.aam9321 2017-04-13T00:00:00+0000G. Fontana, J. Gershlak, M. Adamski, J-S Lee, S. Matsumoto, H. D. Le, B. Binder, J. Wirth, G. Gaudette, W. L. Murphy, 'Decellularized Plants: Biofunctionalized Plants as Diverse Biomaterials for Human Cell Culture', Advanced Healthcare Materials, DOI: 10.1002/adhm.2017700382017-04-19T00:00:00+0000Collaborative research carried out by scientists at University of Edinburgh, University College London and Imperial College. 2017-04-20T00:00:00+0000The experiment was carried out by scientists at Sichuan University, Temple University and the University of Pittsburgh. It was published in C. Yin, et al, 'In Vivo Excision of HIV-1 Provirus by saCas9 and Multiplex Single-Guide RNAs in Animal Models', Molecular Therapy, 25/5 (2017), 1168-86.2017-05-13T00:00:00+0000The molecular structure of vancomycin was altered to enhance its attack on bacteria cell walls and have three mechanisms of attack so as to prevent bacteria developing resistance. A. Okano el al., 'Peripheral modifications of vancomycin with added synergistic mechanisms of action provide durable and potent antibiotics,' PNAS (2017), oi/10.1073/pnas.1704125114 2017-05-31T00:00:00+0000Twenty-two adult patients classified as obese (BMI > 35) were randomized 1:1 to either the treatment or placebo group. The treatment group received an FMT with capsules followed by a monthly maintenance dose of oral capsules for 12 weeks total. While initial trial results did not show differences in weight loss or the GLP1 hormone (related to the feeling of having eaten enough), changes were detected in the microbiota of FMT recipients which show more similiarities to that of the lean donor. JR Allegretti et al, 'Effects of FMT with oral capsules in obese patients', Clinical Gastroenterology & Hepatology (2019), S1542-3565(19)30739-6. 2017-07-10T00:00:00+0000The drug CTL019 (tisagenlecleucel) was developed by Novartis. Treatment involves removing T cells from the patient and genetically modifying them to increase their capacity to bind to tumour cells in order to get the immune sytem to attack the tumours. It is targeted at children and young adults from three to 25 years old who have not responded to traditional treatments.2017-07-12T00:00:00+0000
Date Event People Places Sciences
Feb 2017FDA granted Breakthrough Therapy designation and Priority Review for polatuzumab vedotin  Seattle Genetics, GenentechMonoclonal antibodies, Oncology
6 Feb 2017Gene therapy shown to restore hearing in deaf miceLandegger, Pan, Askew, Wassmer, Gluck, Galvin, Taylor, Forge, Sankovic, Holt, VandenbergheEaton Peabody Laboratories, Harvard Medical School, Medical University of Vienna, UCL, Boston's Children's Hospital, Harvard Stem Cell Institute, University of North Carolina, Grousbeck Gene Therapy CenterGene therapy
9 Feb 2017Peter Mansfield diedMansfieldNottingham UniversityDiagnostic imaging
20 Feb 2017Data published from 25 centres in 13 countries for 281 patients indicated autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation can halt the progression of MS disabilityMuraro, Pasquini, AtkinsImperial CollegeStem cells
Feb 2017US National Academies of Science and Medicine gave green light to proceed with CRISPR in germ-line experiments  CRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
24 Feb 2017Researchers report patients with greater diversity of gut bacteria have better response to cancer immunotherapyWargo, GopalakrishnanMD Anderson Cancer CenterCancer immunotherapy, Immune checkpoint inhibitors, Oncology, Microbiome
2 Mar 2017Gene therapy reported to successfully reverse sickle cell disease in first patientRibell, Hacien-Bey-Abina, Payen, Magnani, LeboulchUniversity of ParisGene therapy, Stem cells
3 Mar 2017Cambridge scientists report the development of an aritificial mouse embryo using stem cells University of CambridgeStem cells, Reproduction
16 Mar 2017Study published showing a personalised treatment using a patient's own stem cells effective for treating macular degeneration, a common blinding diseaseMandaiRIKEN Center for Developmental BiologyStem cells
16 Mar 2017Follow-up of three women given stem cell treatment in 2015 to treat macular degeneration raises concerns KuriyanFlaum Eye InstituteStem cells
17 Mar 2017Monoclonal antibody shown to effectively cut cholesterol levels, thereby preventing heart attacks and strokes SabatineMonoclonal antibodies, Cardiovascular
23 Mar 2017FDA granted accelerated approval to avelumab, a PD-L1 checkpoint inhibitor, to treat Merkel cell carcinoma, a rare form of skin cancer treatment, in patients 12 years and older with metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma, a rare form of skin disorderEMD Serono, Merck KGaA, PfizerImmune checkpoint inhibitors, Cancer immunotherapy, Oncology, Monoclonal antibodies
Apr 2017First gene therapy approved in Europe for lipoprotein lipase deficiency (Glybera) withdrawn from market uniQureGene therapy
13 Apr 2017CRISPR shown to be sensitive diagnostic tool for detecting single target of DNA or RNA moleculeAbudayyeh, Bhattacharyya, Collins, Daringe, Donghia, Dy, Essletzbichler, Freije, Hung, Joung, Koonin, Lee, Livny, Myhrvold, Regev, Sabeti, Gootenberg, Verdine, ZhangBroad Institute, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Harvard University, Howard Hughes Medical Institute CRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
Apr 2017Researchers at University of Washington-Madison demonstrated the possibility of growing skin, bone marrow and blood vessels using plant scaffolds with stem cells University of Washington-Madison, Olbrich Botanical GardensStem Cells
20 Apr 2017Diabetes research using transgenic mice shows the protein P2X7R plays important role in inflammation and immune system offering new avenue for treating kidney diseaseMenziesUniversity of Edinburgh, University College London, Imperial CollegeImunology, Transgenic animals
13 May 2017Research published demonstrating how CRISPR-CAS9 can be used to eliminate HIV in infected mice. Yin, Zhang, Qu, Chang, Putatunda, Xiao, Li, Zhao, Dhai, Qin, Mo, Young, Khalili, HuTemple University, University of Pittsburgh, Sichuan UniversityCRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
31 May 2017Scientists report successfully re-engineering old antibiotic for combatting superbugsOkano, BodgerScripps Research InstituteAntimicrobial resistance, Antibacterial agents
10 Jul 2017Results published from first randomised controlled FMT trial for obesityThompsonBrigham and Women's HospitalFaecal microbiota transplant
12 Jul 2017US FDA Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee recommended the approval of the first adoptive cell therapy (CAR-T cell therapy) for B cell acute leukaemiaJuneNovartis, University of PennsylvaniaCancer immunotherapy, Oncology, Adoptive cell therapy, Gene therapy

Feb 2017

FDA granted Breakthrough Therapy designation and Priority Review for polatuzumab vedotin

6 Feb 2017

Gene therapy shown to restore hearing in deaf mice

9 Feb 2017

Peter Mansfield died

20 Feb 2017

Data published from 25 centres in 13 countries for 281 patients indicated autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation can halt the progression of MS disability

Feb 2017

US National Academies of Science and Medicine gave green light to proceed with CRISPR in germ-line experiments

24 Feb 2017

Researchers report patients with greater diversity of gut bacteria have better response to cancer immunotherapy

2 Mar 2017

Gene therapy reported to successfully reverse sickle cell disease in first patient

3 Mar 2017

Cambridge scientists report the development of an aritificial mouse embryo using stem cells

16 Mar 2017

Study published showing a personalised treatment using a patient's own stem cells effective for treating macular degeneration, a common blinding disease

16 Mar 2017

Follow-up of three women given stem cell treatment in 2015 to treat macular degeneration raises concerns

17 Mar 2017

Monoclonal antibody shown to effectively cut cholesterol levels, thereby preventing heart attacks and strokes

23 Mar 2017

FDA granted accelerated approval to avelumab, a PD-L1 checkpoint inhibitor, to treat Merkel cell carcinoma, a rare form of skin cancer treatment, in patients 12 years and older with metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma, a rare form of skin disorder

Apr 2017

First gene therapy approved in Europe for lipoprotein lipase deficiency (Glybera) withdrawn from market

13 Apr 2017

CRISPR shown to be sensitive diagnostic tool for detecting single target of DNA or RNA molecule

Apr 2017

Researchers at University of Washington-Madison demonstrated the possibility of growing skin, bone marrow and blood vessels using plant scaffolds with stem cells

20 Apr 2017

Diabetes research using transgenic mice shows the protein P2X7R plays important role in inflammation and immune system offering new avenue for treating kidney disease

13 May 2017

Research published demonstrating how CRISPR-CAS9 can be used to eliminate HIV in infected mice.

31 May 2017

Scientists report successfully re-engineering old antibiotic for combatting superbugs

10 Jul 2017

Results published from first randomised controlled FMT trial for obesity

12 Jul 2017

US FDA Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee recommended the approval of the first adoptive cell therapy (CAR-T cell therapy) for B cell acute leukaemia

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