Timeline of key events in biotechnology

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The drug, bebtelovimab, is a neturalising IgG1 monoclonal antibody that binds to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. It was developed by AbCellera and Eli Lilly using a high throughput B-cell screening pipeline. . 2022-02-11T00:00:00+0000The drug, Azeliragon, had previously be shown to be safe in trials exploring its use for Alzheimer’s disease and diabetic nephropathy. Studies with the chip, created by Ingber and his team at the Wyss Institute, revealed the small molecule drug blocked inflammation-causing cytokines including IL-6, IL-8, and IP-10 as well as RANTES, a major proinflammatory cytokine produced by virus-infected lung cells. Based on the results Phase 2 clinical trials were planned to investigate the drug further for patients hospitaled with severe COVID-19, and in other pulmonary inflammatory diseases including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and steroid refractory asthma. 2022-02-23T00:00:00+0000Altman was a Canadian molecular biologist who shared the 1989 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for discovering the catalytic properties of RNA. This emerged out of some work Altman carried out between 1978 and 1983 on a bacterial enzyme called RNAs-P. His research helped transform the basic understanding of nuclear acids, which up to this moment had been understood to only carry genetic information. It also opened up the possibility of using genetic engineering to develop new forms of therapy against viral infections. 2022-04-05T00:00:00+0000H Bai, L Si, A Jiang, A, et al (8 April 2022) 'Mechanical control of innate immune responses against viral infection revealed in a human lung alveolus chip', Nature Communications, 13/1928.2022-04-08T00:00:00+0000The chip was created by researchers at Hesperos to test therapies for treating rare neuromuscular diseases. It contains two cell types: motoneurons, which transmit messages from the brain to muscles, and Schwann cells which help the signals to move more quickly. The chip was developed to mimic the biology of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and multifocal motor neuropathy. It was funded by a research grant from the NIH’s National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences. 2022-04-19T00:00:00+0000An adeno-associated-virus was used to introduce the mouse Kitl gene into the mice's ovaries. The gene helps regulate ovarian function and the formation of oocytes. 8 out of 10 mice became fertile after being injected with the gene. The therapy led the mice to bear offspring after they mated naturally. M Kanatsu et al (2022) 'Adeno-associated-virus-mediated gene delivery to ovaries restores fertility in congenital infertile mice', Cell Reports Medicine, 2022-04-27T00:00:00+0000
Date Event People Places Sciences
11 Feb 2022FDA issued emergency use authorisation for a new monoclonal antibody treatment for COVID-19 that is active against the omicron variant.  AbCellera, Eli LillyMonoclonal antibodies
23 Feb 2022Human Lung Alveolus Chip demonstrated drug to significantly inhibit production of inflammation-causing cytokines triggered by SARS-CoV-2 and other viral infectionsIngberHarvard University, Wyss Institute, Cantex PharmaceuticalsOrgan-on-a-chip
5 Apr 2022Sidney Altman diedAltmanHarvard University, Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Yale UniversityRNA, genetics
8 Apr 2022Human lung aveolus chip reveals mechanical control of immune responses against viral infectionHaiqing Bai, Longlong Si, Amanda Jiang, Chaitra Belgur, Yunhao Zhai, Plebani, Crystal Yuri Oh, Melissa Rodas, Patil, Nurani, Gilpin, Rani Powers, Girija Goyal, Prantil-Baun, IngberHarvard University, Wyss Institute, University of Chieti-PescaraOrgan-on-a-chip
19 Apr 2022First Organ-on-a-chip used in FDA Investigational New Drug application to get authorisation for testing a drug in a clinical trial Hickman, ShulerHesperos, Cornell UniversityOrgan-on-a-chip
27 Apr 2022Gene therapy shown to restore fertility in congenitally infertile miceKanatsu-Shinohara, Jiyoung Lee, o Miyazaki, Morimoto, ShinoharaKyoto University, Tokyo Medical and Dental UniversityGene therapy, Reproduction

11 Feb 2022

FDA issued emergency use authorisation for a new monoclonal antibody treatment for COVID-19 that is active against the omicron variant.

23 Feb 2022

Human Lung Alveolus Chip demonstrated drug to significantly inhibit production of inflammation-causing cytokines triggered by SARS-CoV-2 and other viral infections

5 Apr 2022

Sidney Altman died

8 Apr 2022

Human lung aveolus chip reveals mechanical control of immune responses against viral infection

19 Apr 2022

First Organ-on-a-chip used in FDA Investigational New Drug application to get authorisation for testing a drug in a clinical trial

27 Apr 2022

Gene therapy shown to restore fertility in congenitally infertile mice

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