Timeline of key events in biotechnology

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Fischer was a biochemist. He is best known for helping to discover and describe reversible protein phosphorylation, a biological and chemical reaction that regulates the activities of cell proteins. This he did with Edwin Krebs at the University of Washington. Their work helped illustrate how life exists at the cellular level. They were both awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1992.2021-08-27T00:00:00+0000A team of surgeons led by Robert Montgomery at New York University Langone Health attached the organ to a brain-dead individual who was being maintained on a ventilator. Although the kidney remained outside the body, it worked normally, making urine and creatinine, a waste product. 2021-09-25T00:00:00+0000The treatment contains tixagevimab with cilgavimab and is intended for individuals with moderate to severely compromised immune systems or severe adverse reactions to a COVID-19 vaccine. 2021-12-08T00:00:00+0000Modified mRNA was used to generate transient chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells in mice capable of recognising fibrotic cells in the heart which can stiffening and scaring of heart tissue. The research was published in JG Jurick, I Tombacz, A Yamegari (6 Jan 2022) 'CAR T cells produced in vivo to treat cardiac injury' Science, 375/ 6576. 2022-01-06T00:00:00+0000The transplant was performed on David Bennett, a 57 year old, by doctors at the University of Maryland Medical Center. The heart was taken from a pig that had been genetically modified to knock out several genes that would have led to the organ being rejected by Mr Bennett's immune system. The treatment was considered the last hope for saving Mr Bennett who had heart failure. Mr Bennett was reported to be doing well three days after the operation but died after two months. The team who performed the transplant was led by Muhammad Mohiuddin.2022-01-11T00:00:00+0000Developed by Moderna, the vaccine aims to teach the B lymphocytes to produce broadly neutralising antibodies that can act against various HIV variants. The first participants were given the vaccine at George Washington University School of Medicine. The vaccine was designed by researchers at Scripps Research Institute. 2022-01-26T00:00:00+0000The drug, bebtelovimab, is a neturalising IgG1 monoclonal antibody that binds to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. It was developed by AbCellera and Eli Lilly using a high throughput B-cell screening pipeline. . 2022-02-11T00:00:00+0000The drug, Azeliragon, had previously be shown to be safe in trials exploring its use for Alzheimer’s disease and diabetic nephropathy. Studies with the chip, created by Ingber and his team at the Wyss Institute, revealed the small molecule drug blocked inflammation-causing cytokines including IL-6, IL-8, and IP-10 as well as RANTES, a major proinflammatory cytokine produced by virus-infected lung cells. Based on the results Phase 2 clinical trials were planned to investigate the drug further for patients hospitaled with severe COVID-19, and in other pulmonary inflammatory diseases including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and steroid refractory asthma. 2022-02-23T00:00:00+0000Altman was a Canadian molecular biologist who shared the 1989 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for discovering the catalytic properties of RNA. This emerged out of some work Altman carried out between 1978 and 1983 on a bacterial enzyme called RNAs-P. His research helped transform the basic understanding of nuclear acids, which up to this moment had been understood to only carry genetic information. It also opened up the possibility of using genetic engineering to develop new forms of therapy against viral infections. 2022-04-05T00:00:00+0000H Bai, L Si, A Jiang, A, et al (8 April 2022) 'Mechanical control of innate immune responses against viral infection revealed in a human lung alveolus chip', Nature Communications, 13/1928.2022-04-08T00:00:00+0000The chip was created by researchers at Hesperos to test therapies for treating rare neuromuscular diseases. It contains two cell types: motoneurons, which transmit messages from the brain to muscles, and Schwann cells which help the signals to move more quickly. The chip was developed to mimic the biology of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and multifocal motor neuropathy. It was funded by a research grant from the NIH’s National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences. 2022-04-19T00:00:00+0000An adeno-associated-virus was used to introduce the mouse Kitl gene into the mice's ovaries. The gene helps regulate ovarian function and the formation of oocytes. 8 out of 10 mice became fertile after being injected with the gene. The therapy led the mice to bear offspring after they mated naturally. M Kanatsu et al (2022) 'Adeno-associated-virus-mediated gene delivery to ovaries restores fertility in congenital infertile mice', Cell Reports Medicine, 2022-04-27T00:00:00+0000The vaccine was originally developed by researchers at Scripps Research Institute to stimulate immune system to produce broadly neutralising antibodies against HIV variants. The trial is funded by by the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative.2022-05-19T00:00:00+0000The decision was based on clinical evidence from five randomised controlled trials of 274 adults. Four of these trials showed that FMT was more effective than antibiotics in resolving C. diff. infections. 2022-08-31T00:00:00+0000The vaccine, created by Pfizer, was designed to encode World Health Organization recommended strains for the Northern Hemisphere 2022-23 cell culture - or recombinant-based influenza vaccines. 2022-09-14T00:00:00+0000
Date Event People Places Sciences
27 Aug 2021Edmond H Fischer diedFischerUniversity of WashingtonBiochemistry
25 Sep 2021First genetically engineered pig kidney successfully transplanted into a brain-dead human patientRobert MontgomeryNew York UniversityTransplant, Transgenic animals
8 Dec 2021FDA issued emergency authorisation for long-acting monoclonal antibodies for pre-exposure prevention of COVID-19 in certain patients AstraZenecaMonoclonal antibodies
6 Jan 2022mRNA technology shown to successfully reprogramme T lymphocyptes in mice to treat cardiac injuryRurik, Tombacz, Yadegari, Mendez Fernandez, Shewale, Li Li, Kimura, Younoss Soliman, Papp, Ying Tam, Mui, Pure, June, Bghajanian, Drew Weissman, Parhiz, Jonathan EpsteinUniversity of PennsylvaniamRNA
11 Jan 2022First pig-to-human heart transplantMohiuddinUniversity of MarylandTransplants, Transgenic animals
26 Jan 2022First mRNA vaccine for HIV begins trials in humans Scripps Research Institute, Moderna, George Washington University School of MedicinemRNA
11 Feb 2022FDA issued emergency use authorisation for a new monoclonal antibody treatment for COVID-19 that is active against the omicron variant.  AbCellera, Eli LillyMonoclonal antibodies
23 Feb 2022Human Lung Alveolus Chip demonstrated drug to significantly inhibit production of inflammation-causing cytokines triggered by SARS-CoV-2 and other viral infectionsIngberHarvard University, Wyss Institute, Cantex PharmaceuticalsOrgan-on-a-chip
5 Apr 2022Sidney Altman diedAltmanHarvard University, Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Yale UniversityRNA, genetics
8 Apr 2022Human lung aveolus chip reveals mechanical control of immune responses against viral infectionHaiqing Bai, Longlong Si, Amanda Jiang, Chaitra Belgur, Yunhao Zhai, Plebani, Crystal Yuri Oh, Melissa Rodas, Patil, Nurani, Gilpin, Rani Powers, Girija Goyal, Prantil-Baun, IngberHarvard University, Wyss Institute, University of Chieti-PescaraOrgan-on-a-chip
19 Apr 2022First Organ-on-a-chip used in FDA Investigational New Drug application to get authorisation for testing a drug in a clinical trial Hickman, ShulerHesperos, Cornell UniversityOrgan-on-a-chip
27 Apr 2022Gene therapy shown to restore fertility in congenitally infertile miceKanatsu-Shinohara, Jiyoung Lee, o Miyazaki, Morimoto, ShinoharaKyoto University, Tokyo Medical and Dental UniversityGene therapy, Reproduction
19 May 2022Phase I trial launched with mRNA vaccine against HIV in Africa Scripps Research Institute, ModernamRNA, vaccines
31 Aug 2022NICE gives green light for FMT to be used to resolve recurrent Clostridium difficile infections   Faecal microbiota transplant
14 Sep 2022First phase 3 efficacy trial launched with mRNA-based influenza vaccine PfizermRNA, vaccines

27 Aug 2021

Edmond H Fischer died

25 Sep 2021

First genetically engineered pig kidney successfully transplanted into a brain-dead human patient

8 Dec 2021

FDA issued emergency authorisation for long-acting monoclonal antibodies for pre-exposure prevention of COVID-19 in certain patients

6 Jan 2022

mRNA technology shown to successfully reprogramme T lymphocyptes in mice to treat cardiac injury

11 Jan 2022

First pig-to-human heart transplant

26 Jan 2022

First mRNA vaccine for HIV begins trials in humans

11 Feb 2022

FDA issued emergency use authorisation for a new monoclonal antibody treatment for COVID-19 that is active against the omicron variant.

23 Feb 2022

Human Lung Alveolus Chip demonstrated drug to significantly inhibit production of inflammation-causing cytokines triggered by SARS-CoV-2 and other viral infections

5 Apr 2022

Sidney Altman died

8 Apr 2022

Human lung aveolus chip reveals mechanical control of immune responses against viral infection

19 Apr 2022

First Organ-on-a-chip used in FDA Investigational New Drug application to get authorisation for testing a drug in a clinical trial

27 Apr 2022

Gene therapy shown to restore fertility in congenitally infertile mice

19 May 2022

Phase I trial launched with mRNA vaccine against HIV in Africa

31 Aug 2022

NICE gives green light for FMT to be used to resolve recurrent Clostridium difficile infections

14 Sep 2022

First phase 3 efficacy trial launched with mRNA-based influenza vaccine

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