Cambridge University: Timeline of key events

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Ingram shows that the difference between sickle-cell and normal haemoglobulin lies in just one amino acid. 1957-01-01T00:00:00+0000C.H. Waddington, The Strategy of the Genes: A Discussion of Some Aspects of Theoretical Biology (London, 1957).1957-01-01T00:00:00+0000Prize awarded to Sanger 'for his work on the structure of proteins, especially that of insulin'.1958-01-01T00:00:00+00001960-01-01T00:00:00+0000M.F. Lyon, 'Gene action in the X-chromosome of the mouse', Nature, 190 (1961), 372–73.1961-04-22T00:00:00+00001962-01-01T00:00:00+0000The prize was awarded to James Watson, Francis Crick and Maurice Wilkins who helped to show that the DNA molecule consists of two strands that wind round each other like a twisted ladder. They argued that each strand contains a backbone made up of alternating groups of sugar (deoxyribose) and phosphate groups and that each sugar had an attached one of four nucelotide bases: adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), or thymine (T). Much of this work rested on the work of Rosalind Franklin and and her student Ray Gosling. Franklin died before the Nobel Prize was awarded. 1962-10-19T00:00:00+0000Waldmann, under the mentorship of Alan Munro, launches research to understand the mechanism behind immune tolerance. 1973-01-01T00:00:00+00001978-01-01T00:00:00+0000Work begins on the development of an anti-T-cell monoclonal antibody that can fix human complement to be used as a tool to prevent graft-versus-host disease in patients receiving bone marrow transplants. 1979-01-01T00:00:00+0000Referred to as Campath-1 (CAMbridge Pathology) family of antibodies, these are the first set of monoclonal antibodies against human lymphocytes derived from a rat. 1980-01-01T00:00:00+0000Waldmann is granted a programme grant to investigate the immunobiology of bone marrow transplantation.1980-01-01T00:00:00+0000The technique was developed by Martin Evans and Matt Kaufman. They showed that by delaying implantation it was possible to obtain slightly enlarged mouse blastocysts and that cells taken from these blastocysts could be used to establish mouse embryo stem cell cultures. The work was published in MJ Evans, MH Kaufman, 'Establishment in culture of pluripotential cells from mouse embryos', Nature, 292/154 (1981), 154-56.1981-07-09T00:00:00+0000Krebs was a biochemist who in 1933 was forced to leave Nazi Germany because his father was Jewish. He is best known for having discovered two important chemical reactions in the body - the urea cycle and the citric acid cycle. These chemical reactions help break down food molecules into carbon dioxide, water and energy. He made the breakthrough in the 1930s. The process is known as the Krebs cycle. Krebs was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1954.1981-11-22T00:00:00+0000The man treated is suffering from non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. While unable to prevent the death of the patient, the trial shows Campath-1M to be effective at depleting T-cells and well-tolerated.1982-01-01T00:00:00+0000The aim is to generate Campath monoclonal antibodies that can be infused directly into patients. 1983-01-01T00:00:00+0000G. Hale et al, 'Removal of T cells from bone marrow for transplantation: a monoclonal antilymphocyte antibody that fixes human complement', Blood, 62, (1983), 873-82.1983-10-25T00:00:00+0000The patient is being cared for by Martin Dyer and Frank Hayhoe. He is suffering from chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). Although the patient died shortly after treatment from his underlying disease, the result from the testing is promising. 1985-01-01T00:00:00+0000Campath-1G is seen as a possible means to reduce immunosuppressive drugs. Fears about the toxicity of the drug prevent work going any further. 1985-01-01T00:00:00+0000Lehmann was a biochemist renowned for his studies on the distribution of abnormal haemoglobins in many different human populations. This grew out of his interest in anaemia, begun when he served as assistant director of pathology to the North East India Command between 1942 and 1947. He helped to discover that a high incidence in the sickle-cell trait in several aboriginal southern Indian populations. Based on his work he hypothesised that the gene for the trait could have been brought to Africa from India during prehistoric migrations.1985-07-13T00:00:00+0000
Date Event People Places Sciences
1957Victor Ingram breaks the genetic code behind sickle-cell anaemia using Sanger's sequencing techniqueIngram, SangerCambridge UniversityDNA Sequencing
1957Conrad Waddington develops model of epigenetic landscape to show the process of cellular decision-making during biological developmentWaddngtonCambridge UniversityEpigenetics, Embryology
1958Sanger awarded his first Nobel Prize in ChemistrySangerCambridge UniversityDNA Sequencing
1960Sanger begins to devise ways to sequence nucleic acids, starting with RNASangerCambridge UniversityDNA Sequencing
22 Apr 1961Genes linked to X-chromosome inactivation in female mice embyosLyonCambridge UniversityEpigenetics, Embyology
1962Nuclei from adult frog cells reprogrammed to full embryonic potential after transfer into frog eggsGurdon, AltmanCambridge UniversityStem cells
19 Oct 1962Nobel Prize awarded for uncovering the structure of DNAWatson, Crick, Wilkins, Franklin, GoslingUniversity of Cambridge, King's College London, Birkbeck CollegeDNA
1973Herman Waldmannn joins the Department of Pathology, Cambridge University.WaldmannCambridge UniversityCampath
1978Transplantable stem cells discovered in human cord bloodEvansCambridge UniversityStem cells
1979Waldmann is joined in his work by Stephen Cobbold, Geoff Hale, Alan Munro, Don Metcalfe, Suzanne Watt and Hoang Trang.Waldmann, Cobbold, Hale, Metcalfe. Watt, TrangCambridge UniversityCampath
1980First monoclonal antibodies developed against T-cells which can also activate human complement.Waldmann, Cobbold, Hale, Metcalfe. Watt, TrangCambridge UniversityMonoclonal antibodies, Campath
1980Waldmann gains MRC funding.WaldmannCambridge UniversityCampath
9 Jul 1981Mouse embryonic stem cells first isolated and cultured in the laboratoryEvans, Kaufman, MartinCambridge UniversityStem cells, Reproduction
22 Nov 1981Hans Adolf Krebs diedKrebsUniversity of Freiburg, Cambridge University, Sheffield University, Oxford UniversityCell, Biochemistry
1982The first patient is treated with Campath-1M.Waldmann, Swirsky, HayhoeCambridge UniversityCampath
1983 - 1985Efforts turn to generating IG Campath monoclonal antibodies.Waldmann, Hale, CobboldCambridge UniversityCampath
Oct 1983Publication of experiments indicating Campath-1 (alemtuzumab) monoclonal antibody activates complement and eliminate T-cellsWaldmann, Cobbold, Hale, Metcalfe. Watt, TrangCambridge UniversityCampath
1985Campath-1G is tested in the first patient.Waldmann, Hayhoe, DyerCambridge UniversityCampath
1985Campath-1G is explored on a small scale for the management of organ transplants by Roy Calne, a British transplant surgeon based at Addenbrooke's hospitalWaldmann, CalneCambridge UniversityCampath
13 Jul 1985Hermann Lehmann diedLehmannSt Bartholomew's Hospital, Cambridge UniversityBiochemistry, Haematology

1957

Victor Ingram breaks the genetic code behind sickle-cell anaemia using Sanger's sequencing technique

1957

Conrad Waddington develops model of epigenetic landscape to show the process of cellular decision-making during biological development

1958

Sanger awarded his first Nobel Prize in Chemistry

1960

Sanger begins to devise ways to sequence nucleic acids, starting with RNA

22 Apr 1961

Genes linked to X-chromosome inactivation in female mice embyos

1962

Nuclei from adult frog cells reprogrammed to full embryonic potential after transfer into frog eggs

19 Oct 1962

Nobel Prize awarded for uncovering the structure of DNA

1973

Herman Waldmannn joins the Department of Pathology, Cambridge University.

1978

Transplantable stem cells discovered in human cord blood

1979

Waldmann is joined in his work by Stephen Cobbold, Geoff Hale, Alan Munro, Don Metcalfe, Suzanne Watt and Hoang Trang.

1980

First monoclonal antibodies developed against T-cells which can also activate human complement.

1980

Waldmann gains MRC funding.

9 Jul 1981

Mouse embryonic stem cells first isolated and cultured in the laboratory

22 Nov 1981

Hans Adolf Krebs died

1982

The first patient is treated with Campath-1M.

1983 - 1985

Efforts turn to generating IG Campath monoclonal antibodies.

Oct 1983

Publication of experiments indicating Campath-1 (alemtuzumab) monoclonal antibody activates complement and eliminate T-cells

1985

Campath-1G is tested in the first patient.

1985

Campath-1G is explored on a small scale for the management of organ transplants by Roy Calne, a British transplant surgeon based at Addenbrooke's hospital

13 Jul 1985

Hermann Lehmann died