Cambridge University: Timeline of key events

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This patent is filed on the basis of work reported in M Brüggeman, HM Caskey, C Teale, H Waldmann, Williams, Surani, and MS Neuberger, A repertoire of monoclonal antibodies with human heavy chains from transgenic mice, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 86 (Sept 1989), 6709-13. 1988-01-01T00:00:00+0000The patient is a 69 year old woman suffering from non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The drug dramatically improves her health. 1988-01-01T00:00:00+0000Patients show marked improvements with the drug.1988-11-01T00:00:00+0000The aim of the centre is to facilitate the production of Campath and other monoclonal antibodies for clinical testing.1990-09-01T00:00:00+0000The research is undertaken by John Isaacs in collaboration with Brian Hazelman at Addenbrooke's Hospital.1991-01-01T00:00:00+0000Herman Waldmann and Alastair Compston begin a collaboration to test Campath-1H for treating multiple sclerosis (MS).1991-01-01T00:00:00+0000The drug dramatically improves the patient's condition.1991-01-01T00:00:00+0000BTG starts negotiations to license Campath to a commercial partner.1993-01-01T00:00:00+0000Coles joins as a doctoral student.1994-01-01T00:00:00+0000Roy Calne, Peter Friend and Waldman's team launch a small trial with 31 kidney transplant patients to see if Campath-1H can help in reducing immunosuppressant drugs. 1997-01-01T00:00:00+0000Analysis of 29 MS patients given MS indicate Campath-1H might be more effective if given earlier in the course of the disease.1998-01-01T00:00:00+0000Hodgkin was an English physiologist and biophysicist who helped discover with Andrew F Huxley the chemical processes responsible for the transmission of electrical impulses from one nerve cell in the brain through to other nerve fibers. This they did based on experiments involving the introduction of microelectrodes into the giant nerve fibre of the squid. Hodgkin received the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1963 for this work. 1998-12-20T00:00:00+0000Results from 58 MS patients indicate Campath-1H more effective in those who are less advanced in their disease.2002-01-01T00:00:00+0000This comes about after a meeting between Jeff Bulchalter, chief executive officer of Ilex Oncology and Compston.2002-01-01T00:00:00+0000Known as CAMMS223, this randomised control trial, which compares Campath-1H with interferon beta-1a, indicates Campath-1H is an effective treatment for MS.2002-01-01T00:00:00+0000Positive results reported from 1,779 patients.2007-01-01T00:00:00+0000McLaren was a major pioneer in the development of IVF. She was also the key architect behind the Human Embryology and Fertilisation Act (1990) which provided the world’s first legal guidelines for infertility treatment and all human embryo research. Following this Act, McLaren served for 10 years on the Human Fertility and Embryology Authority, established in 1991, and became a critical player in debates about the governance of embryonic stem cells for therapy. She also made history in 1991 by becoming the Royal Society’s first woman officer. 2007-07-07T00:00:00+00002009-01-01T00:00:00+0000Campath-1H shown to help lower the amount of immunosuppressant drugs taken by organ transplant patients. 2011-01-01T00:00:00+00002012-01-01T00:00:00+0000
Date Event People Places Sciences
1988Patent application filed for a method to create transgenic mice for the production of human antibodiesBruggeman, Caskey, Neuberger, Surani, Teale, Waldmann, WilliamsLaboratory of Molecular Biology, Babraham Institute, Cambridge UniversityMonoclonal antibodies, gene cloning, transgenic animals
1988Campath-1H is tested in the first humanWaldmann, Hale, Dyer, HayhoeCambridge UniversityCampath
Nov 1988Martin Lockwood, a clinician at Addenbrooke's Hospital, begins testing Campath-1H in patients with vasculitis.Lockwood, Hale, WaldmannCambridge UniversityCampath
Sep 1990The Therapeutic Antibody Centre (TAC) opens in the Regional Transfusion Centre at Addenbrooke's Hospital.Waldmann, HaleCambridge UniversityCampath
1991Campath-1H begins to be tested in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA)Isaacs, Hazleman, Hale, WaldmannCambridge UniversityCampath
1991Herman Waldmann and Alastair Compston begin a collaboration to test Campath-1H for treating multiple sclerosis (MS).Waldmann, Hale, CompstonCambridge UniversityCampath
1991The first MS patient is given Campath-1HWaldmann, hale, CompstonCambridge UniversityCampath
1993The rights to Campath are assigned to the British Technology Group (BTG).WaldmannCambridge UniversityCampath
1994Alasdair Coles joins Compston's teamColesCambridge UniversityCampath
1997Small scale tests launched with Campath-1H for organ transplant patients.Waldmann, Calne, FriendCambridge UniversityCampath
1998Analysis of 29 MS patients given MS indicate Campath-1H might be more effective if given earlier in the course of the disease.Compston, Coles, Waldmann, HaleCambridge UniversityCampath
20 Dec 1998Alan Lloyd Hodgkin diedA HodgkinCambridge UniversityNeuroscience
2002Results from 58 MS patients indicate Campath-1H more effective in those who are less advanced in their disease.Compston, ColesCambridge UniversityCampath
2002Ilex Oncology agrees to raise funds to sponsor clinical trials for Campath-1H in MS patients.Compston, BuchalterIlex Oncology, Cambridge UniversityCampath
2002 - 2004Phase II trial tests Campath-1H for relapsing-remitting MS.Compston, ColesCambridge University, Ilex OncologyCampath
2007 - 2011Two phase III randomised control trials conducted with Campath-1H in patients with early MSCompston, ColesCambridge University, Ilex Oncology, GenzymeCampath
7 Jul 2007Anne McLaren died McLarenUniversity College London, Edinburgh University, Cambridge UniversityEmbryology, Reproduction, Stem cells
2009Lasker Prize awarded to John Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka for discoveries in nuclear reprogramming. Yamanaka is also awarded the Gairdner PrizeGurdon, YamanakaCambridge University, Kyoto UniversityStem cells
2011Positive results from trials using Campath-1H for organ transplant patientsWaldmann, CalneCambridge UniversityCampath
2012John Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka win the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent stem cellsGurdon, YamanakaCambridge University, Kyoto UniversityStem cells

1988

Patent application filed for a method to create transgenic mice for the production of human antibodies

1988

Campath-1H is tested in the first human

Nov 1988

Martin Lockwood, a clinician at Addenbrooke's Hospital, begins testing Campath-1H in patients with vasculitis.

Nov 1988

The Therapeutic Antibody Centre (TAC) opens in the Regional Transfusion Centre at Addenbrooke's Hospital.

1991

Campath-1H begins to be tested in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA)

1991

Herman Waldmann and Alastair Compston begin a collaboration to test Campath-1H for treating multiple sclerosis (MS).

1991

The first MS patient is given Campath-1H

1993

The rights to Campath are assigned to the British Technology Group (BTG).

1994

Alasdair Coles joins Compston's team

1997

Small scale tests launched with Campath-1H for organ transplant patients.

1998

Analysis of 29 MS patients given MS indicate Campath-1H might be more effective if given earlier in the course of the disease.

20 Dec 1998

Alan Lloyd Hodgkin died

2002

Results from 58 MS patients indicate Campath-1H more effective in those who are less advanced in their disease.

2002

Ilex Oncology agrees to raise funds to sponsor clinical trials for Campath-1H in MS patients.

2002 - 2004

Phase II trial tests Campath-1H for relapsing-remitting MS.

2007 - 2011

Two phase III randomised control trials conducted with Campath-1H in patients with early MS

7 Jul 2007

Anne McLaren died

2009

Lasker Prize awarded to John Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka for discoveries in nuclear reprogramming. Yamanaka is also awarded the Gairdner Prize

2011

Positive results from trials using Campath-1H for organ transplant patients

2012

John Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka win the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent stem cells